M&S3 comprises two emerging themes:
1) Simulation and Modelling for Policy Evaluation and Decision Analysis, where models are built to test alternative assumptions about the world and their robustness. Applications can include problem domains where the outcomes of different interventions merit explanation.
The modelling approaches include, inter alia, system dynamics, agent based modelling, discrete event simulation, socioeconomic, econometrics, stochastic frontier analysis, and data envelopment analysis. Modelling applications would include, among other things, financial, economic, demographic, social and economic policy evaluation, and supply chain management.
2) Simulation Gaming and Gamification for Learning and Insight, where simulation games or gaming principles are used to help people learn about policy development and/or decision making within social systems. This strand of research is pedagogic (students) and andragogic (executives and managers) and seeks to measure levels of generative learning that immersive simulations can bring about.
The gaming approaches include, inter alia, system dynamics flight simulators, agent based modelling, spreadsheet based models, and massively multiplayer online role-playing games. Modelling applications include, among other things, economics, strategic awareness, entrepreneurship, soft skills development, and auction and latecomer strategy.