Dr Sabine Pahl

Dr Sabine Pahl

Associate Professor (Reader) in Psychology

School of Psychology (Faculty of Health and Human Sciences)


Secretary to the International Association of Applied Psychology's Environmental Division (iaapsy.org)

Honorary Associate Professor, University of Exeter, Centre for Environment and Human Health (www.ecehh.org)

International Student Recruitment and Exchange Representative; International Tutor (School of Psychology)
Research Committee (School of Psychology)
Internationalisation Committee (Faculty of Science and Technology)
Member of the Management Group Institute for Sustainability Solutions (ISSR) 


since 2012    Reader / Associate Professor in Psychology, Plymouth University, UK
2006-2012    Lecturer in Psychology, University of Plymouth, UK
2003-2006    Lecturer in Psychology, University of Erlangen, Germany
2002-2003    ESRC Postdoctoral Fellowship, University of Sheffield, UK
2002            PhD in Psychology, University of Sheffield, UK
1999            Diplom in Psychology, University of Bremen, Germany
1998            MSc in Social and Applied Psychology, University of Kent, UK

Professional membership

UK Society for Behavioural Medicine (UKSBM)

European Social Cognition Network (ESCON)

Psychological Society (BPS); BPS Cognitive Section; BPS Social Section

International Social Cognition Network (ISCON)

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychologie (DGPs); Fachgruppe Umweltpsychologie

European Association for Decision Making (EADM)

European Association of Experimental Social Psychology (EAESP)

Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP)

International Association for People-Environment Studies (IAPS)

IAPS Restorative Environments Network

Roles on external bodies

Honorary Associate Professor, University of Exeter     since 2015             

Member of the ESRC Peer Review College     since 2015

Member of  GESAMP Working Group 40     since 2015              

Advisory Panel member for EPSRC-funded TEDDINET     since 2014

Secretary of the International Association of Applied Psychology (http://www.iaapsy.org/) Environmental Division      since 2014

Member of the Editorial Board for Environment & Behaviour     since 2014

Member of the International Energy Agency’s DSM task 24 Behaviour Change     since 2013

Affiliate Member of the Collaborative for Advanced Landscape Planning, University of British Columbia, Canada.     since 2011

Affiliate Member of the European Centre for Environment and Human Health, Exeter Medical School     since 2010

Visiting Lecturer, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada     March 2011

Teaching interests

Office hours Spring Term 2017

Tues 2-3
Wed 4-5

Please e-mail before you come to my office hour. Occasionally I have other commitments during those times and it's safer to check the office hour you're intending to use.


Research interests

Keywords: Social Cognition; self-positivity biases (e.g. unrealistic optimism, the better-than-average effect); behaviour change; psychology of sustainability; restorative effects of natural environments. 
see @SabinePahl 

Research focus. I am a Social Psychologist covering basic and applied research. My applied work focuses on attitudes and behaviour change, particularly in the area of energy efficiency and protecting marine environments. Other applied work examines restorative effects of natural environments including the use of natural environments in healthcare. My basic research is in social cognition,e.g., construal level and memory and self-other biases such as unrealistic optimism.

Grants & Publications. I’ve been involved in attracting research funding in excess of £7m since 2010 (approx. £2m as Principal Investigator) from EPSRC,ESRC, DEFRA, DECC, FP7 and H2020. Peer-review publications since 2010 include papers in the Journal of Environmental Psychology, Environment & Behavior,Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and Psychology & Health.

Impact. Our role in MARLISCO was to evaluate science-in-society activities regarding marine litter in 14 European countries plus Turkey, summarised in a guide for influencing behaviour. Within the eViz-project we have run field studies with the Eden Project / DECC and Plymouth City Council, and a >5,000 home trial run in collaboration with the Behavioural Insights Team. My former PhD student Kayleigh Wyles and I are the only two social scientists involved in the United Nations GESAMP Working Group 40 on microplastics, and the Phase 1 report contains our recommendation for more behavioural science. I was the lead convenor for two sessions (behaviour change and perceptions of climate change) at the UNFCC COP21 science conference in Paris in July 2015, which summarised the science to inform the COP 21 policy meeting in December that year. 

Sustainability & Psychology group, see http://psychology.plymouth.ac.uk/research/working-groups/sustainability/ 

Current post-docs:

Former post-docs

Research degrees awarded to supervised students

  • Christine Boomsma (Director of Studies; F/T 2009 - 2012): Visual images as a motivational bridge to pro-environmental behaviour: A cognitive approach. Viva passed January 2013.
  • Julie Goodhew (co-supervisor; P/T 2007-2013): Thermal images as prompts for energy-saving behaviour. Viva passed May 2013.
  • Lauren Carroll (Director of Studies; F/T 2009 - 2013): The effect of choice set size and other choice architectures on decisions to volunteer. Viva passed September 2013.
  • Kayleigh Wyles (Director of Studies; F/T Oct 2010 - 2014): Rocky shores - From habitat threat to marine awareness and restorative experiences. Viva passed February 2014. 
  • Becky Jenkin (European Centre for Environment and Human Health; co-supervisor; F/T 2011-2015): Blue Gym 4 kids. 
  • Debbie Cracknell (Director of Studies; P/T Oct 2010-2016): The restorative potential of public aquariums: Psychological and physiological effects of viewing sub-aquatic environments.
  • Hazel Gibson (SoGEES - CRES; co-supervisor; F/T 2012-2016). Underground Britain: Public perceptions of and attitudes to the subsurface.

    Current PhD students:

    • Carolyn Arnold (Falmouth College; co-supervisor; F/T since Oct 2011): Storytelling as a paradigm for promoting pro-environmental behaviour

    external PhDs examined:

  • Nina Lockwood, University of Sussex, June 2010, "Motivations for mountain climbing: The role of risk."     
  • Laura Rennie, Sheffield University, January 2011, "The role of perspective in visualising health behaviours: Effects on motivation and behaviour." 
  • Alexander Van der Jagt, University of Aberdeen, November 2013, "Restorative environments: Why the saliency of natural and built scene content matters"
  • Hyunji Kim, University of Cambridge, January 2014, "Construal level theory and economic decision making: Psychological distance as a de-biasing tool"
  • Grants & contracts


    Fuertes, A. et al. EnerGAware: Energy Game for Awareness of energy efficiency in social housing communities. Feb 2015 - Feb 2018, Plymouth work package 300k in €2m EU H2020 project.

    Anderson, A. et al. (2015). Public perception of microbeads. ISSR small grant, Plymouth University, £2.5k.

    Goodhew, J. et al. (2015). Solar gain visualised through thermal imaging. ISSR small grant, Plymouth University, £3k.


    Pahl, S., de Wilde, P. et al. eViz – EnergyVisualisation for Carbon Reduction (2012-2016). EPSRC multi-centre grant with the Universities of Bath, Birmingham and Newcastle £1,876,000, with £1,125,000 to Plymouth. (Post docs Christine Boomsma and Julie Goodhew).

    Thompson, R. C. & Pahl, S. (2012-2015). Marine Litter in European Seas: Social Awareness and Co-Responsibility (MARLISCO). Plymouth Work Package £300k in £4,100,000 EU-FP7 Grant. (Post doc Bonny Hartley and Research Assistant Matthew Holland).

    White, M. P., Pahl, S. & Depledge, M (2010-2016). The restorative potential of sub-aquatic environments. Studentship awarded by NMA: Deborah Cracknell.

    Thompson, R. C. & Pahl, S. (2014). Evaluation of Fishing for Litter programme (variation). DEFRA: 19k. Research Assistant: Kayleigh Wyles then Lauren Carroll.

    Pahl, S. & Carroll, L. (2013). SmallEvaluation of Stepping Stones programme. Plymouth City Council, SteppingStones: 2.5k. RA: Lauren Carroll.  

    Attrill, M., Pahl, S., Thompson, R. C. & Wyles, K. (2013). The benefits of engaging with the Marine Centre at Wembury Beach. University of Plymouth Community Research Award: £9k. Research Assistant: Lauren Carroll.

    Goodhew, S., Pahl, S. & De Wilde, P. (2013). Thermal imaging intervention as part of Cornwall together. Eden Project, funding from DECC, £65k.

    Pahl, S. & Thompson, R. (2010-13). Human Well-being and Habitat Threat in Marine Environments. ESRC/NERC Studentship: Kayleigh Wyles.

    Pahl, S., White, M. P., Andrade, J. & May, J.(2010-13). Dental anxiety, nature exposure and virtual reality. (University of Plymouth: approx. £100k [postdoc Karin Tanja-Dijkstra]).

    White, M. P., Pahl, S. & Depledge, M. (2010-13). Blue Gym: The health and well-being effects of blue space. (University ofPlymouth: approx. £120k [post doc Kat Ashbullby]).

    Wyer, N., Pahl, S. & Perfect, T. (2010-13). Construal, processing style and memory for social events.(ESRC: £240k). RA: Jean Roper.

    Depledge, M., Pahl, S. & Lilley, A.(2010-2013). Seeing is Believing. (European Centre for Environment and Human Health, PCMD [post doc WillStahl-Timmins])

    White, M. P., Pahl, S. & Edworthy, J. (2009-12). Choice Architectures and Volunteering. UoP Faculty of Science PhD Studentship: Lauren Carroll.

    Pahl, S. (2011). Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions (PICS) Fellowship, British Columbia, Canada, March.

    Pahl, S. (2011). International Networking Scheme University of Plymouth, for research visit to the University of British Columbia, March.

    LeFroy,M., LeFroy, E., White, M. & Pahl, S. (2010). Surf to success / surfing for success. (Ecominds: 20k awarded to GB Boardriders CIC).

    Butel, L., Pahl, S. & Memery, J. (2009-11). The psychology of giving to independent schools. Knowledge Transfer Partnership with Plymouth College (TechnologyStrategy Board: £81k).

    Pahl, S. (2009-10). Optimism, pessimism and pro-environmental engagement. (Seale-HayneEducational Trust: £2k).

    Pahl, S. & White, M. P. (2008-09). Predicting and improving satisfaction with a rewarding activity: Volunteering for the Samaritans. (University of Plymouth: £8k).

    Pahl, S. (2006). Self-activation and betting behaviour. Dr. German Schweiger Spende: €1k.

    Pahl, S. (2006-08). Role models, social comparison & gender: Effects on career aspirations of men and women. University of Erlangen: €9k.

    Pahl, S. (2005-06). Linguistic norms and the focus effect in self-other comparisons. EAESP Postdoctoral Seedcorn Grant: €2k.

    Pahl, S. (2002-03). ESRC Postdoctoral Fellowship: £26k.

    Research groups

    • Centre for Research in Brain, Cognition and Behaviour (CBCB)
    • Behaviour

    Marine Environment


    Cracknell, D., White, M. P., Pahl, S., & Depledge, M. H. (2017). A preliminary investigation into the restorative potential of public aquaria exhibits: a UK student-based study. Landscape Research42(1), 18-32.

    Pahl, S., & Wyles, K. J. (2017). The human dimension: how social and behavioural research methods can help address microplastics in the environment. Analytical Methods. DOI: 10.1039/c6ay02647h

    Anderson, A. G., Grose, J., Pahl, S., Thompson, R. C., & Wyles, K. J. (2016). Microplastics in personal care products: Exploring perceptions of environmentalists, beauticians and students. Marine Pollution Bulletin113(1), 454-460. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.10.048

    Fleming, L.E., Depledge, M., McDonough, N., White, M. P., Pahl, S., Austen,M., Goksoyr, A., Solo-Gabriele, H., Stegeman, J. J. (in press). The Oceans and Human Health. Chapter for the Oxford Encyclopedia of Environmental Science.

    * Wyles, K. J., Pahl, S. & Thompson, R. C.T. (in press). What are the Benefits to the Volunteers? Comparing Beach Cleans to Other Coastal Activities. Environment & Behavior. doi: 10.1177/0013916516649412.

    White MP, Pahl S, Wheeler BW, Fleming LEF & Depledge MH (2016). The'Blue Gym': What can blue space do for you and what can you do for blue space? JOURNAL OF THE MARINE BIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM 96, (1) 5-12.

    Veiga JM, Vlachogianni T, Pahl S, Thompson RC, Kopke K, Doyle TK,Hartley BL, Maes T, Orthodoxou DL & Loizidou XI (2016). Enhancing public awareness and promoting co-responsibility for marine litter in Europe: The challenge of MARLISCO. MARINE POLLUTION BULLETIN 102, (2) 309-315.

    * Cracknell, D., Pahl, S., White, M. P., Nichols, W. J. & Depledge,M. (2015). Marine biota and psychological well-being: A preliminary examination of dose-response effects in an aquarium setting. Environment & Behavior (OnlineFirst).doi:10.1177/0013916515597512

    * Wyles, K., Pahl, S., Thomas, K. & Thompson, R. C. (2015). Factors that can Undermine the Psychological Benefits of Coastal Environments: Exploring the Effect of Tidal State, Presence, and Type of Litter. Environment & Behaviour(OnlineFirst). doi: 10.1177/0013916515592177

    Hartley, B. L., Thompson, R. C., & Pahl, S. (2015). Marine litter education boosts children’s understanding and self-reported actions. Marine Pollution Bulletin,90, 209-217. DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.10.049

    Baztan, J., Jorgensen, B., Vanderlinden, J.-P., Pahl, S., Thompson, R. C., Carrasco, A., Miguelez, A., Huck, T., Garrabou, J., Broglio, E., Chouinard, O., Surette, C., Soudant, P., Huvet, A., Galgani, F., Paul-Pont, I. (2015). Protected Shores Contaminated with Plastic: From Knowledge to Action. Chapt. 11 in Coastal Zones: Solutions for the 21st Century. Elsevier. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-802748-6.00011-5

    * Wyles, K. J., Pahl, S. & Thompson, R. C. (2014). Perceived risks and benefits of recreational visits to the marine environment: Integrating impacts on the environment and impacts on the visitor. Ocean & Coastal Management, 88, 53-63. Open access at  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569113002330

    Ashbullby, K. J., Pahl, S., White, M. P. & Webley, P. (2013). The beach as a setting for families' health promotion: A qualitative study with parents and children living in coastal regions in Southwest England, Health and Place, 23, 138-147.

    * Wyles, K., Pahl, S., White,M., Morris, S., Snelling, D & Thompson, R. C. (2013). Towards a Marine Mindset: Visiting an aquarium can improve attitudes and intentions regarding marine sustainability. Visitor Studies, 16(1), 95-110.

    White, M. P., Smith, A.,Humphries, K., Pahl, S., Snelling, D. & Depledge, M. (2010). Blue Space: The Importance of Water for Preference, Affect And Restorativeness Ratings Of Natural And Built Scenes. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30, 482-493.



    Boomsma C, Goodhew J, Goodhew S & Pahl S (2016). Improving the visibility of energy use in home heating in England: Thermal images and the role of visual tailoring. Energy Research & Social Science 14, 111-121.

    Jones RV, Fuertes A, Boomsma C & Pahl S (2016). Space heating preferences in UK social housing: A socio-technical household survey combined with building audits. Energy and Buildings 127, 382-398.

    Boomsma C, Goodhew J, Pahl S & Jones RV (2016). The feasibility of saving energy in challenging organisational contexts: Testing energy visualisation in a social services office in the United Kingdom. Energy Research & Social Science 15, 58-74

    Pahl, S., Goodhew, J., Boomsma, C. & Sheppard, S. R. J. (2016). The role of energy visualisation in addressing energy use: Insights from the eViz project. Frontiers in Psychology: Personality and Social Psychology, 7, 92. http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00092

    Goodhew, J., Pahl, S., Auburn, T. & Goodhew, S. (2015). Making heat visible: Promoting energy conservation behaviours through thermal imaging. Environment and Behaviour, 47(10), 1059-108. DOI: 10.1177/0013916514546218

    This research was the featured discussion article in the first editionof Nature Energy in January 2016. Steg, L. (2016). Seeing heat saves energy. NatureEnergy, 1, 1-2.


    General Applied Psychology


    Boomsma, C., Pahl, S., & Andrade, J. (2016). Imagining Change: An Integrative Approach toward Explaining the Motivational Role of Mental Imagery in Pro-environmental Behavior. Frontiers in Psychology7. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01780


    Gibson, H., Stewart, I.,Pahl, S., and Stokes, A. (2016). A "Mental Models" approach to the communication of subsurface hydrology and hazards, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci.Discuss., doi:10.5194/hess-2015-542.

    White MP, Pahl S, Ashbullby KJ, Burton F & Depledge MH (2015). The Effects of Exercising in Different Natural Environments on Psycho-Physiological Outcomes in Post-Menopausal Women: A Simulation Study. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH 12, (9) 11929-11953.

    Jenkin, R., Frampton, I., White, M. P., Pahl, S. & Dix, N. (2015).Preliminary development of a new method for exploring the acceptability of playwork interventions with children: The Day Reconstruction Method – Child version (DRM-C). Journal of Playwork Practice, 2(2), 157-172.

    Pahl, S., Sheppard, S. R. J., Boomsma, C. & Groves, C. (2014).Perceptions of time in relation to climate change. Wiley InterdisciplinaryReviews (WIREs) Climate Change, 5, 375-388.

    Tanja-Dijkstra, K., Pahl, S., White, M. P., Andrade, J.,May, J., Stone, R. J., Bruce, M., Mills, I.,Auvray, M., Gabe, R., Moles, D. R. (2014). Can virtual nature improve patient experiences and memories of dental treatment? A study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 15, 90-99. http://www.trialsjournal.com/content/15/1/90

    Tanja-Dijkstra, K., Pahl, S., White, M. P., Andrade, J., Qian, C.,Bruce, M., May, J. & Moles, D. R. (2014). Improving dental experiences byusing virtual reality distraction: A simulation study. PLOS ONE, 9,1-. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0091276

    White, M. P., Pahl, S.,Ashbullby, K., Herbert, S. & Depledge, M. H. (2013). Feelings of restoration from recent nature visits. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 35,40-51.  

    Pahl, S. & Bauer, J. (2013).Overcoming the Distance: Perspective Taking With Future Humans Improves Environmental Engagement. Environment and Behavior, 45(2), 155-169.

    * Zlatev, M., Pahl, S. &White, M. P. (2010). Perceived risk and benefit for self and others as predictors of smokers' attitudes towards smoking restrictions. Psychology& Health, 25, 167-182.

    White, M. P., Eiser, J. R., Harris, P. R. & Pahl, S. (2007). Who reaps the benefits, who bears the risks? Risk and benefit perceptions of mobile phone technology for different targets. Risk Analysis, 27, 741-753.

    Pahl, S., Harris, P. R.,Todd, H. A. & Rutter, D. R. (2005). Comparative optimism for environmental risks. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25, 1-11.

    White, M. P., Pahl, S., Bühner,M. J. & Haye, A. (2003). Trust in risky messages: The role of prior attitudes. Risk Analysis, 23,717-726.


    Social Cognition

    Wyer, N. A., Hollins, T. J., & Pahl, S. (2015). The hows and whys of face processing: Level of construal influences the holistic processing of human faces. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144, 1037-1041.

    Wyer, N. A., Hollins, T. J., Pahl, S. & Roper, J. (2015). The hows and whys of face memory: Level of construal influences the recognition of human faces. Frontiers in Psychology (Cognition), 6, 1524, doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01524

    * Bertrams, A. & Pahl, S. (2014). Ego depletion after social interference. Psychology, 5, 1-5. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=41844#.U0bAxqJns6x

    Pahl, S. (2012).Would I bet on beating you? Subtly increasing other-focus helps overcome egocentrism. Experimental Psychology, 59, 74-81. doi: 10.1027/1618-3169/a000128 

    * Carroll, L., White, M. P. & Pahl, S. (2011). The impact of excess choice on deferment of decisions to volunteer. Judgment and Decision Making, 6, 629-637.

    Wyer, N., Perfect, T. &Pahl, S. (2010). Temporal distance and person memory: Thinking about the future changes memory for the past. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 805-816

    Pahl, S., Eiser, J. R. &White, M. P. (2009). Boundaries of Self-Positivity: The Effect of Comparison Focus in Self-Friend Comparisons. Journal of Social Psychology, 149, 413-424.

    * Blüher, R. & Pahl, S. (2007). Der"mere exposure" Effekt und die Wahl von Produkten - Ein Experiment im Feld [Mere exposure and product choice - A field experiment]. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie, 38,209-215.

    Pahl, S.& Eiser, J. R. (2007). How malleable is positive bias for the self? The effects of  judgmental focus, anchoring and accessibility. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37, 617-627.

    Pahl, S. & Eiser, J. R.(2006). The focus effect and self-positivity in ratings of self-other similarity and difference. British Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 107-116.

    Pahl, S. & Eiser, J. R.(2005). Valence, comparison focus and self-positivity biases: Does it matter whether people judge positive or negative traits? Experimental Psychology,52, 303-310.

    Eiser, J.R., Pahl, S. & Prins, Y. R. A. (2001). Optimism, pessimism, and the direction of self-other comparisons. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 37, 77-84.


    Other publications, edited books & reports

    Baztan, J., Jorgensen, B., Pahl, S., Thompson, R. C. & Vanderlinden, J.-P. (Eds). Fate and impact of Microplastics in Marine Ecosystems: From the Coastline to the Open Sea. Elsevier (forthcoming).

    Pahl, S., Anderson,A., Grose, J., Wyles, K. & Thompson, R. C. (forthcoming). Microplastics in cosmetics: Exploring the perceptions of environmentalists, beauticians and students. Proceedings from MICRO 2016.

    Westerhoff, L.,Cote, S., Chu, A.-M., Sheppard, S. R. J., Burch, S. & Pahl, S.(forthcoming). Motivating energy efficiency retrofits through community-based thermal imaging: Implications for research and practice in BC. PICS White Paper.

    Boomsma, C., Jones,R.V., Pahl, S., & Fuertes, A. (2016). Energy saving behaviours among social housing tenants: Exploring the relationship with dwelling characteristics, monetary concerns and psychological motivations. Proceedings from BEHAVE'16: 4th European conference on behaviour and energy efficiency. Coimbra,Portugal.

    Hartley, B. L.,Holland, M., Pahl, S., & Thompson, R. C. (2015). Evaluation of specific educational and outreach activities related to marine litter. Deliverable D2.5 report. MARLISCO project. Marine Litter in European Seas: Social Awareness and Co-Responsibility.

    Hartley, B.L., Holland, M., Pahl, S., Thompson, R. C. (2015). How to Communicate with

    Stakeholders about Marine Litter – A Short Guide to Influencing Behavioural Change.

    Plymouth, UK. Deliverable D2.6 report. MARLISCO project. Marine Litter in European Seas: Social Awareness and Co-Responsibility.

    Vlachogianni, T., Veiga, J., Orthodoxou, D., Loizidou, X., Kopke, K.,Hartley, B., Pahl, S., Thompson, R., Garnacho,  E.,  Maes, T.,  Roniotes,  A., MIO-ECSDE,  2015.  Project synthesis:  ‘recommendations  for science  and society  interactions: a  case  study from  ML’  ‘Understanding  the science-society  nexus  through the  marine  litter challenge: lessons learned & recommendations from the MARLISCO project’. Deliverable D6.6. MARLISCO project. Marine Litter in European Seas: Social Awareness and Co-Responsibility.

    GESAMP (2015, IMO/FAO/UNESCO-IOC/UNIDO/WMO/IAEA/UN/UNEP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection). Sources,fate and effects of microplastics in the marine environment - a global assessment. GESAMP Reports & Studies Series. Available from http://ec.europa.eu/environment/marine/good-environmental-status/descriptor-10/pdf/GESAMP_microplastics%20full%20study.pdf

    Stone, B., Guest, R., Pahl, S., & Boomsma, C. (2014). Exploiting gaming technologies to visualise dynamic thermal qualities of a domestic dwelling: Technical and human factor challenges. Proceedings from BEHAVE’14, Oxford, UK.

    Hartley, B. L., Pahl, S., & Thompson, R. T. (2013). Baseline Evaluation of stakeholder perceptions and attitudes towards issues surrounding marine litter. Deliverable D2.1 report. MARLISCO project. Marine Litter in Europe Seas: Social Awareness and CO-Responsibility.

    Pahl, S., White, M. P. & Carroll, L. (2010). Volunteering for Samaritans. Report April 2010. University of Plymouth.

    * Goodhew, J., Goodhew, S.,Auburn, T., de Wilde, P. & Pahl, S. (2009). A preliminary investigation of the potential for thermographic images to influence householders understanding of home energy consumption. In Dainty, S. (Ed.), ARCOM Conference 2009,Nottingham, UK, September, 971-979.  

    * denotes student as first author