Dr Jonathan Lean
Associate Professor (Senior Lecturer) in Strategic Management
Plymouth Business School (Faculty of Arts, Humanities and Business)
Associate Professor in Strategic Management
1997 - PhD, University of Plymouth
1992 - BA Economics and Geography, Lancaster University
Roles on external bodies
Associate Editor, International Journal of Management Education (Elsevier)
Member of Editorial Board, Journal of Finance and Management in Public Services (CIPFA)
Honorary Fellow, Enterprise Educators UK
Business Research Methodology
Staff serving as external examiners
External Examiner, BPP University - Undergraduate Business Management, 2015-19
External Examiner, University of Hertfordshire - Pre-Masters Programme, 2018 - present
External Examiner: Exeter University - MSc Entrepreneurship & Innovation Management, 2020 - present
Role of Simulation / Serious Games in Entrepreneurship and Management Training / Education
Training and Development for Small Business & Entrepreneurship
Research degrees awarded to supervised students
M. Hudson (2001) Introducing Integrated Performance Management into SMEs
S. J. Perry (2007) Competences,Learning Sources and the Support Needs of Individuals who Purchase Small Established Enterprises
A.O.E. Odofin (2008) The Challenges of Implementing Continuous Improvement in a Small and Medium Sized Enterprise
S. M. Zabri (2013) Financing Preferences and Capital Structure Among Successful Malaysian SMEs
L. Hunter (2013) The Mediating Role of Entrepreneurial Leadership: An Investigation of the Competitiveness of SME’s in UK South-West Food and Drink Manufacturing
C. Chlupsa (2014) 'The Impact of Implicit Motives in B2B Decision Making'
G. Perkins (2014) 'Factors External to the Individual Influencing Idea Generation in SME Contexts'
Examiner for 25 MPhil/PhD/DBAs
Currently supervisor for 4 PhD students
Grants & contracts
Erasmus+ Fund (2017-2019), 'Innovating Youth Work to Foster Youth Active Citizenship', €43,450at Plymouth University (€197,925 whole project); J. Moizer Partner Level Coordinator), S. Liu, J. Lean & D. Carter (Plymouth University)
Leonardo Transfer of Innovation Fund (2012-2014), ‘Using On-line Role Play to Promote Soft Skills Development for Social Enterprises’, €264,423. Co-applicant with J. Moizer (Project Cordinator), E. Dell' Aquila (Plymouth); O. Miglino, A. Rega & A. Veneri (UNINA, Italy); P. Walsh (CIT, Ireland); R. Friedrich (GeProS, Germany).
‘Discipline-focused Learning Technology Enhancement Academy’, project funded by the Higher Education Academy to develop a TEL strategy within Plymouth Business School, 2010 (project team member)
‘Developing Entrepreneurship through Collaborative Programme Delivery’, £30,000 project funded through the British Council’s Prime Minister’s Initiative (PMI2) to embed enterprise education within the curriculum in Sri Lanka, 2010 (co-applicant with D. Kasturiratne)
Knowledge Transfer Partnership, Beran Instruments (Support Academic) March 2006 - March 2008; Value £99,044.
University of Plymouth Teaching Fellowship Award (with Dr J. Moizer and Dr M. Towler),£4843
Marine Sector Report: with Dr P. Gardiner & Dr J. White. Sector analysis study funded by Prosper.
Micro-credit in small firms: with Dr J. Tucker. Funded by ACCA (£10,750) to examine the use of micro-credit by small firms.
Technical Knowledge Network: Feasibility and planning report, with Dr J. Tucker. Funded by Prosper and Government Office of the South West to aid innovation and technology transfer by developing a tool for knowledge management.
Health and Safety Project: Funded by University of Plymouth CVE fund to develop a short course on Health and Safety for small businesses. With Dr J. Moizer and D. Morton.
Wilkins, S., Hazzam, J. & Lean, J. (forthcoming) 'Doctoral publishing as professional development for an academic career in higher education', International Journal of Management Education
Wilkins S, Neri S, Lean J (2019) ‘The role of theory in the business/management PhD: How students may use theory to make an original contribution to knowledge’, International Journal of Management Education, Vol.17, No.3
Moizer J, Lean J, Dell’Aquila E, Walsh P, Keary AA, O'Byrne D, Di Ferdinando A, Miglino O, Friedrich R (2019) 'An approach to evaluating the user experience of serious games' Computers and Education Vol.136, pp.141-151 , DOI PEARL
Lim, W.M., Lean, J. & Slater, L. (2018) 'The Value of Student Consultancy Projects for Hospitality Businesses', International Journal of Knowledge Management in Tourism and Hospitality, DOI: 10.1504/IJKMTH.2018.10019271
Hunter, L. and Lean, J. (2018) 'Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurial Learning from a social context perspective: Evidence from Kenya and Tanzania', Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol.25, No. 4, pp. 609-627.
Newbery R, Lean J, Moizer J & Haddoud M (2018) 'Entrepreneurial identity formation during the initial entrepreneurial experience: The influence of simulation feedback and existing identity' Journal of Business Research Vol. 85, pp.51-59 , DOI PEARL
Perkins G, Lean J, Newbery R. (2017) The Role of Organizational Vision in Guiding Idea Generation within SME Contexts. Creativity and Innovation Management Vol.26, No.1, pp.75-90.
Newbery, R., Lean, J. and Moizer, J. (2016), ‘Evaluating the Impact of Serious Games: The Effect of Gaming on Entrepreneurial Intent’, Information Technology and People, Vol.29, No.4, pp.733-749.
Lean, J., Moizer, J. and Warren, M. (2015) 'Editorial: The use and impact of simulations in management education' The International Journal of Management Education, Vol. 13, No. 3, p.349.
Zabri, S. M., Ahmad, K. and Lean, J. (2015) 'Understanding Owner-Managers' Preferences Towards Different Sources of Financing: The Case of Successful SMEs in Malaysia' Advanced Science Letters, 21 (5) pp. 1435-1438.
O'Byrne, D., Lean, J., Moizer, J., Walsh, P., Dell'Aquila, E., Freidrich, R. (2014) 'Social Enterprise in the European Union: A Review of Policy', Social & Public Policy Review, Vol.9, No.1, pp.13-29.
Chlupsa, C., Lean, J. (2014) 'The impact of implicit motives on the decision-making process: a preliminary analysis' Social & Public Policy Review, Vol.8, No.2, pp.32-47.
Hunter, L. and Lean, J. (2014) 'Investigating the role of entrepreneurial leadership and social capital in SME competitiveness in the food and drink industry', International Journal of Entrepreneurship & Innovation, Vol.15, No.3, pp. 179-190.
Lean, J., Moizer, J. and Newbery, R. (2014) ‘Enhancing the Impact of Online Simulations through Blended Learning: a Critical Incident Approach’, Education & Training, Vol. 56., No. 2/3, pp. 208-218.
Cresswell, C., Moizer, J.D. and Lean, J. (2014) ‘The Role of Organizational Culture in the Merger of an English Local Authority into a Single Unitary Authority’ Local Government Studies, Vol.40, No.3, pp. 356-379. DOI 10.1080/03003930.2013.787413
Lean, J. (2012) 'Preparing for an uncertain future: the enterprising PhD student', Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol.19, No.3, pp.532-548.
Kasturiratne, D., Lean, J. and Phippen, A. (2012) ‘International enterprise education in Sri Lanka: a blended approach’ , Education & Training, Vol. 54, No. 4, pp.306 - 318.
Moizer, J. and Lean, J. (2010) ‘Toward Endemic Deployment of Educational Simulation Games: A Review of Progress and Future Recommendations’ Simulation & Gaming, Vol. 41, No.1, pp. 116-131.
Perry, J., Badger, B., Lean, J. and Leybourne, S. (2010) Taking over the reins: the needs of individuals who purchase small established enterprises, International Journal of Entrepreneurship & Innovation, Vol. 11, No.1, pp. 57-68.
Moizer, J., Lean, J., Towler, M. and Abbey, C. (2009) 'Simulations and Games: Overcoming the Barriers to their Use in Higher Education', Active Learning in Higher Education, Vol.10, No.3, pp.207-224.
Towler, M., Lean, J. and Moizer, J. (2009) 'An exploration of student perception of a business simulation game', International Journal of Management Education, Vol.7, No.2, pp.69-79.
Moizer, J., Lean, J., Towler, M. and Smith, G. (2007) 'Using causal loop diagramming to represent the factors affecting learning for students using a business simulation game', ESIC Market Economic and Business Journal, Vol.123, No2, pp. 161-177.
Lean, J., Moizer, J., Towler, M. and Abbey, C. (2006) 'Simulations and Games: Use and Barriers in Higher Education', Active Learning in Higher Education, Vol.7, No.3, pp.227-242.
Moizer, J., Lean, J., Towler, M. and Smith, G. (2006) 'Modes of learning in the use of a computer-based business simulation game', International Journal of Learning Technology, Vol.2, No.1, pp.49-61.
Lean, J. and Tucker, J. (2005) ‘Evolving a regionally based mechanism for the provision of technical knowledge to SMES: Lessons for Policy’ Industry and Higher Education, Vol.19, No.4, pp.125-132.
Megicks, P., Mishra, A. and Lean, J. (2005) ‘Enhancing microfinance outreach through market-oriented new service development in Indian regional rural banks' International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol.23, No.1, pp.107-125.
Moizer, J., Lean, J., Smith, G. and Towler, M. (2004) ‘Experiences of Using a Business Strategy Simulation: Lessons for Promoting Effective Learning’ International Journal of Management Education, Vol.4, No.1, pp.19-27.
Tucker, J. and Lean, J. (2003) ‘Editorial: Redefining Knowledge Boundaries between the Public and Private Sector’ Journal of Finance and Management in Public Services, Vol.3, No.2, pp.9-13.
Tucker, J. and Lean, J. (2003) ‘Small Firm Finance and Public Policy’ Small Business and Enterprise Development Journal, Vol.10, No.1, pp.50-61.
Hudson,M. Lean, J. and Smart,P.A. (2001) "Improving Control through Effective Performance Measurement in SMEs" Production Planning and Control, Vol. 12 No 8, pp.804-813.
Lean, J. and Tucker, J. (2001) ‘Information asymmetry, small firm finance and the role of government’ Journal of Finance and Management in Public Services, Vol.1, No.1, pp.43-62.
Sadler-Smith, E., Down, S. and Lean, J. (2000) '"Modern” learning methods: rhetoric and reality', Personnel Review, Vol.29, No.4, pp.474-490.
Lean. J., Down, S. & Sadler-Smith, E. (1999) ‘An examination of the developing role of Personal Business Advisors within Business Link’, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy,Vol.17, pp.609-619.
Lean. J., Down, S. & Sadler-Smith, E. (1999) ‘The nature of the client-PBA relationship within Business Link’ Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol.6, No.1, pp.80-88. Nominated for the Bill Richardson Memorial Prize
Lean, J. (1998) ‘Training and business development support for micro businesses in a peripheral area’ Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 22, No.6, pp.231-237.
Lean, J. (1998) ‘Micro business growth and the provision of support services in peripheral areas’ Local Economy, Vol. 13, No.1, pp. 65-71.
Kearney, A., Walsh, P., Byrne, D., Moizer, J., Lean, J., Di Ferdinando, A., Miglino, O., Friedrich, R., Asperges, R. & Thomson, E. (2016) 'Using Online Role-playing Games for Entrepreneurship Training' in Rooney P; Whitton N Game-based learning and the power of play : exploring evidence, challenges and future directions, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 49-81 Open access
Mishra, A., Igwe, P., Lean, J. and Megicks, P. (2014) 'Microfinance: Supporting Micro and Small Businesses' in Harrison, T. and Hooman, E. (Eds) The Routledge Companion to Financial Services Marketing
Lean, J. and Moizer J.D. (2010) ‘Using Oral Debriefing to Assess Student Learning in a Business Simulation Game’ in Atfield, R. and Kemp, P. (Eds) Enhancing the Learning Through Assessment, pp.123-130, Higher Education Academy: Oxford.
Sadler-Smith, E. and Lean, J. (2004) The Practice of Human Resource Development (HRD) in Smaller Firms. In J. Stewart and G. Beaver (Eds.) Human Resource Development in Small Organisations: research and practice, London, Routledge [ISBN 0415299608]
Lean, J., Mangles, T. and Moizer, J. (1999) ‘Computing and information systems for business students’ in Ahmet, K. and Fallows, S. (Eds) Inspiring Students, Kogan Page: London [ISBN 0749428724]
White, J., Lean, J., Gorton, M. & Chaston, I. (1996) ‘Overcoming sub-optimal entrepreneurial training & development in Eastern Europe’ in Rosa, P., Scott, M. and Klandt, H. (Eds) Educating Entrepreneurs in Modernising Economies. Avebury: Aldershot [ISBN 1859721842]
Newbery, R., Lean, J. and Moizer, J. (2015) Entrepreneurial Identity Formation and the Initial Enterprise Education Intervention, Academy of Management 2015 Annual Meeting, Vancouver, Canada
Mohamed Zabri, S., Ahma, K. and Lean, J. (2014) 'Owner/Managers’ Financing Preferences and the Proportion of Firms’ Capital Structure: Evidence from Successful SMEs in Malaysia', International Conference on Business Strategy and Social Sciences, 16-17 August 2014, Kuala Lumpa, Malaysia.
Mohamed Zabri, S. and Lean, J. (2014) 'SME managers’ financing preferences: the case of successful SMEs in Malaysia', 5th Asia-Pacific Business Research Conference , 17-18 February 2014 , Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Siu, Y.B., Heffernan, T. and Lean, J. (2013) 'Success and Failure Factors of FDI in Transnational Education', British Academy of Management, Liverpool, September 2013.
Chlupsa, C., Dohl, W., Lean, J. and Hanoch, Y. (2013) 'The Impact of Implicit Motives on the Business to Business Decision Making Process' NeuroPsychoEconomics Conference, Bonn, June 2013.
Keary, A., Walsh, P., O’Byrne, D., Moizer, J., Lean, J., Di Ferdinando, A. and Simona Sica, L. (2013) 'Using Online-Role-Play-Games for Entrepreneurship Training', Irish Symposium on Games Based Learning, Dublin, June 2013
Newbery, R, Lean, J, Moizer, J, and Whisker, P. (2013) 'Does Business Simulation Affect Entrepreneurial Intent in Undergraduates?' European Foundation for Management Development Entrepreneurship Conference, Madrid, March 2013
Moizer J., Dell’Aquila E. and Lean, J. (2012) ‘Promoting Soft Skills in Social Enterprises: An Online Role Play Simulation Approach’ 10th Teaching and Learning Conference, Plymouth, UK, July 2012.
Dell'Aquila, E., Lean, J. and Moizer, J. (2011) 'E-learning through Role-Play Simulation within Social Enterprises', VIII Convegno dell'Associazione Italiana di Scienze Cognitive, Milan, December 2011
Moizer, J. and Lean J. (2011) ‘Ideas for Using Critical Incidents in Oral Debriefing from a Business Strategy Simulation Game’ 10th European Conference on e-Learning ECEL-2011, Brighton, UK, Nov 2011.
Duckett , H., Moizer J., de Andrés Martínez, C., Lean, J. and Heffernan, T. (2011) ‘Inspiring Futures – Exploring the Adoption of Digital Technology in Curriculum Transformation’ BMAF Annual Conference, Bournemouth, UK, May 2011.
Duckett , H., Moizer J., Lean, J., de Andrés Martínez, C. and Heffernan, T. (2011) ‘Inspiring Futures – Exploring the Adoption of Digital Technology in First Year Curriculum Transformation’ 9th Teaching and Learning Conference, Plymouth, UK, July 2011.
Kearns, S. and Lean, J. (2009) 'Plymouth PhD Enterprise Skills Project', Vitae Researcher Development Conference, Warwick, UK, Sept 2009
Lean, J. & Hotchkiss, D. (2009) 'Embedding Enterprise in the Curriculum: Perspectives from Arts and Business' , 7th Teaching & Learning Conference, Plymouth, UK, July 2009
Lean, J. and Tucker, J. (2004) ‘Evolving a regionally based mechanism for the provision of technical knowledge to SMES: Lessons for Policy’ Paper presented at the ACIPFAL / JFMPS Conference, Newcastle Upon Tyne, June 2004
Megicks, P., Mishra, A. and Lean, J.(2003) ‘Understanding Microfinance Institution (MFI) Outreach Performance: A Market-Orientated Perspective’ International Council for Small Business 48th World Conference, June, Belfast.
Hudson, M., Lean, J. and Smart, P.A. (2001) ‘Developing a continuous strategic improvement capability in SMEs’, Paper presented at the 16th International Conference on Production Research, July, Praha Czech Republic.
Moizer, J.D., Lean, J., Mangles, T. and Warren, M. (2000) ‘Teaching Introductory Management Using a Computer Simulation Game’ The International Conference on Systems Thinking in Management 2000, November, Geelong, Australia.
Lean, J. and Tucker, J. (2000) ‘Information asymmetry and the small firm’ Proceedings of the Institute of Small Business Affairs Conference, November, Aberdeen.
Hudson, M. Lean, J. Smart, P.A. and Bourne M. (2000)"A Question of Context: The Barriers to Strategic Performance Measurement System Development in SMEs" POM Facing the New Millennium: Proceedings of the 1st World Conference on Production and Operations Management, University of Seville, Seville, Spain.
Hudson, M., Smart, P. A., Bourne, M.and Lean, J. (2000) ‘Only Just Managing – No Time to Measure’ Performance Measurement 2000 Conference, Cranfield University, UK.
Warren, M., Lean, J., Swain, M. and Plumb, G. (1999) ‘A European Approach to Virtual IT Security Training for SMEs’ 2nd International Conference on Managing Enterprises, November, Newcastle Australia.
Warren, M., Lean, J., Swain, M. and Plumb, G. (1999) ‘IT security training for SMEs via the internet’, Euromedia ’99 Conference, April, Munich.
Down, S. and Lean, J. (1999) 'Lessons from England: the development of small firms policy’ American Academy of Management Conference, July, Chicago.
Lean, J., Warren, M., Plumb, G. and Moizer, J. (1998) ‘Developing a management learning programme for telematic delivery: IT security training and ADAPT Through RATIO’ paper presented at the Innovation and Change: Providing flexible approaches to management learning conference, September, Bolton.
Down, S., Lean, J. and Sadler-Smith, E. (1997) ‘SME Support Services: TECs and the influence of the supply side’ paper presented at the 20th ISBA National Small Firms Policy and Research Conference, November, Belfast.
Lean. J., Down, S. & Sadler-Smith, E. (1997) ‘An examination of the developing role of Personal Business Advisors within Business Link’ paper presented at the 20th ISBA National Small Firms Policy and Research Conference, November, Belfast. Nominated for Best Paper Prize
Lean, J. (1996) ‘Developing Support to Facilitate Post Start-Up Micro Firm Growth’ paper presented at the 19th ISBA National Small Firms Policy and Research Conference, November, Birmingham.
Lean, J. and Chaston, I. (1995) 'Critical influences upon the growth performance of post start-up micro businesses: evidendence from Devon and Cornwall', Small Business and Enterprise Develeopment Conference, April, Leeds.
Gorton, M., White, J., Lean, J. and Chaston, I. (1994) ‘Devising Training Strategies for Developing Professional Core Competencies in Eastern European SMEs’ paper presented at the Professionalism in Central and Eastern Europe Conference, December, Leeds.
White, J., Lean, J., Gorton, M. and Chaston, I. (1994) ‘Overcoming Sub-Optimal Entrepreneurial Training and Development in Eastern Europe’ paper presented at the 4th Internationalising Entrepreneurship Education and Training Conference, July, Stirling.
Tucker, J. and Lean, J. (2001) Micro-credit in a UK Context, ACCA Research Report No. 66, ACCA, London [ISBN: 1859083420]
Moizer J., Duckett , H., Lean, J., de Andrés Martínez, C. and Heffernan, T. (2011) ‘Inspiring Futures – Exploring the Adoption of Digital Technology in Curriculum Transformation’ Play’ BMAF Magazine, Issue 12, Spring 2011.
Lean, J. (2010) 'The Role of Plymouth in the Regional Economy' presentation at British Council Enterprise Summit and Policy Dialogue, Colombo - Sri Lanka, March 2010
Lean, J. (2009) 'How to Produce Enterprising Graduates', University of Plymouth Teaching & Learning Conference, 2009
Barton, A., Lean, J., Williams, M. and Wright, M. (Eds.) 'Proceedings of the Faculty of Social Science and Business Postgraduate Symposium', March 2007
Barton, A. and Lean, J. (Eds.) 'Proceedings of the PBS and SPL Postgraduate Symposium', January 2006
Lean, J., Moizer, J.D., Towler, M. and Abbey, C. (2005) ‘The Use of Simulation and Gaming for Teaching and Learning’ Developments in Economics and Business Education Conference 2005, Cambridge, UK, Sep 2005.
Reports & invited lectures
Visiting lecturer: MIB Trieste, Italy; University of Colombo, Sri Lanka; University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka
International Entrepreneurship Educators Conference, Sept 2012 - member of organising committee
European Conference on Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 2008 to present - member of conference committee
Faculty of Social Science & Business Postgraduate Symposium, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 - member of organising committee