Research in the School of Psychology

Studentships and Lecturing posts available now

Full-time PhD studentships (3 years; apply by 4 December) and ESRC PhD opportunities (apply by 31 January) available; Four lecturing posts available (apply by 6 Jan)

For Lecturing posts, search for Psychology

Find out about Studentships and Lecturing posts
  • ? In the last Research Excellence Framework assessment, 80% of our submission was judged world-leading or internationally excellent
  • ? 2021 Guardian League Table and Sunday Times Good University Guide puts Psychology at the University of Plymouth in the top 50 universities in the country

Research Strands


Research and impact

Research Impact

Changing understanding and practice in anaesthesia
Led by Jackie Andrade this research focuses on developing strategies for the prevention and management of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia.

Led by Judy Edworthy this research focuses on reducing sensory overload on clinicians due to the excessive number of alarms

Led by Helen Lloyd this research focuses on developing models and approaches for people with multiple long-term conditions.

Psychology publications

To view our research papers, please use other tab. In order access these papers in full, please follow the doi link to the published version.

Latest publications

Here is a list of some recent papers published by the School of Psychology:

  • Johnson A, Group TF, Delduca C & Morris R 2021 Living Your Life with Cancer: An ACT Approach Flying Over Thunderstorms. Routledge
  • Close J, Spicer SG, Nicklin LL, Uther M, Lloyd J & Lloyd H 2021 'Secondary analysis of loot box data: Are high-spending “whales” wealthy gamers or problem gamblers?' Addictive Behaviors 117, 106851-106851 , DOI
  • Yang X, Huang J, Harrision P, Roser ME, Tian K, Wang D & Liu G 2021 'Motivational differences in unipolar and bipolar depression, manic bipolar, acute and stable phase schizophrenia' Journal of Affective Disorders 283, 254-261 , DOI Open access
  • Ritchie K, Kramer R, Mileva M, Sandford A & Burton AM 2021 'Multiple-image arrays in face matching tasks with and without memory' Cognition , DOI Open access
  • Zuchowski M, Mamode N, Draper H, Gogalniceanu P, Norton S, Chilcot J, Clarke A, Williams L, Auburn T & Maple H 2021 'Experiences of completed and withdrawn unspecified kidney donor candidates in the United Kingdom: An inductive thematic analysis from the BOUnD study' British Journal of Health Psychology , DOI
  • Baptie G, Andrade J, Bacon A & Norman A 2021 'Virtually renovating the Trauma Film Paradigm: Comparing virtual reality with on-screen presentation of an analogue trauma' Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace , DOI
  • Heintz S & Ruch W 2021 'Cross-sectional age differences in 24 character strengths: Five meta-analyses from early adolescence to late adulthood' The Journal of Positive Psychology 1-19 , DOI
  • Smallwood J, Turnbull A, Wang H-T, Ho NSP, Poerio GL, Karapanagiotidis T, Konu D, Mckeown B, Zhang M & Murphy C 2021 'The neural correlates of ongoing conscious thought' iScience 102132-102132 Publisher Site , DOI Open access
  • Odor PM, Bampoe S, Lucas DN, Andrade J, Moonesinghe SR & Pandit JJ 2021 'Incidence of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia in obstetrics: a multi-centre, prospective cohort study' Anaesthesia Publisher Site , DOI Open access
  • Gunn H, Stevens KN, Creanor S, Andrade J, Paul L, Miller L, Green C, Ewings P, Barton A & Berrow M 2021 'Balance Right in Multiple Sclerosis (BRiMS): a feasibility randomised controlled trial of a falls prevention programme' Pilot and Feasibility Studies 7, (1) , DOI Open access
  • Mehesz E, Karoui H, Strutton PH & Hughes SW 2021 'Exposure to an Immersive Virtual Reality Environment can Modulate Perceptual Correlates of Endogenous Analgesia and Central Sensitization in Healthy Volunteers' The Journal of Pain , DOI
  • McKenzie R, Dallos R, Stedmon J, Hancocks H, Vickery PJ, Barton A, Vassallo T, Myhill C, Chynoweth J & Ewings P 2020 'SAFE, a new therapeutic intervention for families of children with autism: a randomised controlled feasibility trial' BMJ Open 10, (12) e038411-e038411 Publisher Site , DOI Open access
  • Macdonald AS, Chambers MA, La Ragione R, Wyles K, Poyade M, Wales A, Klepacz N, Kupfer TR, Watson F & Noble S 2020 'Addressing Infection Risk in Veterinary Practice through the Innovative Application of Interactive 3D Animation Methods' The Design Journal 24, (1) 51-72 , DOI
  • White MP, Bratman GN, Pahl S, Young G, Cracknell D & Elliott LR 2020 'Affective reactions to losses and gains in biodiversity: Testing a prospect theory approach' Journal of Environmental Psychology 72, 101502-101502 , DOI
  • Marsden J, Pavlou M, Dennett R, Gibbon A, Knight-Lozano R, Jeu L, Flavell C, Freeman J, Bamiou DE & Harris C 2020 'Vestibular rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial and cost-effectiveness analysis comparing customised with booklet based vestibular rehabilitation for vestibulopathy and a 12 month observational cohort study of the symptom reduction and recurrence rate following treatment for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo' BMC Neurology 20, (1) , DOI Open access
  • Baptie G, Mueller Januario E & Norman A 2020 'B I R T H T R A U M A F R O M T H E P E R S P E C T I V E O F P E R I N A T A L C O U N S E L L O R S : A M I N I F O C U S G R O U P S T U D Y' The Open Review , DOI Open access
  • Ruch W, Heintz S & Wagner L 2020 'Co-occurrence Patterns of Character Strengths and Measured Core Virtues in German-Speaking Adults' Frontiers in Psychology 11, , DOI
  • Bacon AM & Corr PJ 2020 'Behavioural Immune System responses to coronavirus: a Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory explanation of conformity, warmth towards others and attitudes towards lockdown' Frontiers in Psychology (11) , DOI Open access
  • Close J, Spicer S, Nicklin LL, Uther M, Lloyd J & Lloyd H 2020 'Secondary analysis of loot box data: are high-spending “whales” wealthy gamers or problem gamblers?' , DOI Open access
  • Baxter R & Smith AD 2020 'Searching for individual determinants of probabilistic cueing in large-scale immersive virtual environments' Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 174702182096914-174702182096914 , DOI
  • Baptie G, Januario E & Norman A 2020 'Birth trauma from the perspective of perinatal counsellors. A mini focus group study' Open Review 6, (0) 0-0 Publisher Site , DOI Open access
  • Martin L, White MP, Pahl S, May J & Wheeler BW 2020 'Neighbourhood greenspace and smoking prevalence: Results from a nationally representative survey in England' Social Science & Medicine 265, 113448-113448 , DOI
  • May J, Rhodes J & Booth A 2020 'Penalty Success in Professional Soccer: A Randomised Comparison between Imagery Methodologies' Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity 15, (1) , DOI Open access
  • Lopez-Persem A, Roumazeilles L, Folloni D, Marche K, Fouragnan EF, Khalighinejad N, Rushworth MFS & Sallet J 2020 'Differential functional connectivity underlying asymmetric reward-related activity in human and nonhuman primates' Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117, (45) 28452-28462 , DOI
  • Lloyd H, Britten N, Naldemirci Ö & Wolf A 2020 'Epistemic injustices in clinical communication: The example of narrative elicitation in person-centred care' Sociology of Health and Illness: a journal of medical sociology , DOI Open access
  • Martin L, White M, Pahl S, May J & Wheeler B 2020 'Neighbourhood Greenspace and Smoking Prevalence: Results from a Nationally Representative Survey in England' Social Science and Medicine , DOI Open access
  • Summers EMA, Morris RC, Bhutani GE, Rao AS & Clarke JC 2020 'A survey of psychological practitioner workplace wellbeing' Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy , DOI Open access
  • Edwards KJ, Maslin K, Andrade J, Jones RB & Shawe J 2020 'mHealth as a primary mode of intervention for women at risk of, or diagnosed with, gestational diabetes' JBI Evidence Synthesis Publish Ahead of Print, , DOI
  • Lanario JW, Hyland ME, Menzies-Gow A, Mansur AH, Dodd JW, Fowler SJ, Jones RC & Masoli M 2020 'Validation of subscales of the Severe Asthma Questionnaire (SAQ) using exploratory factor analysis (EFA)' Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 18, (1) , DOI
  • Baptie G, Andrade J, Bacon A & Norman A 2020 'Trauma after childbirth: The mediating effects of perceived support' British Journal of Midwifery 28, (10) 724-730 , DOI Open access
  • Blease C, Kharko A, Locher C, DesRoches CM & Mandl KD 2020 'US primary care in 2029: A Delphi survey on the impact of machine learning' PLOS ONE 15, (10) e0239947-e0239947 , DOI Open access
  • Ho N, Baker D, Karapanagiotidis T, Seli P, Wang HT, Leech R, Bernhardt B, Margulies D, Jefferies E & Smallwood J 2020 'Missing the forest because of the trees: Slower alternations during binocular rivalry are associated with lower levels of visual detail during ongoing thought' Neuroscience of Consciousness , DOI Open access
  • May J, Redding E, Whatley S, Lucznik K, Clements L, Weber R, Sikorski J & Reed S 2020 'Enhancing creativity by training metacognitive skills in mental imagery' Thinking Skills and Creativity 38, 100739-100739 , DOI Open access
  • Austin D, May J, Andrade J & Jones R 2020 'Delivering digital health: The barriers and facilitators to university-industry collaboration' Health Policy and Technology , DOI Open access
  • Austin D, Andrade J, May J & Jones R 2020 'Delivering digital health: The barriers and facilitators to University-Industry Collaboration' Health Policy and Technology , DOI Open access
  • Baptie G, Andrade J, Bacon AM & Norman A 2020 'Birth trauma: the mediating effects of perceived support' British Journal of Midwifery 28, (10) 724-730 , DOI Open access
  • Tierney W, Hardy JH, Ebersole CR, Leavitt K, Viganola D, Clemente EG, Gordon M, Dreber A, Johannesson M & Pfeiffer T 2020 'Creative destruction in science' Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 161, 291-309 , DOI Open access
  • Kaur R & Stedmon J 2020 'A phenomenological enquiry into the impact of bereavement by suicide over the life course' Mortality 1-22 , DOI
  • Seabrooke T, Mitchell C, Wills A & Hollins T 2020 'Pretesting boosts recognition, but not cued recall, of targets from unrelated word pairs' Psychonomic Bulletin and Review , DOI Open access
  • Odor P, Bampoe S, Moonesinghe R, Andrade J, Pandit J & Lucas N 2020 'General anaesthetic and airway management practice for obstetric surgery in England: a prospective, multi-centre observational study' Anaesthesia , DOI Open access
  • Margraf J, Lavallee KL, Zhang XC, Woike JK & Schneider S 2020 'Mental health and the wish to have a child: a longitudinal, cross-cultural comparison between Germany and China' Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology 1-13 , DOI Open access
  • Falbén JK, Golubickis M, Tamulaitis S, Caughey S, Tsamadi D, Persson LM, Svensson SL, Sahraie A & Macrae CN 2020 'Self-relevance enhances evidence gathering during decision-making' Acta Psychologica 209, 103122-103122 , DOI
  • Wardman T, Koelmans AA, Whyte J & Pahl S 2020 'Communicating the absence of evidence for microplastics risk: Balancing sensation and reflection' Environment International 106116-106116 , DOI
  • Kellerman AM, Schwichtenberg AJ, Abu-Zhaya R, Miller M, Young GS & Ozonoff S 2020 'Dyadic Synchrony and Responsiveness in the First Year: Associations with Autism Risk' Autism Research 13, (12) 2190-2201 , DOI
  • Trudel N, Scholl J, Klein-Flügge MC, Fouragnan E, Tankelevitch L, Wittmann MK & Rushworth MFS 2020 'Polarity of uncertainty representation during exploration and exploitation in ventromedial prefrontal cortex' Nature Human Behaviour 5, (1) 83-98 , DOI Open access
  • Edmunds C, Inkster A, Jones P, Milton F & Wills A 2020 'Absence of cross-modality analogical transfer in perceptual categorization' Open Journal of Experimental Psychology and Neuroscience , DOI Open access
  • Hyland ME 2020 'A reformulated contextual model of psychotherapy for treating anxiety and depression' Clinical Psychology Review 80, 101890-101890 , DOI Open access
  • Ward EV, Berry CJ, Shanks DR, Moller PL & Czsiser E 2020 'Aging Predicts Decline in Explicit and Implicit Memory: A Life-Span Study' Psychological Science 31, (9) 1071-1083 , DOI Open access
  • Wittmann M, Fouragnan E, Folloni D, Klein-Flugge M, Chau B, Khamassi M & Rushworth M 2020 'Global reward state affects learning and activity in raphe nucleus and anterior insula in monkeys' Nature Communications 11, (1) 0-0 , DOI Open access
  • Kanngiesser P, Sunderarajan J & Woike JK 2020 'Keeping them honest: Promises reduce cheating in adolescents' Journal of Behavioral Decision Making , DOI Open access

Open Science Strategy

This strategy commits the School of Psychology to three key open science goals by 2021. The first is preregistration of all research that will be published. The second is open access to all research publications. The third is open access to the raw data, stimuli, materials, and analysis pipelines of all published papers (except where so doing would cause insurmountable ethical or privacy issues). Four members of staff are signatories to the Peer Reviewers' Openness Initiative (Bach, Walsh, Whalley, Wills), which seeks to use peer review as a lever to improve open science practices. Wills is a Trustee of the Nurture Science Publishing Group, a nonprofit organisation dedicated to the promotion of affordable open-access publication in the context of rigorous, reproducibility-focused peer review.


Facilities and labs

Brain Research & Imaging Centre

The Brain Research & Imaging Centre (BRIC), the most advanced multi-modal brain imaging facility in the South West, will provide the sea-change to enhance the quality of our research in human neuroscience.

With seven cutting-edge human research laboratories, BRIC will include an MRI suite with the most advanced 3-Tesla scanner in the region. It will critically advance our enquiry toward the most advanced brain research, improved radiological diagnostics and better patient care.

Find out more about the facility

Neuroscience facilities

Located on our main city-centre campus, these facilities are ideally placed for large-sample studies of neurotypical individuals. The facilities comprise three eye-tracking labs, three 128-channel EEG labs (one suitable for infant participants), a Neural Modulation laboratory, a functional Near Infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) lab, and a data analysis suite. The Neural Modulation laboratory provides facilities for singlepulse and rapid TMS, and tDCS, combined with 64-channel EEG recording and 3D scalp surface and electrode digitisation.


The Babylab provides facilities that are essential to the developmental component of our Experimental Psychology research. Babylab provides excellent, dedicated facilities for infant testing including a family-friendly reception space, two observation rooms, and six individual sound-attenuating booths, with a Tobii 300 Hz system and a head-turn preference setting.

Learn more about the Babylab

Dedicated behavioural testing facilities

A total of 26 purpose-built testing rooms, most of them multi-seat. This facility supports much of the core work of Experimental Psychology group. There are also two dedicated 'soft labs': comfortable, relaxing spaces more conducive to the study of human interaction and counselling than standard labs. We also have three research-dedicated state-of-the-art Virtual Reality Labs.

Specialist equipment

Multichannel EMG systems, respiratory belts, skin thermometers, GSR devices, and pulse meters. There are also movement-measurement devices, including force transducers, accelerometers and laser displacement meters, and somatosensory and pain research devices that enable peripheral percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.

Non-human animal research

In the School of Biological and Marine Sciences there are eight dedicated observation labs, including two specialist temperature-controlled facilities suitable for aquatic animals. All labs are set up for video recording and remote logging with Noldus observer. Our Animal Behaviour researchers also make regular use of shared resources in the School of Biological and Marine Sciences, including animal housing, Home Office licensed space, plus physiology and molecular biology labs. Our research on sustainability is substantially facilitated by the presence of the Plymouth Marine Institute - the first and largest such institute in the UK.

Virtual reality research

Our team are conducting research into virtual reality, working on topics including:

  • Foundations of search and navigation
  • Connecting people with the ocean
  • Using augmented reality to deliver an imagery-based intervention for behaviour change

Discover more about our latest virtual reality research.


Our researchers