Dr Zoe Brookes

Dr Zoe Brookes

Associate Professor of Dental Education and Research

Peninsula Dental School (Faculty of Health)



Clinical Lecturer in Dental Undergraduate Studies
BDS and BSc DTH Year 2 Lead

Zoe is currently employed at the University of Plymouth as Clinical Lecturer in Undergraduate Dental Studies and is Year 2 Lead for the Bachelor of Dental Surgery course, as well as module lead for Dental Hygiene and Therapy Developing Clinical Practice 1 and 2. She is currently investigating the mechanisms linking oral health and systemic disease, having established and now co-leading the the Plymouth Oral Microbiome Research Group. Her particularly interests within this group are the links between the oral microbiome and blood pressure control (hypertension and pre-eclampsia), as well as the effects of anti-microbial mouth washes. She has also previously published extensively in the field of sepsis, identifying microvascular endothelial cell mechanisms and pharmacological agents that improved blood flow and reduced inflammation during sepsis.  

Zoe originally graduated with a BSc in Physiology and Pharmacology, after which she gained a PhD investigating the role of anaesthetics within the microcirculation, both from the University of Sheffield, ultimately becoming a Non-Clinical Lecturer and Principal Investigator there. Before this she also worked at the University of Alberta in the Department of Physiology as a Postdoctoral Research Fellow, funded by the National Institute for Health Research. Since graduating in dentistry from Plymouth University Zoe has practised in clinics in the city and still works part-time as Dental Associate within the NHS.


PhD, PCHE, SFHEA, MJDF (RCS, Eng), BDS, BSc (Hons)

2016- present: Clinical Lecturer of Dental undergraduate Studies, Year 2 Lead BScDTH, Peninsula Dental School, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Plymouth, UK (0.8FTE)
2015 - present: General Dentist, Plymouth, UK (0.2FTE) 
2009 - 2010: Honorary Lecturer, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Sheffield, UK   
2002 - 2009: Lecturer/Principal Investigator for Microcirculation, Sepsis and Anaesthesia Research Group, University of Sheffield, UK 
2000 - 2002: Postdoctoral Fellow (NIHR/CIHR), Department of Physiology, HMRC, University of Alberta, Canada
1999 - 2000: Postdoctoral Research Associate, Department of Surgical and Anaesthetic Sciences, University of Sheffield, UK 


2014 - 2015: DF1 training, Plymouth Scheme
2010 - 2014: BDS Peninsula School of Medicine and Dentistry, Universites of Plymouth and Exeter, UK 
1995 - 1999: PhD Effects of intravenous anaesthesia on the microcirculation in vivo. University of Sheffield, UK 
1996 - 1998: Postgraduate Certificate in Higher Education, University of Sheffield, UK 
1992 - 1995: BSc Hons Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Sheffield, UK

Professional membership

GDC 252112

British Dental Association 

International Association for Dental Research 

British Vascular Biology and Microcirculation Society

Roles on external bodies

External Programme Examiner for BMedSci (intercalated research degree), School of Medicine, University of Sheffield

CRN NIHR Oral and Dental sub Specialty Lead, South West and Wales  

CRN Primary Care Dental Champion, South West and Wales 



Teaching interests

Undergraduate small and large group teaching, plenaries and curriculum design for BDS and BSc DTH courses

Postgraduate teaching and supervision, including PhD students, in areas of research interest and expertise 

Interested in research relating to inter-professional education and enquiry based learning (EBL)

Areas of interest for teaching: cardiovascular physiology and pharmacology, systemic inflammatory diseases, oral microbiology and immunology



Research interests

Plymouth Oral Microbiome research Group (Bescos, Belfield, Brookes): effects of oral health systemic disease, focussing on the oral microbiome

See latest publication invesitigating the effects of chlorhexidine mouthwash on the oral microbiome

Effects of sepsis on endothelial cells and the microcirculation 




Ali K, Gupta P, Turay E, Burns L, Brookes Z, Raja M. Dentistry in a multi-cultural society: Impact of animal-based products on person-centred care. British Dental Journal 2021 In Press.

Ali K, Venkatasami N, Zahra D, Brookes Z, Kisielewska J. Evaluation of sepsis teaching for medical and dental students at a British University. Eur J Dent Educ. 2021 Jun 15. doi: 10.1111/eje.12702.

Brookes ZLS, Bescos R, Belfield LA, Ali K, Roberts A. Current uses of chlorhexidine for management of oral disease: a narrative review. J Dent. 2020;103:103497. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2020.103497

Bescos, R., Ashworth, A., Cutler, C., Brookes, Z. L., Belfield, L., Rodiles, A., . . . Hickson, M. (2020). Effects of Chlorhexidine mouthwash on the oral microbiome. Scientific Reports, 10(1). doi:10.1038/s41598-020-61912-4

Bescos R, Brookes Z, Belfield L, Fenandez-Sanjuro M, Casas-Agustench P. Modulation of oral microbiota: A new frontier in exercise supplementation. PharmaNutrition 14 2020: 100230.

Bescos, R., Casas-Agustench, P., Belfield, L., Brookes, Z., & Gabaldón, T. (2020). Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Emerging and Future Challenges for Dental and Oral Medicine. Journal of Dental Research, 002203452093214. doi:10.1177/0022034520932149

Zahra, D., Bennett, J., Belfield, L., Ali, K., McIlwaine, C., Bruce, M., . . . Zaric, S. (2019). Effect of Constant versus Variable Small-Group Facilitators on Student Basic Science Knowledge in an Enquiry-Based Dental Curriculum. European Journal of Dental Education. doi:10.1111/eje.12451

McIlwaine, C., Brookes, Z. L. S., Zahra, D., Ali, K., Zaric, S., Jones, G., & Belfield, L. A. (2019). A novel, integrated curriculum for dental hygiene-therapists and dentists. British Dental Journal, 226, 67. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bdj.2019.10

McGown, C. C., Brookes, Z. L. S., Hellewell, P. G., Ross, J. J., & Brown, N. J. (2015). Atorvastatin reduces endotoxin-induced microvascular inflammation via NOSII. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, 388(5), 557-564. doi:10.1007/s00210-015-1100-y

Alfieri, A., Ong, A. C. M., Kammerer, R. A., Solanky, T., Bate, S., Tasab, M., . . . Brookes, Z. L. (2014). Angiopoietin-1 regulates microvascular reactivity and protects the microcirculation during acute endothelial dysfunction: Role of eNOS and VE-cadherin. Pharmacological Research, 80, 43-51. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2013.12.008

Brookes, Z. L. S., Stedman, E. N., Brown, N. J., Hebbes, C. P., Guerrini, R., Calo, G., . . . Lambert, D. G. (2013). The Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ Receptor Antagonist UFP-101 Reduces Microvascular Inflammation to Lipopolysaccharide In Vivo. PLoS ONE, 8(9), e74943. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074943

Brookes, Z. L. S., Ruff, L., Upadhyay, V. S., Huang, L., Prasad, S., Solanky, T., . . . Ong, A. C. M. (2013). Pkd2 mesenteric vessels exhibit a primary defect in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation restored by rosiglitazone. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 304(1), H33-H41. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.01102.2011

Brookes, Z. L. S. (2013). Pharmacological modulation of cardiac function and blood vessel calibre. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine, 14(1), 27-31. doi:10.1016/j.mpaic.2012.11.002

Lawton, B. K., Brown, N. J., Reilly, C. S., & Brookes, Z. L. S. (2012). Role of L-type calcium channels in altered microvascular responses to propofol in hypertension. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 108(6), 929-935. doi:10.1093/bja/aes069

Reeves, K. J., Brookes, Z. L. S., Reed, M. W. R., & Brown, N. J. (2012). Evaluation of Fluorescent Plasma Markers for in vivo Microscopy of the Microcirculation. Journal of Vascular Research, 49(2), 132-143. doi:10.1159/000331281

Alfieri, A., Watson, J. J., Kammerer, R. A., Tasab, M., Progias, P., Reeves, K., . . . Brookes, Z. L. (2012). Angiopoietin-1 variant reduces LPS-induced microvascular dysfunction in a murine model of sepsis. Critical Care, 16(5), R182. doi:10.1186/cc11666

McGown, C. C., Brown, N. J., Hellewell, P. G., & Brookes, Z. L. S. (2011). ROCK induced inflammation of the microcirculation during endotoxemia mediated by nitric oxide synthase. Microvascular Research, 81(3), 281-288. doi:10.1016/j.mvr.2011.02.003

Debono, M., Sheppard, L., Irving, S., Jackson, P., Butterworth, J., Brookes, Z. L. S., . . . Ross, R. J. (2011). Assessing adrenal status in patients before and immediately after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. European Journal of Endocrinology, 164(3), 413-419. doi:10.1530/eje-10-0996

Mansart, A., Ruff, L. J., Ariaans, M. P., Ross, J. J., Reilly, C. S., Brown, N. J., . . . Brookes, Z. L. S. (2010). Constriction of rat extra-splenic veins to lipopolysaccharide involves endothelin-1. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, 381(6), 555-562. doi:10.1007/s00210-010-0514-9

Brookes, Z. L. S. (2010). Pharmacological modulation of cardiac function and blood vessel calibre. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine, 11(2), 78-82. doi:10.1016/j.mpaic.2009.10.018

McGown, C. C., Brown, N. J., Hellewell, P. G., Reilly, C. S., & Brookes, Z. L. S. (2010). Beneficial microvascular and anti-inflammatory effects of pravastatin during sepsis involve nitric oxide synthase III. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 104(2), 183-190. doi:10.1093/bja/aep361

Scicluna, J. K., Mansart, A., Ross, J. J., Reilly, C. S., Brown, N. J., & Brookes, Z. L. S. (2009). Lipopolysaccharide alters vasodilation to atrial natriuretic peptide via nitric oxide and endothelin-1: Time-dependent effects. European Journal of Pharmacology, 621(1-3), 67-70. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.08.029

Brookes, Z. L. S., Mansart, A., McGown, C. C., Ross, J. J., Reilly, C. S., & Brown, N. J. (2009). Macromolecular Leak from Extrasplenic Lymphatics during Endotoxemia. Lymphatic Research and Biology, 7(3), 131-137. doi:10.1089/lrb.2008.1019

Chamberlain, J., Francis, S., Brookes, Z., Shaw, G., Graham, D., Alp, N. J., . . . Crossman, D. C. (2009). Interleukin-1 Regulates Multiple Atherogenic Mechanisms in Response to Fat Feeding. PLoS ONE, 4(4), e5073. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005073

Brookes, Z. L. S., McGown, C. C., & Reilly, C. S. (2009). Statins for all: the new premed?. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 103(1), 99-107. doi:10.1093/bja/aep149

Mansart A, Ross JJ, Reilly CS, Brown NJ, Brookes ZLS. Lipopolysaccahride abolishes extra-splenic vasoconstriction to atrial natriuretic peptide: the role of nitric oxide and endothelin-1. Shock 2008; 29(6):675-80. 10.1097/shk.0b013e31815811a3

Scicluna J, Mansart A, Ross JJ, Reilly CS, Brown NJ, Brookes ZLS. Diminished contraction of rat peripheral arteries to phenylephrine,during exposure to lipopolysaccharide in vitro, involves nitric oxide and endothelin-1. Shock 2008; 29(3):417-21.10.1097/shk.0b013e318142c5df

Chamberlain, J., Francis, S., Brookes, Z., Shaw, G., Graham, D., Alp, N. J., . . . Crossman, D. C. (2009.). Interleukin-1 Regulates Multiple Atherogenic Mechanisms in Response to Fat Feeding. PLoS ONE, 4(4), e5073. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005073

Brookes, Z. L. S., Stedman, E. N., Guerrini, R., Lawton, B. K., Calo, G., & Lambert, D. G. (2007). Proinflammatory and vasodilator effects of nociceptin/orphanin FQ in the rat mesenteric microcirculation are mediated by histamine. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 293(5), H2977-H2985. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00448.2007

McGown, C. C., & Brookes, Z. L. S. (2007). Beneficial effects of statins on the microcirculation during sepsis: the role of nitric oxide. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 98(2), 163-175. doi:10.1093/bja/ael358

Brookes, Z. L. S., Reilly, C. S., Lawton, B. K., & Brown, N. J. (2006). Intravenous anesthesia inhibits leukocyte-endothelial interactions and expression of cd11b after hemorrhage. Shock, 25(5), 492-499. doi:10.1097/01.shk.0000209541.76305.8e

Li, Y., Brookes, Z. L. S., & Kaufman, S. (2005). Acute and chronic effects of relaxin on vasoactivity, myogenic reactivity and compliance of the rat mesenteric arterial and venous vasculature. Regulatory Peptides, 132(1-3), 41-46. doi:10.1016/j.regpep.2005.09.009

Hall, E., & Brookes, Z. L. S. (2005). Angiopoietin-1 increases arteriolar vasoconstriction to phenylephrine during sepsis. Regulatory Peptides, 131(1-3), 34-37. doi:10.1016/j.regpep.2005.06.006

Dhawan, V., Brookes, Z. L. S., & Kaufman, S. (2005). Repeated pregnancies (multiparity) increases venous tone and reduces compliance. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 289(1), R23-R28. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00034.2005

Brookes, Z. L. S., & Kaufman, S. (2005). Effects of atrial natriuretic peptide on the extrasplenic microvasculature and lymphatics in the rat in vivo. The Journal of Physiology, 565(1), 269-277. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2005.083147

Dhawan, V., Brookes, Z., & Kaufman, S. (2004). Long-term effects of repeated pregnancies (multiparity) on blood pressure regulation. Cardiovascular Research, 64(1), 179-186. doi:10.1016/j.cardiores.2004.06.018

Brookes, Z. L., Reilly, C. S., & Brown, N. J. (2004). Differential effects of propofol, ketamine, and thiopental anaesthesia on the skeletal muscle microcirculation of normotensive and hypertensive rats in vivo. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 93(2), 249-256. doi:10.1093/bja/aeh190

Brookes, Z. L. S., & Kaufman, S. (2003). Myogenic responses and compliance of mesenteric and splenic vasculature in the rat. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 284(6), R1604-R1610. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00411.2002

Brookes, Z. L. S., Brown, N. J., & Reilly, C. S. (2003). The Dose-Dependent Effects of Fentanyl on Rat Skeletal Muscle Microcirculation In Vivo. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 96(2), 456-462. doi:10.1097/00000539-200302000-00030

Brookes, Z. L. S., Brown, N. J., & Reilly, C. S. (2002). Response of the Rat Cremaster Microcirculation to Hemorrhage In Vivo: Differential Effects of Intravenous Anesthetic Agents. Shock, 18(6), 542-548. doi:10.1097/00024382-200212000-00010

Brookes, Z. L. S., Brown, N. J., & Reilly, C. S. (2002). Differential effects of intravenous anaesthetic agents on the response of rat mesenteric microcirculation in vivo after haemorrhage. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 88(2), 255-263. doi:10.1093/bja/88.2.255

Brookes, Z. L. S., Brown, N. J., & Reilly, C. S. (2000). Intravenous anaesthesia and the rat microcirculation: the Dorsal Microcirculatory Chamber. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 85(6), 901-903. doi:10.1093/bja/85.6.901


Brookes ZL (2015). Pharmacological modulation of blood vessel calibre: Basic and advanced sciences for anaesthetic practice: prepare for the FRCA: Key articles from the Medicine and Intensive Care Journal. Elsevier, Ed. Nicholas Page