Research in the School of Psychology

Studentships and Lecturing posts available now

Part time TARA/PhD studentships (6 years; apply by 22 August) available

A part time teaching post / research studentship available to start in September 2021

Find out the details
  • ? In the last Research Excellence Framework assessment, 80% of our submission was judged world-leading or internationally excellent
  • ? 2021 Guardian League Table and Sunday Times Good University Guide puts Psychology at the University of Plymouth in the top 50 universities in the country

Research Strands


Research and impact

Research Impact

Changing understanding and practice in anaesthesia
Led by Jackie Andrade this research focuses on developing strategies for the prevention and management of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia.

Led by Judy Edworthy this research focuses on reducing sensory overload on clinicians due to the excessive number of alarms

Led by Helen Lloyd this research focuses on developing models and approaches for people with multiple long-term conditions.

Psychology publications

To view our research papers, please use other tab. In order access these papers in full, please follow the doi link to the published version.

Latest publications

Here is a list of some recent papers published by the School of Psychology:

  • Schlegelmilch R, Wills A & von Helversen B 2021 'A Cognitive Category-Learning Model of Rule Abstraction, Attention Learning, and Contextual Modulation' Psychological Review Open access
  • Foerster FR & Goslin J 2021 'Tool use and function knowledge shape visual object processing' Biological Psychology 164, 108143-108143 , DOI
  • Chen C, Houston DM & Yu C 2021 'Parent–Child Joint Behaviors in Novel Object Play Create High‐Quality Data for Word Learning' Child Development , DOI
  • Shuai R, Bakou AE, Andrade J, Hides L & Hogarth L 2021 'Brief online negative affect focused functional imagery training improves two-week drinking outcomes in hazardous student drinkers: a pilot randomised controlled trial' International Journal of Behavioral Medicine , DOI Open access
  • Samuel S, Hagspiel K, Cole G & Eacott M 2021 ''Seeing' proximal representations: Testing attitudes to the relationship between vision and images' PLoS One Open access
  • Wyer NA, Hollins TJ & Pahl S 2021 'Remembering Social Events: A Construal Level Approach' Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 014616722110381-014616722110381 , DOI Open access
  • Sharpe P, Whalley B & Mitchell CJ 2021 'Does Brief Focused Attention and Open Monitoring Meditation Affect the Attentional Blink?' Mindfulness , DOI
  • Seabrooke T, Mitchell C, Wills A, Inkster A & Hollins T 2021 'The Benefits of Impossible Tests: Assessing the Role of Error-Correction in the Pretesting Effect' Memory and Cognition , DOI Open access
  • Dome L, Edmunds C & Wills A 2021 'SUSTAIN captures category learning, recognition, and hippocampal activation in a unidimensional vs information-integration task' Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society 7-/-0/2021 7-/-0/2021 eScholarship Publisher Site Open access
  • Svensson SL, Golubickis M, Maclean H, Falbén JK, Persson LM, Tsamadi D, Caughey S, Sahraie A & Macrae CN 2021 'More or less of me and you: self-relevance augments the effects of item probability on stimulus prioritization' Psychological Research , DOI
  • Terbeck S, Charlesford J, Clemans H, Pope E, Lee A, Turner J, Gummerum M & Bussmann B 2021 'Physical Presence during Moral Action in Immersive Virtual Reality' International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, (15) 8039-8039 , DOI
  • Spicer S, Laura N, Joanne L, Maria U, Lloyd H & Close J 2021 'Loot boxes, problem gambling and problem video gaming: A systematic review and meta-synthesis' New Media and Society , DOI Open access
  • Jillian R, Erica G, Mieke R, Stoop A, Espallargues M, Lloyd H, Close J & de Bruin S 2021 'Measuring older peoples’ experiences of person-centred coordinated care: experience and methodological reflections from applying a patient reported experience measure in SUSTAIN' International Journal of Integrated Care 21, (3) 3-3 , DOI Open access
  • Köster M, Langeloh M, Kliesch C, Kanngiesser P & Hoehl S 2021 'The value of subsequent memory paradigms in uncovering neural mechanisms of early social learning' NeuroImage 234, 117978-117978 , DOI
  • Golubickis M & Macrae CN 2021 'Judging me and you: Task design modulates self-prioritization' Acta Psychologica 218, 103350-103350 , DOI
  • Golubickis M & Macrae CN 2021 'That’s me in the spotlight: Self-relevance modulates attentional breadth' Psychonomic Bulletin & Review , DOI
  • Johnson A, Group TF, Delduca C & Morris R 2021 Living Your Life with Cancer: An ACT Approach Flying Over Thunderstorms. Routledge
  • Cooley SJ, Jones CR, Moss D & Robertson N 2021 'Organizational perspectives on outdoor talking therapy: Towards a position of ‘environmental safe uncertainty’' British Journal of Clinical Psychology , DOI
  • Swedberg K & Lloyd H 2021 'Testing Cost Containment of Future Health Care with Maintained or Improved Quality – The COST CARES project Running title: Cost Containment of Future Health Care' Health Science Reports 4, (2) , DOI Open access
  • Mehesz E, Karoui H, Strutton PH & Hughes SW 2021 'Exposure to an Immersive Virtual Reality Environment can Modulate Perceptual Correlates of Endogenous Analgesia and Central Sensitization in Healthy Volunteers' The Journal of Pain 22, (6) 707-714 , DOI
  • Hertwig R, Woike JK & Schupp J 2021 'Age differences in deliberate ignorance' Psychology and Aging 36, (4) 407-414 , DOI Open access
  • Smith AD 2021 Theeuwes, J., & Failing, M. Attentional Selection: Top-Down, Bottom-Up and History-Based Biases. SAGE Publications , DOI
  • Carvalho PF, Chen C-H & Yu C 2021 'The distributional properties of exemplars affect category learning and generalization' Scientific Reports 11, (1) , DOI
  • Mersh K & Auburn T 2021 'The role of social identity strategies in the cultural transitions of international students: social creativity, social mobility and place identity' SN Social Sciences 1, (6) , DOI
  • Hudson M, Nicholson T, Kharko A, McKenzie R & Bach P 2021 'Predictive action perception from explicit intention information in autism' Psychonomic Bulletin and Review , DOI Open access
  • Kamp KS, Steffen EM, Moskowitz A & Spindler H 2021 'Prevalence and Phenomenology of Sensory Experiences of a Deceased Spouse: A Survey of Bereaved Older Adults' OMEGA - Journal of Death and Dying 003022282110162-003022282110162 , DOI
  • Lucznik K & May J 2021 'Measuring individual and group flow in collaborative improvisational dance' Thinking Skills and Creativity , DOI Open access
  • Nicklin LL, Spicer SG, Close J, Parke J, Smith O, Rayman T, Lloyd H & Lloyd J 2021 'It’s the attraction of winning that draws you in” – A qualitative investigation of reasons and facilitators for videogame loot box engagement in UK gamers' Journal of Clinical Medicine , DOI Open access
  • Westlake D & Lloyd H 2021 'Terms of Engagement for Working with Patients in a Person-Centred Partnership: A Secondary Analysis of Qualitative Data' Health and Social Care in the Community , DOI Open access
  • Lenton-Maughan LA, Smith V, Bacon A, May J & Charlesford J 2021 'Ethical Considerations for Committees, Supervisors, Student Researchers Conducting Qualitative Research with Young People in the United Kingdom' Methods in Psychology , DOI Open access
  • Roselund L, Jackobsson S, Nilsson A, Lloyd H & Dencker A 2021 'Measuring patient experiences of person-centred care: cultural adaption and qualitative evaluation of item candidates for use in England and Sweden' Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences , DOI Open access
  • Norman A, Jackson S, Ferrario H, Percuklievska N & McBride P 2021 'Towards a greater understanding of the psychosocial impact of the symptoms of pituitary conditions' British Journal of Community Nursing 26, (5) Publisher Site , DOI Open access
  • Wardman T, Koelmans AA, Whyte J & Pahl S 2021 'Communicating the absence of evidence for microplastics risk: Balancing sensation and reflection' Environment International 150, 106116-106116 , DOI
  • Samuel S, Hagspiel K, Eacott MJ & Cole GG 2021 'Visual perspective-taking and image-like representations: We don't see it' Cognition 210, 104607-104607 , DOI
  • Persson LM, Golubickis M, Dublas D, Mastnak N, Falbén JK, Tsamadi D, Caughey S, Svensson S & Macrae CN 2021 'Comparing person and people perception: Multiple group members do not increase stereotype priming' Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 174702182110128-174702182110128 , DOI
  • Abdelwahab AGS, Forbes S, Cattani A, Goslin J & Floccia C 2021 'An Adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates CDI in 17 Arabic Dialects for Children Aged 8 to 30 Months' Language Learning and Development 1-22 , DOI Open access
  • Nummenmaa L, Lukkarinen L, Sun L, Putkinen V, Seppälä K, Karjalainen T, Karlsson HK, Hudson M, Venetjoki N & Salomaa M 2021 'Brain Basis of Psychopathy in Criminal Offenders and General Population' Cerebral Cortex , DOI Open access
  • Pavlov YG, Adamian N, Appelhoff S, Arvaneh M, Benwell CSY, Beste C, Bland AR, Bradford DE, Bublatzky F & Busch NA 2021 '#EEGManyLabs: Investigating the replicability of influential EEG experiments' Cortex Publisher Site , DOI Open access
  • Jones PM, Mitchell C, Wills A & Spicer S 2021 'Similarities and differences: Comment on Chan et al' Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition , DOI Open access
  • Lange N & Berry C 2021 'Explaining the association between repetition priming and source memory: No evidence for a contribution of recognition or fluency' Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology , DOI Open access
  • Goodhew J, Pahl S, King K, Sanders M, Elliott P, Fox M, Boomsma C & Goodhew S 2021 'Engaging People with Energy Efficiency: A Randomised Controlled Trial Testing the Effects of Thermal Imaging Visuals in a Letter Communication' Sustainability 13, (6) 3543-3543 , DOI
  • Edwards K, Bradwell H, Jones R, Andrade J & Shawe J 2021 'How do women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus use mHealth during and after pregnancy? Qualitative exploration of women's views and experiences' Midwifery , DOI Open access
  • Hanna SA & Minton SJ 2021 'A meaning-centred, whole-school approach for responsible decision-making: The Logotherapeutic Framework' Irish Educational Studies 1-18 , DOI Open access
  • Spicer SG, Wills AJ, Jones PM, Mitchell CJ & Dome L 2021 'Representing uncertainty in the Rescorla-Wagner model: Blocking, the redundancy effect, and outcome base rate' Open Journal of Experimental Psychology and Neuroscience 1, 14-21 Publisher Site , DOI Open access
  • Wimmer MC, Whalley B & Hollins TJ 2021 '“I can’t skip it”: does free report improve accuracy in false memories?' Memory 29, (3) 353-361 , DOI Open access
  • Keller A & Wyles KJ 2021 'Straws, seals, and supermarkets: Topics in the newspaper coverage of marine plastic pollution' Marine Pollution Bulletin 166, 0-0 , DOI Open access
  • Cutello CA, Walsh C, Hanoch Y & Hellier E 2021 'Reducing optimism bias in the driver’s seat: Comparing two interventions' Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 78, 207-217 , DOI Open access
  • Golubickis M, Persson LM, Falbén JK & Macrae CN 2021 'On stopping yourself: Self-relevance facilitates response inhibition' Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics , DOI
  • Phelan A, Rhode D, Casey M, Fealy G, O'Kelly G, Lloyd H & Carroll A 2021 'Co-creating descriptors and a definition for person-centred coordinated health care: An action research study' International Journal of Integrated Care 21, (1) , DOI Open access
  • Lavan N, Mileva M, Young A, Burton AM & McGettigan C 2021 'Trait evaluations of faces and voices: Comparing within- and between-person variability' Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , DOI Open access

Open Science Strategy

This strategy commits the School of Psychology to three key open science goals by 2021. The first is preregistration of all research that will be published. The second is open access to all research publications. The third is open access to the raw data, stimuli, materials, and analysis pipelines of all published papers (except where so doing would cause insurmountable ethical or privacy issues). Four members of staff are signatories to the Peer Reviewers' Openness Initiative (Bach, Walsh, Whalley, Wills), which seeks to use peer review as a lever to improve open science practices. Wills is a Trustee of the Nurture Science Publishing Group, a nonprofit organisation dedicated to the promotion of affordable open-access publication in the context of rigorous, reproducibility-focused peer review.


Facilities and labs

Brain Research & Imaging Centre

The Brain Research & Imaging Centre (BRIC), the most advanced multi-modal brain imaging facility in the South West, will provide the sea-change to enhance the quality of our research in human neuroscience.

With seven cutting-edge human research laboratories, BRIC will include an MRI suite with the most advanced 3-Tesla scanner in the region. It will critically advance our enquiry toward the most advanced brain research, improved radiological diagnostics and better patient care.

Find out more about the facility

Neuroscience facilities

Located on our main city-centre campus, these facilities are ideally placed for large-sample studies of neurotypical individuals. The facilities comprise three eye-tracking labs, three 128-channel EEG labs (one suitable for infant participants), a Neural Modulation laboratory, a functional Near Infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) lab, and a data analysis suite. The Neural Modulation laboratory provides facilities for singlepulse and rapid TMS, and tDCS, combined with 64-channel EEG recording and 3D scalp surface and electrode digitisation.


The Babylab provides facilities that are essential to the developmental component of our Experimental Psychology research. Babylab provides excellent, dedicated facilities for infant testing including a family-friendly reception space, two observation rooms, and six individual sound-attenuating booths, with a Tobii 300 Hz system and a head-turn preference setting.

Learn more about the Babylab

Dedicated behavioural testing facilities

A total of 26 purpose-built testing rooms, most of them multi-seat. This facility supports much of the core work of Experimental Psychology group. There are also two dedicated 'soft labs': comfortable, relaxing spaces more conducive to the study of human interaction and counselling than standard labs. We also have three research-dedicated state-of-the-art Virtual Reality Labs.

Specialist equipment

Multichannel EMG systems, respiratory belts, skin thermometers, GSR devices, and pulse meters. There are also movement-measurement devices, including force transducers, accelerometers and laser displacement meters, and somatosensory and pain research devices that enable peripheral percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.

Non-human animal research

In the School of Biological and Marine Sciences there are eight dedicated observation labs, including two specialist temperature-controlled facilities suitable for aquatic animals. All labs are set up for video recording and remote logging with Noldus observer. Our Animal Behaviour researchers also make regular use of shared resources in the School of Biological and Marine Sciences, including animal housing, Home Office licensed space, plus physiology and molecular biology labs. Our research on sustainability is substantially facilitated by the presence of the Plymouth Marine Institute - the first and largest such institute in the UK.

Virtual reality research

Our team are conducting research into virtual reality, working on topics including:

  • Foundations of search and navigation
  • Connecting people with the ocean
  • Using augmented reality to deliver an imagery-based intervention for behaviour change

Discover more about our latest virtual reality research.


Our researchers