Research in the School of Psychology
Psychology experiments in the BabyLab
  • ? In the 2021 Research Excellence Framework assessment, 84% of our submission was judged world-leading or internationally excellent
  • ? 2021 Guardian League Table and Sunday Times Good University Guide puts Psychology at the University of Plymouth in the top 50 universities in the country

Research Strands


Research and impact

Research Impact

Changing understanding and practice in anaesthesia
Led by Jackie Andrade this research focuses on developing strategies for the prevention and management of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia.

Led by Judy Edworthy this research focuses on reducing sensory overload on clinicians due to the excessive number of alarms

Led by Helen Lloyd this research focuses on developing models and approaches for people with multiple long-term conditions.

Psychology publications

To view our research papers, please use other tab. In order access these papers in full, please follow the doi link to the published version.

Latest publications

Here is a list of some recent papers published by the School of Psychology:

  • Terbeck S, Bacon A & Howard I 2022 'Assessing reactive violence using Immersive Virtual Reality' PLoS One 17, (5) , DOI Open access
  • Yang X, Huang J, Roser M & Guangrong X 2022 'Anhedonia reduction correlates with increased ventral caudate connectivity with superior frontal gyrus in depression' Journal of Psychiatric Research 151, 286-290 , DOI Open access
  • Bolt C, Heath J & Moss D 2022 'Exploring the therapeutic opportunities, challenges and psychological mechanisms of integrating dogs into psychological therapies with adults' Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 47, 101564-101564 , DOI
  • Nuojua S, Pahl S & Thompson R 2022 'Ocean connectedness and consumer responses to single-use packaging' Journal of Environmental Psychology 101814-101814 , DOI
  • Brown SL, Fisher PL, Morgan A, Davies C, Olabi Y, Hope-Stone L, Heimann H, Hussain R & Cherry MG 2022 '‘I Don't Like Uncertainty, I Like to Know’: How and why uveal melanoma patients consent to life expectancy prognostication' Health Expectations , DOI Open access
  • Broesch T, Lew-Levy S, Kline M, Kärtner J & Kanngiesser P 2022 'A roadmap to doing culturally grounded developmental science' Review of Philosophy and Psychology , DOI Open access
  • Chen C-H & Yu C 2022 'Building lexical networks: Preschoolers extract different types of information in cross-situational learning' Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 220, , DOI Open access
  • Lydahl D, Britten N, Lloyd H, Wolf A, Naldemirci O & Heckemann B 2022 'Exploring Documentation in Person-Centred Care: A Content Analysis of Care Plans' International Journal of Older People Nursing , DOI Open access
  • Komarnyckyj M, Retzler C, Cao Z, Ganis G, Murphy A, Whelan R & Fouragnan EF 2022 'At‐risk alcohol users have disrupted valence discrimination during reward anticipation' Addiction Biology 27, (3) , DOI Open access
  • Månsson V, Andrade J, Jayaram-Lindström N & Berman AH 2022 '“I see myself”: Craving imagery among individuals with addictive disorders' Journal of Addictive Diseases 1-14 , DOI Open access
  • Spicer SG, Fullwood C, Close J, Nicklin LL, Lloyd J & Lloyd H 2022 'Loot boxes and problem gambling: Investigating the “gateway hypothesis”' Addictive Behaviors 131, , DOI Open access
  • Marsh LE, Gil J & Kanngiesser P 2022 'The influence of collaboration and culture on the IKEA effect: Does cocreation alter perceptions of value in British and Indian children?' Developmental Psychology 58, (4) 662-670 , DOI Open access
  • Plaat F, Stanford SER, Lucas DN, Andrade J, Careless J, Russell R, Bishop D, Lo Q & Bogod D 2022 'Prevention and management of intra-operative pain during caesarean section under neuraxial anaesthesia: a technical and interpersonal approach' Anaesthesia 77, (5) 588-597 , DOI Open access
  • Sun L, Lukkarinen L, Noppari T, Nazari-Farsani S, Putkinen V, Seppälä K, Hudson M, Tani P, Lindberg N & Karlsson HK 2022 'Aberrant motor contagion of emotions in psychopathy and high-functioning autism' Cerebral Cortex , DOI
  • Murrani S, Lloyd H & Popovici I-C 2022 'Mapping Home, Memory and Spatial Recovery in Forced Displacement' Social and Cultural Geography , DOI Open access
  • Rijken M, Close J, Menting J, Lette M, Stoop HJ, Zonneveld N, de Bruin S, Lloyd H & Heymans M 2022 'Assessing the experience of person‐centred coordinated care of people with chronic conditions in the Netherlands: Validation of the Dutch P3CEQ' Health Expectations , DOI Open access
  • Vylobkova V, Heintz S, Gander F, Wagner L & Ruch W 2022 'Convergence and Psychometric Properties of Character Strengths Measures: The VIA-IS and the VIA-IS-R' Journal of Personality Assessment 1-8 , DOI Open access
  • Hehir C, Scarles C, Wyles KJ & Kantenbacher J 2022 'Last chance for wildlife: making tourism count for conservation' Journal of Sustainable Tourism 1-21 , DOI Open access
  • Norman A, Curro V, Holloway M, Percuklievska N & Ferrario H 2022 'Experiences of individuals with Acquired Brain Injury and their families interacting with community services: a systematic scoping review' Disability and Rehabilitation , DOI Open access
  • Baptie G, Andrade J, Bacon A & Norman A 2022 'Trauma after childbirth: The mediating effects of subjective experience' XVIII-XVIII
  • Holloway M & Norman A 2022 'Just a Little Bit of History Repeating: The recurring and fatal consequences of lacking professional knowledge of acquired brain injury' Journal of Adult Protection , DOI Open access
  • Abu-Zhaya R, Arnon I & Borovsky A 2022 'Do Children Use Multi‐Word Information in Real‐Time Sentence Comprehension?' Cognitive Science 46, (3) , DOI
  • Woike J, Hafenbrädl S, Kanngiesser P & Hertwig R 2022 'The Transmission Game: Testing behavioral interventions in a pandemic-like simulation' Science Advances 8, (8) , DOI Open access
  • Austin D, May J, Andrade J & Nichols A 2022 'Exploring barriers, motivators and potential solutions to achieve healthy lifestyle among undergraduate student nurses' British Journal of Nursing 31, (4) , DOI Open access
  • Hart AG, Adcock D, Barr M, Church S, Clegg T, Copland S, De Meyer K, Dunkley R, Pateman RM & Underhill R 2022 'Understanding Engagement, Marketing, and Motivation to Benefit Recruitment and Retention in Citizen Science' Citizen Science: Theory and Practice 7, (1) , DOI Open access
  • McCrory M, Murphy DF, Morris RC & Noad RF 2022 'Evaluating the GAD-2 to screen for post-stroke anxiety on an acute stroke unit' Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 1-17 , DOI
  • Morris R, McCrory M, Murphy D & Noad R 2022 'EVALUATING THE GAD-2 AS A SCREENING MEASURE FOR POST-STROKE ANXIETY IN AN ACUTE STROKE UNIT' Neuropsychological Rehabilitation , DOI Open access
  • Edwards KJ, Maslin K, Andrade J, Jones RB & Shawe J 2022 'Mobile health as a primary mode of intervention for women at risk of, or diagnosed with, gestational diabetes mellitus' JBI Evidence Synthesis Publish Ahead of Print, , DOI Open access
  • Close J, Spicer S, Nicklin L, Lloyd J & Lloyd H 2022 'Loot box engagement: relationships with educational attainment, employment status and earnings in a cohort of 16,000 UK gamers' Addiction , DOI Open access
  • Oturai NG, Pahl S & Syberg K 2022 'How can we test plastic pollution perceptions and behavior? A feasibility study with Danish children participating in “the Mass Experiment”' Science of The Total Environment 806, 150914-150914 , DOI
  • Edworthy JR, Parker CJ & Martin EV 2022 'Discriminating between simultaneous audible alarms is easier with auditory icons' Applied Ergonomics 99, 103609-103609 , DOI
  • Blease C, Kharko A, Bernstein M, Bradley C, Houston M, Walsh I, Hägglund M, DesRoches C & Mandl KD 2022 'Machine learning in medical education: a survey of the experiences and opinions of medical students in Ireland' BMJ Health & Care Informatics 29, (1) e100480-e100480 , DOI
  • Close J, Spicer SG, Nicklin LL, Lloyd J, Whalley B & Lloyd H 2022 'Gambling and Gaming in the United Kingdom during the COVID-19 Lockdown' COVID 2, 187-101 Publisher Site , DOI Open access
  • Ward E, Ganis G, McDonough KL & Bach P 2022 'EXPRESS: Is Implicit Level-2 Visual perspective taking embodied? Spontaneous perceptual simulation of others’ perspectives is not impaired by motor restriction' Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 174702182210771-174702182210771 , DOI Open access
  • Bacon AM, Krupic D, Caki N & Corr PJ 2022 'Emotional and Behavioural responses to Covid-19: Explanations from Three Key Models of Personality' European Psychologist 26, (4) 334-347 , DOI Open access
  • Spicer S, Mitchell C, Wills A, Blake K & Jones P 2022 'Theory protection: do humans protect existing associative links?' Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition 48, (1) 1-16 , DOI Open access
  • Darmani G, Bergmann TO, Butts Pauly K, Caskey CF, de Lecea L, Fomenko A, Fouragnan E, Legon W, Murphy KR & Nandi T 2021 'Non-invasive transcranial ultrasound stimulation for neuromodulation' Clinical Neurophysiology 135, 51-73 , DOI Open access
  • Srivastava K, Norman A & Mortimer S 2021 'A qualitative exploration of the Media’s Influence on UK Women’s views of Breastfeeding' British Journal of Midwifery 30, (1) , DOI Open access
  • Kanngiesser P, Schäfer M, Herrmann E, Zeidler H, Haun D & Tomasello M 2021 'Children across societies enforce conventional norms but in culturally variable ways' Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 119, (1) , DOI Open access
  • Abdulhamid H, Jäger N, Schnädelbach H & Smith A 2021 'Room to breathe: Using adaptive architecture to examine the relationship between alexithymia and interoception' Journal of Psychosomatic Research 153, , DOI Open access
  • Lloyd J, Nicklin LL, Spicer GG, Fullwood C, Uther M, Hinton D, Parke J, Lloyd H & Close J 2021 'Development and validation of the RAFFLE; a measure of Reasons And Facilitators for Loot box Engagement' Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, (24) , DOI Open access
  • Folloni D, Fouragnan E, Wittmann MK, Roumazeilles L, Tankelevitch L, Verhagen L, Attali D, Aubry J-F, Sallet J & Rushworth MFS 2021 'Ultrasound modulation of macaque prefrontal cortex selectively alters credit assignment–related activity and behavior' Science Advances 7, (51) , DOI Open access
  • Milne-Ives M, Fraser L, Khan A, Walker D, van Velthoven MH, May J, Wolfe I, Harding T & Meinert E 2021 'Life.course digital T.wins – I.ntelligent M.onitoring for E.arly and continuous intervention and prevention (LifeTIME): Proposal for a proof-of-concept study' JMIR Research Protocols , DOI Open access
  • Bacon AM, White L & Norman A 2021 'Coping with Fibromyalgia during the COVID-19 pandemic: adjustment and wellbeing' Psychology and Health: an international journal , DOI Open access
  • Brown SL, Fisher P, Hope-Stone L, Damato B, Heimann H, Hussain R & Cherry MG 2021 'Fear of cancer recurrence and adverse cancer treatment outcomes: predicting 2- to 5-year fear of recurrence from post-treatment symptoms and functional problems in uveal melanoma survivors' Journal of Cancer Survivorship , DOI Open access
  • Inkster A, Milton F, Edmunds CER, Benattayallah A & Wills A 2021 'Neural correlates of the inverse base-rate effect' Human Brain Mapping , DOI Open access
  • Newman M, Gatersleben B, Wyles KJ & Ratcliffe E 2021 'The use of virtual reality in environment experiences and the importance of realism' Journal of Environmental Psychology 79, , DOI Open access
  • Bruder AL, Rothwell CD, Fuhr LI, Shotwell MS, Edworthy JR & Schlesinger JJ 2021 'The Influence of Audible Alarm Loudness and Type on Clinical Multitasking' Journal of Medical Systems 46, (1) , DOI
  • Richter I, Sumeldan J, Avillanosa A, Gabe-Thomas E, Creencia L & Pahl S 2021 'Co-created Future Scenarios as a Tool to Communicate Sustainable Development in Coastal Communities in Palawan, Philippines' Frontiers in Psychology 12, , DOI
  • Steffen EM 2021 'From ineffability and cultural taboo to meaning' Cultural, Existential and Phenomenological Dimensions of Grief Experience Routledge 175-191 , DOI

Open Science Strategy

This strategy commits the School of Psychology to three key open science goals by 2021. The first is preregistration of all research that will be published. The second is open access to all research publications. The third is open access to the raw data, stimuli, materials, and analysis pipelines of all published papers (except where so doing would cause insurmountable ethical or privacy issues). Four members of staff are signatories to the Peer Reviewers' Openness Initiative (Bach, Walsh, Whalley, Wills), which seeks to use peer review as a lever to improve open science practices. Wills is a Trustee of the Nurture Science Publishing Group, a non-profit organisation dedicated to the promotion of affordable open-access publication in the context of rigorous, reproducibility-focused peer review.


Facilities and labs

Brain Research & Imaging Centre

The Brain Research & Imaging Centre (BRIC), the most advanced multi-modal brain imaging facility in the South West, will provide the sea-change to enhance the quality of our research in human neuroscience.

With seven cutting-edge human research laboratories, BRIC will include an MRI suite with the most advanced 3-Tesla scanner in the region. It will critically advance our enquiry toward the most advanced brain research, improved radiological diagnostics and better patient care.

Find out more about the facility

<p>BRIC building development, December 2020</p>
Neuroscience facilities

Located on our main city-centre campus, these facilities are ideally placed for large-sample studies of neurotypical individuals. The facilities comprise three eye-tracking labs, three 128-channel EEG labs (one suitable for infant participants), a Neural Modulation laboratory, a functional Near Infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) lab, and a data analysis suite. The Neural Modulation laboratory provides facilities for singlepulse and rapid TMS, and tDCS, combined with 64-channel EEG recording and 3D scalp surface and electrode digitisation.


The Babylab provides facilities that are essential to the developmental component of our Experimental Psychology research. Babylab provides excellent, dedicated facilities for infant testing including a family-friendly reception space, two observation rooms, and six individual sound-attenuating booths, with a Tobii 300 Hz system and a head-turn preference setting.

Learn more about the Babylab

Dedicated behavioural testing facilities

A total of 26 purpose-built testing rooms, most of them multi-seat. This facility supports much of the core work of Experimental Psychology group. There are also two dedicated 'soft labs': comfortable, relaxing spaces more conducive to the study of human interaction and counselling than standard labs. We also have three research-dedicated state-of-the-art Virtual Reality Labs.

Specialist equipment

Multichannel EMG systems, respiratory belts, skin thermometers, GSR devices, and pulse meters. There are also movement-measurement devices, including force transducers, accelerometers and laser displacement meters, and somatosensory and pain research devices that enable peripheral percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.

Non-human animal research

In the School of Biological and Marine Sciences there are eight dedicated observation labs, including two specialist temperature-controlled facilities suitable for aquatic animals. All labs are set up for video recording and remote logging with Noldus observer. Our Animal Behaviour researchers also make regular use of shared resources in the School of Biological and Marine Sciences, including animal housing, Home Office licensed space, plus physiology and molecular biology labs. Our research on sustainability is substantially facilitated by the presence of the Plymouth Marine Institute - the first and largest such institute in the UK.

Virtual reality research

Our team are conducting research into virtual reality, working on topics including:

  • Foundations of search and navigation
  • Connecting people with the ocean
  • Using augmented reality to deliver an imagery-based intervention for behaviour change

Discover more about our latest virtual reality research.


Our researchers