Summerscales et al  analysed 150 cross-sectional slices of x-ray computed tomography images of plain weave E-glass fibre-reinforced epoxy resin composites using fractal dimensions. The fractal dimension analysis returned a consistent numerical value for each of the slices in the two similar orthogonal planes.
Mahmood [13, 14] investigated RRV in fabric-reinforced composites. Fibre distribution, quantified from cross-sections as FD, was used as a parameter to characterise the static and fatigue properties of the composites tested in four-point bend. The ultimate flexural strength of the composites showed a clear dependence on the fibre distribution. Interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) also correlated with the fibre distribution albeit with lower significance.
Labrosse et al  used FD as a novel procedure for the assessment of the surface finish of in-mould gel-coated fibre-reinforced polymer matrix composites. The technique involves photographing the reflection from a coated surface on an opaque screen and analysing the image using fractal dimensions. The ranking of the quality of surface finish from this technique sensibly aligned with that obtained by human observation and by the commercial Wavescan DOI system. The investment required for the new system was primarily that required for a high-resolution digital camera, and hence is less than 5% of the cost of the commercial instrument.
Piasecki and Summerscales  reported a novel system to ensure use of the correct reinforcement fabric during composites manufacture. Three carbon fibre reinforcement fabrics (plain weave, single-tow twill and double-two twill) were characterised using a high-resolution scanner, images converted into binary, and then analysed using ImageJ/FracLac software to determine FD. The three fabrics each had a distinct FD value, in the undeformed condition and when sheared up to 30° (the locking angle). Implemented in a quality management system this analysis could eliminate the risk of an operator using fabric from the wrong roll leading to compromised mechanical properties in the component.
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