Dr Zoe Brookes
Associate Professor of Dental Education and Research
Dr Raul Bescos Garcia
Lecturer in Dietetics (Physiology Specialist)
Dr Louise Belfield
Associate Professor of Biomedical and Oral Health Sciences (Education)
Mr Ewen McColl
Director of Clinical Dentistry
Dr Patricia Casas Agustench
Lecturer in Nutrition
Dr Ness Marques Avery
Clinical Lecturer in Dental Education
Professor Robert Witton
Professor of Community Dentistry
Mr Timothy O'Brien
Clin Assoc Prof in Restorative Dentistry (Education)/Prog Lead in Periodontology
Mrs Louise Carr
Research Assistant to Dental Clinics
Dr Michele Kiernan
Senior Technician in Soil Microbiology
Miss Hailey Gill
Clinical Supervisor (Hygienist/Therapist)
Miss Amazon Doble
Miss Lisa du Toit
Professor Christopher Tredwin
Professor of Restorative Dentistry & Head of Peninsula Dental School
Dr Yen Ming Lin
Clinical Lecturer in Dental Education
Recent publications and new advances
Appropriate clinical use of Chlorhexidine; a mouthwash that altersthe diversity of the oral microbiome, the acidity of the oral environment and bloodpressure via nitrate reducing bacteria.
Bescos R, Ashworth A, Cutler C. et al. Effects of Chlorhexidinemouthwash on the oral microbiome. SciRep 2020 10; 5254.https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-61912-4
Brookes ZLS, Bescos R, Belfield LA, Ali K, Roberts A. Currentuses of chlorhexidine for management of oral disease: a narrative review. JDent 2020, 103:103497. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7567658/
Advising the general public on appropriate mouthwash use:
Discovering new mechanisms by which the oral microbiome and diet contribute to cardiovascular health
Ashworth A, Cutler C, Farnham G, Liddle L, Burleigh M, Rodiles A, Sillitti C, Kiernan M, Moore M, Hickson M, Easton C, Bescos R. Dietary intake of inorganic nitrate in vegetarians and omnivores and its impact on blood pressure, resting metabolic rate and the oral microbiome. Free Radic Biol Med 2019;138:63-72.
Shifting opinions from ‘killing’ bacteria to ‘balancing’ microbiological ecosystems.
The entero-salivary nitrate reducing pathway may be a causal mechanism linking oral and cardiovascular health, as oral bacteria converting nitrate to nitrite from green leafy vegetables produces nitric oxide that decreases blood pressure and maintains homeostasis.
Brookes ZLS, Belfield LA, Ashworth A,Casas-Agustench P, Raja M, Pollard AJ, Bescos R. Effects of chlorhexidinemouthwash on the oral microbiome. J Dent. 2021; 113:103768.
Peninsula Dental School advising general dentists in primary care how to become involved in dental research.
Brookes Z, Mills I, Witton R. et al. Top tips for incorporating research. Br Dent J 232, 427–429 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41415-022-4185-y
Translational research and clinical trials
Blood pressure screening in primary care within Peninsula Dental Social Enterprise
Improving access to care and developing integrated care systems at the dentists.
These clinics are currently running for patients attending PDSE dental clinics in Devonport, offering blood pressure measurement by clinicians in areas of social deprivation, as well as offering other health checks (cholesterol, BMI, lifestyle assessment) at the dentists.
Working with the Office of the Chief Dental Officer on commissioning of blood pressure screening at the dentists - making every contact count; our work spreads to other sites:
BMJ Leader blog: Alone we are strong, together we are stronger by Shabir Shivji
Oral health care packages in primary care dental practices
Leading on developing primary care research networks in dentistry.
ENHANCE-D is a multicentre £2.8m national clinical trial, led by the University of Newcastle and funded by the National Institute of Health and Care Research (NIHR), being one of the largest clinical trials to be conducted in primary care dentistry. Plymouth is one of seven national hubs overseeing primary care dental practices to take providing ‘healthcare advice packages’ to patients that attend the dentists, with two practices/sites running within dental school clinics (PDSE) and support provided by the South West NIHR Clinical Research network (CRN).
Discovering new approaches to improving women’s health via oral health
Clinical trials are taking place in both primary and secondary care investigating the links between periodontal disease, the oral microbiome and pre-eclampsia, as part of an NIHR CRN cross-discipline collaboration with Obstetrics and Gynaecology, funded by the Trustees of Plymouth Hospitals.
Oral microbiome dysbiosis linked to hypertension
Leading on discovery science linking the oral microbiome and cardiovascular health.
Blood pressure clinics in PDSE primary care dental clinics, are also supporting clinical research trials investigating links between the oral microbiome / periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease in a dental primary care setting. Patients samples are used in Dr Bescos’ laboratory to facilitate oral microbiome metagenomic analysis and biochemical analysis of nitrate, nitrite and lactate in different oral niches. These projects have been expanded internationally to work with the University of Barcelona, University of Rwanda, and the University of Qatar Dental Schools.
Novel mouthwashes maintaining the oral microbiome and cardiovascular health
Discovering new mouthwashes.
This clinical trial has successfully used propolis (a substance used to waterproof hives) as a novel mouthwash to improve gingival health and balance the oral microbiome, with resulting decreases in blood pressure. There have been interesting results so far and could be superior to existing products which focus on ‘killing’ bacteria; Read the press article.
Pathogenic bacteria within the brain originating from the oral cavity
Improving cognitive health by discovering how oral bacteria get into the brain.
These pilot clinical studies in collaboration with Plymouth Hospitals have determined that pathogenic oral bacteria may be present in cerebral abscesses of previously unknown source. Roy et al, J Dent 2022 In press.
PDSE has also been a site for the Phase 2/3 trial on GAIN inhibitors which inhibit P Gingivalis entry into the brain of Alzheimer’s patients, which may ultimately improve the pathogenesis of disease.
Oral microbiome and hypertension
Applicants are invited for a 3 year self-funded PhD, including bench fees, to analyse how oral microbiome dysbiosis may be relate to systemic hypertension. It is already known that the activity of nitrate-reducing oral bacteria (bacteria’s ability to convert nitrate into nitrite, maintaining lower blood pressure), is altered in people with hypertension and this mechanism will be explored using physiological methods, as a well as with metagenomic assessment of the microbiome. It will thus be both a laboratory based and clinical study working with people with hypertension.
Oral microbiome and novel mouthwashes
Applicants are invited for a 3 year self-funded PhD, including bench fees, to analyse how novel mouthwashes alter the oral microbiome in the context of oral disease, namely periodontal disease. Thus far, our data suggests that certain mouthwashes may promote a detrimental dysbiotic environment. We are now testing novel antimicrobial agents and ‘natural’ probiotic compounds that have the potential to promote oral health, via the promotion of a diverse and balanced oral microbiome. It will be both a laboratory-based study, using metagenomics, and a clinical study working with patients for oral sampling, oral screening and physiological measurements.
Links between oral and systemic disease: primary care dental research
Applicants are invited for a 3 year self-funded PhD, including bench fees, to analyse the oral microbiome is altered in systemic diseases. We have supervisor expertise in the areas of Alzheimer’s disease, oral cancer, the pathophysiology of smoking, antibiotics and Women’s health (including pregnancy and pre-eclampsia), so could offer clinical, translational and laboratory based oral microbiome projects, or investigation of periodontal disease, in any of these fields, depending on the supervisor. We have recently set up health screening clinics at the dentists and thus have many unexplored opportunities to undertake primary care dental research at the University of Plymouth.
Dietetics services at the dentist
Applicants are invited for a 3 year self-funded PhD, including bench fees undertake research looking at the effect of food on oral health and the integration of the dietitian into the dental practice. The projects will combine a wide range of research approaches such as dietary questionnaires and dietary interventions, dental health measurements and laboratory analyses.
Current collaborators, with thanks
Professor Mary Hickson, Professor in Dietetics, School of Health Professions, University of Plymouth, UK
Professor Chris Easton, University of West Scotland, UK
Professor Toni Gabaldon, Institute of Research in Biomedicine, Barcelona, Spain
Professor Robert Freeman, Obstetrics and Gynaecology Consultant, Univeisity of Plymouth teaching Hospital
Dr Holly Roy, Clinical Lecturer in Neurosurgery, Peninsula Medical School, University of Plymouth
Dr Ify Offiah, Obstetrics and Gynaecology Registrar, University of Bristol teaching Hospital
Dr Richard Holliday, Senior Lecturer and Consultant in Restorative Dentistry, University of Newcastle
Dr Agnes Gatarayiha, Deputy Dean of Dental School, University of Rwanda
Professor Kamran Ali, Professor of Oral Surgery, University of Qatar
We would like to thank the following organisations for funding University of Plymouth Oral Microbiome Research
Plymouth Institute of Health and Care Research
Our work is grounded in the needs of the people of the South West and other rural, coastal, and deprived communities worldwide, but PIHR’s research has national and international reach and impact.