Centre for Health Technology

Digital health technologies

A wide range of digital health technologies can prevent ill-health, promote well-being and support the delivery of health and social care. This includes smartphone apps, wearable devices (transformed to THINKables when data are analysed at the point of sensing to inform real-time responsiveness), smart home devices and environmental sensors, virtual reality, care robotics and platforms that provide remote healthcare (telehealth). As the uptake of such technology increases, the potential of artificial intelligence (and associated machine learning and national language to monitor individual patient risk, design intelligent triggers and support health care decision making will also escalate.
eHealth EPIC technology robots

Digital health applications (apps)

The consumer market for digital health apps is surging, with over 350,000 products now available. The market was undoubtedly stimulated by the Covid19 pandemic, consumers independently searching for products to support their mental and physical health. However, the quality and effectiveness of available apps varies enormously, relatively few having been subject to rigorous testing and evaluation. CHT has a long history (from our prize-winning epSMon app) of both co-designing and evaluating health apps with patients, clinicians and researchers, ensuring that design benefits from expert input. Recent examples include NMS assist, an app to help people with Parkinson’s and their carers remotely monitor and manage their non-motor symptoms; and externally funded evaluations of the Wysa, NoObesity and Families and Technology Enhanced integrAted asthMa care (TEAM-care) apps.

Recent publications

Hossein Ahmadi, Zeinab Mahdian, Abbas Sheikhtaheri, The Effect of Short Message Service Reminders on Medication Adherence in Patients with Chronic Hyperlipidemia, Journal of Health Administration, December 2019, pages 12-21.
Iyawa GE, Dansharif AR & Khan A (2021) 'Mobile apps for self-management in pregnancy: a systematic review' Health and Technology 11, (2) 283-294 , DOI Open access
Lambert JD, Elliott LR, Taylor AH, Farrand P, Haase AM, Greaves CJ (2021) A novel method for assessing design fidelity in web-based behavioral interventions. HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY Vol.40 Iss.3 10.1037/hea0001046
Milne-Ives M, Lam C & Meinert E (2021) 'Digital technologies for monitoring and improving treatment adherence in children and adolescents with asthma: A scoping review of randomised controlled trials' JMIR Public Health and Surveillance 4, (3) , DOI Open access
Milne-Ives M, Lam C, De Cock C, Van Velthoven MH & Meinert E (2020) 'Mobile Apps for Health Behavior Change in Physical Activity, Diet, Drug and Alcohol Use, and Mental Health: Systematic Review' JMIR mHealth and uHealth 8, (3) e17046-e17046 , DOI
Milne-Ives M, Lam C, van Velthoven M, Meinert E (2020) Mobile Fitness and Weight Management Apps: Protocol for a Quality Evaluation JMIR RESEARCH PROTOCOLS Vol.9 Iss.9 10.2196/17685  
Van Velthoven MH, Milne-Ives M, de Cock C, Mooney M & Meinert E (2020) 'Use of Apps to Promote Childhood Vaccination: Protocol for a Systematic Review' JMIR Research Protocols 9, (2) e16929-e16929 , DOI

Virtual reality

VR is increasingly used in healthcare as an educational tool. Hardware limitations of headsets have raised questions about the practicality of prolonged use by vulnerable or frail patients, though recent advances in mobile-based light-weight headsets have been shown to be feasible to deploy in challenging healthcare settings. There are now plausible studies demonstrating the potential value of VR in supporting a range of physical, mental, or psychosocial health outcomes, including pain management, cognition and depression. CHT has strong capabilities in the development and application of virtual, augmented and immersive reality technologies, from design and software development to implementation and clinician/patient/public experience of using such technologies. Recent examples include the EPSRC-funded ICONIC project and the ESRPC-funded GOALD project where extended reality is giving participants the ability to move around heritage sites and natural landscapes.

Recent publications

Bradwell HL, Cooper L, Edwards KJ On behalf of the GOALD project, et al Staff perceptions towards virtual reality-motivated treadmill exercise for care home residents: a qualitative feedback study with key stakeholders and follow-up interview with technology developer BMJ Open 2023;13:e073307. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2023-073307
Baxter R, Smith A (2020) Searching for individual determinants of probabilistic cueing in large-scale immersive virtual environments Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology     10.1177/1747021820969148
Khan A, Milne-Ives M, Meinert E, Iyawa GE, Jones RB & Josephraj AN (2022) 'A Scoping Review of Digital Twins in the Context of the Covid-19 Pandemic' Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology 13, DOI Open access
Leila Shahmoradi, Sohrab Almasi, Hossein Ahmadi, Azadeh Bashiri, Tania Azadi, Alireza Mirbagherie, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansar, Roshanak Honarpishe, Virtual Reality Games for Rehabilitation of Upper Extremities in Stroke Patients, Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, Volume 26, April 2021, Pages 113-122.
Mehesz E, Karoui H, Strutton PH, Hughes SW (2021) Exposure to an Immersive Virtual Reality Environment can Modulate Perceptual Correlates of Endogenous Analgesia and Central Sensitization in Healthy Volunteers THE JOURNAL OF PAIN Vol.22 Iss.6 10.1016/j.jpain.2020.12.007  
Norman A, Baptie G, Andrade J, Bacon A (2021) Virtually renovating the Trauma Film Paradigm: Comparing Virtual Reality with on-screen presentation of an analogue trauma CYBERPSYCHOLOGY: JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOCIAL RESEARCH ON CYBERPSPACE Vol.15 Iss.1 10.5817/CP2021-1-6 
Sohrab Almasi, Hossein Ahmadi, Farkhondeh Asadi, Leila Shahmoradi, Goli Arji, Mojtaba Alizadeh, Hoshang Kolivand 6, Kinect-based rehabilitation systems for stroke patients: a scoping review, BioMed research international, Volume 67, November 2021, 101766.
Terbeck S, Charlesford J, Clemans H, Pope E, Lee A, Turner J, Gummerum M, Bussmann B (2021) Physical Presence during Moral Action in Immersive Virtual Reality INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH Vol.18 Iss.15 10.3390/ijerph18158039  [Online]
Watson, P.W.L., House, S., Hart, R., Abbas, J., Asthana, S., Gaudl, S.E. (2023). A Case Study Using Virtual Reality to Prime Knowledge for Procedural Medical Training. In: Abdelnour Nocera, J., Kristín Lárusdóttir, M., Petrie, H., Piccinno, A., Winckler, M. (eds) Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2023. INTERACT 2023. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 14145. Springer, Cham.


At CHT, we are investigating the development and use of humanoid and companion robots, and other digital devices, such as voice activated assistants, to transform the provision of health and care, from assistive living and health monitoring to cognitive training and social engagement. Enabled by artificial intelligence and machine learning these technologies are able to interact with and respond to people, adapting to their behaviour, emotions and needs to better support their health and wellbeing. Recent projects include Movecare, EPIC and Akara as well as an interdisciplinary initiative between dentistry, robotics and cyber security to explore the use of socially-assistive robots to reduce anxiety and stress in dental care.

Recent publications

Aguiar Noury G, Bradwell H, Thill S & Jones R (2019) 'User-defined challenges and desiderata for robotics and autonomous systems in health and social care settings' Advanced Robotics 33, (7-8) 309-324 , DOI Open access
Aguiar Noury G, Walmsley A, Jones RB, Gaudl SE (2021) The Barriers of the Assistive Robotics Market—What Inhibits Health Innovation? Sensors Vol.21 Iss.9 10.3390/s21093111 
Biswas M, Romeo M, Cangelosi A & Jones RB (2019) 'Are older people any different from younger people in the way they want to interact with robots? Scenario based survey' Journal on Multimodal User Interfaces 14, (1) 61-72 , DOI Open access
Bradwell HL, Aguiar Noury GE, Edwards KJ, Winnington R, Thill S & Jones RB (2021) 'Design recommendations for socially assistive robots for health and social care based on a large scale analysis of stakeholder positions' Health Policy and Technology 10, (3) , DOI Open access
Bradwell HL, Edwards K, Shenton D, Winnington R, Thill S & Jones RB (2021) 'User-Centered Design of Companion Robot Pets Involving Care Home Resident-Robot Interactions and Focus Groups With Residents, Staff, and Family: Qualitative Study' JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies 8, (4) , DOI Open access
Bradwell HL, Edwards KJ, Winnington R, Thill S & Jones RB (2019) 'Companion robots for older people: importance of user-centred design demonstrated through observations and focus groups comparing preferences of older people and roboticists in South West England' BMJ Open 9, (9) , DOI Open access
Bradwell HL, Johnson CW, Lee J, Winnington R, Thill S, Jones RB (2020) Microbial contamination and efficacy of disinfection procedures of companion robots in care homes PLOS ONE Vol.15 Iss.8 10.1371/journal.pone.0237069 
Bradwell HL, Winnington R, Thill S, Jones RB (2020) Ethical perceptions towards real-world use of companion robots with older people and people with dementia: survey opinions among younger adults BMC GERIATRICS Vol.20 Iss.1 10.1186/s12877-020-01641-5 
Gianni, M. Uddin, M. S. (2020). Role and task allocation framework for Multi-Robot Collaboration with latent knowledge estimation. Engineering Reports. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Giorgi I, Tirotto FA, Hagen O, Aider F, Gianni M, Palomino M & Masala GL (2022) 'Friendly But Faulty: A Pilot Study on the Perceived Trust of Older Adults in a Social Robot' IEEE Access 10, 92084-92096 , DOI Open access
Oliver S & Khan A (2019) 'Design and Evaluation of an Alternative Wheelchair Control System for Dexterity Disabilities' Healthcare Technology Letters , DOI Open access
Ollevier A, Aguiar G, Palomino M & Simpelaere IS (2020) 'How can technology support ageing in place in healthy older adults? A systematic review' Public Health Reviews 41, (1) , DOI Open access
Wang N, Di Nuovo A, Cangelosi A & Jones R (2019) 'Temporal patterns in multi-modal social interaction between elderly users and service robot' Interaction Studies 20, (1) 4-24 , DOI Open access

Assistive Music Technology

CHT is a pioneer in the development of Brain-Computer Music Interfaces (BCMI) to enable people with severe motor-impairment to make music by means of brain signals. We are championing the development innovative intelligent systems that can monitor affective state, and induce specific affective states through music, automatically and adaptively. In the EPSRC-funded RadioMe project, we are harnessing Artificial Intelligence to adapt and personalise live radio, by seamlessly remixing live digital broadcast, with the aim of transforming life for people living alone with dementia. Listeners receive personalised reminders, information and music according to monitored behaviour and real-time physiological measurements.

Recent publications

Miranda E & Siegelwax BN (2022) 'Teaching Qubits to Sing: Mission Impossible?' International Journal of Unconventional Computing 17, (4) 303-331 Author Site Publisher Site Open access
Miranda E, Daly I, Nicolaou N, Williams D, Hwang F, Kirke A & Nasuto SJ (2020) 'Neural and physiological data from participants listening to affective music' Scientific Data 7, (1) Publisher Site , DOI Open access
Miranda E, Venkatesh S, Martin-Guerrero JD, Hernani-Morales C, Lamata L & Solano E (2022) 'An approach to interfacing the brain with quantum computers: practical steps and caveats' International Journal of Unconventional Computing 17, (3) Publisher Site Open access
Miranda ER (2021) Handbook of Artificial Intelligence for Music Foundations, Advanced Approaches, and Developments for Creativity. Springer Nature
Miranda ER, Martín-Guerrero JD, Venkatesh S, Hernani-Morales C, Lamata L & Solano E (2022) 'Quantum Brain Networks: A Perspective' Electronics 11, (10) , DOI Open access
Venkatesh S, Miranda ER & Braund E (2022) 'SSVEP-based Brain-computer Interface for Music using a Low-density EEG System' Assistive Technology , DOI Open access
Venkatesh S, Moffat D & Miranda ER (2022) 'You Only Hear Once: A YOLO-like Algorithm for Audio Segmentation and Sound Event Detection' Applied Sciences 12, (7) , DOI Open access

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (AI/ML)

There are numerous applications of AI/ML. AI is being used in conjunction with other technologies, such as assistive music technology (RadioMe). AI platforms can also leverage real world data to provide insights as to which patients can benefit from e.g., home-based technologies to manage the risk upfront to lower downstream costs or specialised more targeted treatments. Examples of CHT projects include the use of deep phenotyping to predict the development of colorectal cancer stages, including the potential return of cancer after treatment and associated multimorbidity; the use of genomics and AI to predict responses to chemotherapy in breast cancer; and the use of AI to enable the safe and effective use of medications. Whether applied to specific groups (such as childbearing women with Epilepsy) or local populations as a whole, we have a strong record of applying AI and statistics in health and biomedical informatics identify the complex interactions between socioeconomic, cultural and environmental factors that contribute to individual- and population-level health outcomes. We also evaluate externally products, such as DORA, a natural language AI assistant and call system designed to carry out post-operative checks to monitor complications and assess success following cataract surgery.

Recent publications

A. Holborow, B. Coupe, M. Davies, S.-M. Zhou, “Machine learning methods in predicting chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in oncology patients using clinical data,” Clinical Medicine. 2019 Jun; 19(Suppl 3): 89–90 (
Ahmed Alsayat, Hossein Ahmadi, A Hybrid Method Using Ensembles of Neural Network and Text Mining for Learner Satisfaction Analysis from Big Datasets in Online Learning Platform, Neural Processing Letters, volume 55, pages 3267–3303 (2023).
Ahmed Alsayat, Hossein Ahmadi, Workers’ Opinions on Using the Internet of Things to Enhance the Performance of the Olive Oil Industry: A Machine Learning Approach, Processes, 11(1), 2023, 271.
Ali Ahani, Mehrbakhsh Nilashi, Waleed Abdu Zogaan, Sarminah Samad, Nojood O. Aljehane, Ashwaq Alhargan, Saidatulakmal Mohd, Hossein Ahmadi, Louis Sanzogni, Evaluating medical travelers’ satisfaction through online review analysis, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Volume 48, September 2021, 519-537.
Alobaidi H, Clarke N, Li F & AbdulrahmanAlruban (2021) 'Real-World Smartphone-based Gait Recognition' Computers and Security 113, , DOI Open access
Babiloni C, Blinowska K, Bonanni L, Cichocki A, De Haan W, Del Percio C, Dubois B, Escudero J, Fernández A & Frisoni G (2020) 'What electrophysiology tells us about Alzheimer's disease: a window into the synchronization and connectivity of brain neurons' Neurobiology of Aging 85, 58-73 , DOI
Barakabitze AA, Mkwawa I-H, Hines A, Sun L & Ifeachor E (2020) 'QoEMultiSDN: Management of Multimedia Services using MPTCP/SR in Softwarized and Virtualized Networks' IEEE Access 1-1 , DOI Open access
Barakabitze AA, Sun L, Mkwawa I-H & Ifeachor E (2019) 'A Novel QoE-Aware SDN-enabled, NFV-based Management Architecture for Future Multimedia Applications on 5G Systems' 2016 Author Site Open access
Blesse C, Kharko A, Locher C, DesRoches CM, Mandl KD (2020) US primary care in 2029: A Delphi survey on the impact of machine learning PLOS ONE Vol.15 Iss.10 10.1371/journal.pone.0239947 
Cortina Borja, M., Stander, J. and Sebastiani, G. (2022) On Sir David Cox's publications.  Significance 19 (2):39-40 Apr 2022.
de Cock C, Milne-Ives M, van Velthoven MH, Alturkistani A, Lam C & Meinert E (2020) 'Effectiveness of Conversational Agents (Virtual Assistants) in Health Care: Protocol for a Systematic Review' JMIR Research Protocols 9, (3) e16934-e16934 , DOI
de Pennington N, Mole G, Lim E, Milne-Ives M, Normando E, Xue K, Meinert E (2021) Safety and acceptability of a natural-language AI assistant to deliver clinical follow-up to cataract surgery
Dema, E., Stander, J., Cortina-Borja, M., Thorne, C. and Bailey, H. (2022) Estimating the number of livebirths to Hepatitis C seropositive women in England in 2013 and 2018 using Bayesian modelling. PLOS ONE. November 21, 2022. 
E. Longo, B. Burnett, S. Bauermeister, S.-M. Zhou‡, “Identifying dynamic patterns of polypharmacy for patients with dementia from primary care electronic health records: A machine learning driven longitudinal study”, Ageing and Disease, 14(2), April 2023 ( (‡Corresponding author) 
Eke CS, Jammeh E, Li X, Carroll C, Pearson S & Ifeachor E (2021) 'Early Detection of Alzheimer's Disease with Blood Plasma Proteins Using Support Vector Machines' IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics 25, (1) 218-226 , DOI Open access
Fabiola Fernández-Gutiérrez, Jonathan I. Kennedy, Roxanne Cooksey, Mark Atkinson, Ernest Choy, Sinead Brophy, Lin Huo, Shang-Ming Zhou‡,“Mining primary care electronic health records for automatic disease phenotyping: A transparent machine learning framework.” Diagnostics, 2021, 11, 1908. (‡Corresponding author).
G. Tsang, S.-M. Zhou, and X. Xie, "Modeling Large Sparse Data for Feature Selection: Hospital Admission Predictions of the Dementia Patients Using Primary Care Electronic Health Records," in IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine, vol. 9, pp. 1-13, 2021 (
Goli Arji, Hossein Ahmadi, Pejman Avazpoor, Morteza Hemmat, Identifying resilience strategies for disruption management in the healthcare supply chain during COVID-19 by digital innovations: A systematic literature review, Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, Volume 38, 2023, 101199.
Goli Arji, Hossein Ahmadi, Mehrbakhsh Nilashi, A Rashid Tarik, Omed Hassan Ahmed, Nahla Aljojo, Azida Zainol, Fuzzy Logic Approach for Infectious Disease Diagnosis: A Methodical Evaluation, Literature and Classification, Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Volume 39, Issue 4, October – December 2019, 937 – 955.
Haynes C, Palomino MA, Stuart L, Viira D, Hannon F, Crossingham G & Tantam K (2022) 'Automatic Classification of National Health Service Feedback' Mathematics 10, (6) , DOI Open access
Huo L, Bai L, Zhou S-M (2021) Automatically Generating Natural Language Descriptions of Images by a Deep Hierarchical Framework IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CYBERNETICS     10.1109/tcyb.2020.3041595  
K. Morgan, S.-M. Zhou‡, R. Hill, R. Lyons, S. Paranjothy and S. Brophy., “Identifying prenatal and postnatal determinants of infant growth: A structural equation modelling based cohort analysis,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2021, 18, 10265. ( (‡Corresponding author).
Khan A, Milne-Ives M, Meinert E, Iyawa GE, Jones RB & Josephraj AN (2022) 'A Scoping Review of Digital Twins in the Context of the Covid-19 Pandemic' Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology 13, , DOI Open access
L. Huo, L. Bai, S.-M. Zhou‡, “Automatically Generating Natural Language Descriptions of Images by A Deep Hierarchical Framework.” IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics, 52(8), pp7441-7452, 2022 (‡Corresponding author) (
Leila Shahmoradi, Reza Safdari, Hossein Ahmadi, Maryam Zahmatkeshan, Clinical decision support systems-based interventions to improve medication outcomes: A systematic literature review on features and effects, Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran (MJIRI), Volume 35, Issue 1, 1-2021.
Maramba ID, Jones R, Austin D, Edwards K, Meinert E & Chatterjee A (2022) 'The Role of Health Kiosks: Scoping Review' JMIR Medical Informatics 10, (3) , DOI Open access
Mehrbakhsh Nilashi, Rabab Ali Abumalloh, Hossein Ahmadi, Sarminah Samad, Abdullah Alghamdi, Mesfer Alrizq, Sultan Alyami, Fatima Khan Nayer, Electroencephalography (EEG) eye state classification using learning vector quantization and bagged trees, Heliyon, 9 (2023).
Mehrbakhsh Nilashi, Rabab Ali, Sarminah Samad, Behrouz Minaei-Bidgoli, Ha Hang Thi, OA Alghamdi, Muhammed Yousoof Ismail, Hossein Ahmadi, The Impact of Multi-Criteria Ratings in Social Networking Sites on the Performance of Online Recommendation Agents, Telematics and Informatics, Volume 76, January 2023, 101919.
Mehrbakhsh Nilashi, Rabab Ali Abumalloh, Mesfer Alrizq, Ahmed Almulihi, OA Alghamdi, Murtaza Farooque, Sarminah Samad, Saidatulakmal Mohd, Hossein Ahmadi, A Hybrid Method to Solve Data Sparsity in Travel Recommendation Agents Using Fuzzy Logic Approach, Mathematical Problems in Engineering, Volume 2022. 
Mehrbakhsh Nilashi, Sarminah Samadi,Ali Ahani, Hossein Ahmadi, Eesa Alsolami, Marwan Mahmoud, Hamsa D. Majeed, Ala Abdulsalam Alarood, Big social data and customer decision making in vegetarian restaurants: A combined machine learning method, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Volume 62, September 2021, 02630.
Mehrbakhsh Nilashi, Sarminah Samadi,Ali Ahani, Hossein Ahmadi, Eesa Alsolami, Marwan Mahmoud, Hamsa D. Majeed, Ala Abdulsalam Alarood, Travellers decision making through preferences learning: a case on Malaysian spa hotels in TripAdvisor, Computers & Industrial Engineering, Volume 158, August 2021, 107348.
Mehrbakhsh Nilashi, Hossein Ahmadi, Abbas Sheikhtaheri, Roya Naemi, Reem Alotaibi, Ala Abdulsalam Alarood, Asmaa Munshi, Tarik A. Rashid, Jing Zhao, Remote Tracking of Parkinson's Disease Progression Using Ensembles of Deep Belief Network and Self-Organizing Map, Expert Systems with Applications, Volume 159, 30 November 2020, 113562.
Mehrbakhsh Nilashi, Hossein Ahmadi, Azizah Abdul Manaf, Tarik A. Rashid, Sarminah Samad, Leila Shahmoradi, Nahla Aljojo, Elnaz Akbari, Coronary Heart Disease Diagnosis Through Self-Organizing Map and Fuzzy Support Vector Machine with Incremental Updates, International Journal of Fuzzy Systems, 2, 1376–1388 (2020).
Mehrbakhsh Nilashi, Neda Ahmadi, Sarminah Samad, Leila Shahmoradi, Hossein Ahmadi, Othman Ibrahim, Shahla Asadi, Rusli Abdullah, Rabab Ali Abumalloh, Elahe Yadegari, Disease Diagnosis Using Machine Learning Techniques: A Review and Classification, Journal of Soft Computing and Decision Support Systems, Volume 7, Issue 1, 12 March 2020.
Mehrbakhsh Nilashi, Abbas Mardani, Huchang Liao, Hossein Ahmadi, Azizah Abdul Manaf, Wafa Almukadi, A Hybrid Method with TOPSIS and Machine Learning Techniques for Sustainable Development of Green Hotels Considering Online Reviews, Sustainability, Volume 11, Issue 21, 29 October 2019.
Mehrbakhsh Nilashi, Hossein Ahmadi, Leila Shahmoradi, Othman bin Ibrahim, Elnaz Akbari, A predictive method for hepatitis disease diagnosis using ensembles of Neuro-Fuzzy technique, Journal of Infection and Public Health. Volume 12, Issue 1, January–February 2019, Pages 13-20.
Mehrbakhsh Nilashi, Parveen Fatemeh Rupani, Mohammad Mobin Rupani, Hesam Kamyab, Weilan Shao, Hossein Ahmadi, A Rashid Tarik, Nahla Aljojo, Measuring Sustainability Through Ecological Sustainability and Human Sustainability: A Machine Learning Approach, Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 240, 10 December 2019, 118162.
Mehrbakhsh Nilashi, Sarminah Samad, Azizah Abdul Manaf, Hossein Ahmadi, Tarik A. Rashid, Asmaa Munshi, Othman Ibrahim, Omed Hassan Ahmed, Factors influencing medical tourism adoption in Malaysia: A DEMATEL-Fuzzy TOPSIS approach, Computers & Industrial Engineering, Volume 137, November 2019, 106005.
Mehrbakhsh Nilashi, Othman Ibrahim, Sarminah Samad, Hossein Ahmadi, Leila Shahmoradi, Elnaz Akbari, An analytical method for measuring the Parkinson’s disease progression: a case on a Parkinson’s telemonitoring dataset, Measurement, Volume 136, March 2019, Pages 545-557.
Meinert E, Lam C, van Velthoven M (2020) Developing a blockchain-based supply chain system for advanced therapies: study protocol JMIR RESEARCH PROTOCOLS Vol.9 Iss.12 10.2196/17005 
Milne-Ives M, de Cock C, Lim E, Shehadeh M, de Pennington N, Mole G, Meinert E (2020) The effectiveness of artificial intelligence conversational agents in healthcare: a systematic review JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCH Vol.22 Iss.10 10.2196/20346 
Milne-Ives M, de Cock C, Lim E, Shehadeh M, de Pennington N, Mole G & Meinert E (2020) 'The effectiveness of artificial intelligence conversational agents in healthcare: a systematic review' Journal of Medical Internet Research 22, (10) , DOI Open access
Milne-Ives M, Fraser L, Khan A, Walker D, van Velthoven MH, May J, Wolfe I, Harding T & Meinert E (2022) 'Life.course digital T.wins – I.ntelligent M.onitoring for E.arly and continuous intervention and prevention (LifeTIME): Proposal for a proof-of-concept study' JMIR Research Protocols 11, (5) , DOI Open access
Milne-Ives M, Selby E, Inkster B, Lam C & Meinert E (2022) 'Artificial intelligence and machine learning in mobile apps for mental health: A scoping review' PLOS Digital Health 1, (8) , DOI Open access
Neda Ahmadi, Mehrbakhsh Nilashi, Behrouz Minaei-Bidgoli, Murtaza Farooque, Sarminah Samad, Nojood O. Aljehane, Waleed Abdu Zogaan, Hossein Ahmadi, Eye State Identification Utilizing EEG Signals: A Combined Method Using Self-Organizing Map and Deep Belief Network, Scientific Programming, Volume 2022.
Neda Ahmadi, Mehrbakhsh Nilashi, Sarminah Samad, Tarik A. Rashid, Hossein Ahmadi, An intelligent method for Iris recognition using supervised machine learning techniques, Optics & Laser Technology, Volume 120, December 2019, 105701.
Oscar Rodríguez-Espíndola, Hossein Ahmadi, Diego Gastélum-Chavira, Omar Ahumada-Valenzuela, Soumyadeb Chowdhury, Prasanta Kumar Dey, Pavel Albores, Humanitarian logistics optimization models: An investigation of decision-maker involvement and directions to promote implementation, Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Volume 89, October 2023, 101669.
Palomino MA & Aider F (2022) 'Evaluating the Effectiveness of Text Pre-Processing in Sentiment Analysis' Applied Sciences 12, (17) 8765-8765 , DOI Open access
Prestige, E., Stander, J. and Wei, Y. (2022) Covid lockdowns in the UK: Estimating their effects on transmission. Significance 19 (2):14-18 Apr 2022.
Raj ANJ, Zhu H, Khan A, Zhuang Z, Yang Z, Mahesh VGV & Karthik G (2021) 'ADID-UNET—a segmentation model for COVID-19 infection from lung CT scans' PeerJ Computer Science 7, Publisher Site , DOI Open access
S.-M. Zhou, F. Chiclana, R. I. John, J. M. Garibaldi, and L. Huo, “Type-1 OWA Operators in Aggregating Multiple Sources of Uncertain Information: Properties and Real World Application in Integrated Diagnosis,” IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, vol.29, no.8, pp. 2112-2121, 2021 (
Sankaran G, Palomino MA, Knahl M & Siestrup G (2022) 'A Modeling Approach for Measuring the Performance of a Human-AI Collaborative Process' Applied Sciences 12, (22) 11642-11642 , DOI Open access
Sebastiani, G. and Stander, J. (2020). Returning to schools and universities in the time of coronavirus: Some statistical suggestions. Significance. 687-returning-to-schools-and-universities-in-the-time-of-coronavirus-some-statistical-suggestions? highlight=WyJzdGFuZGVyIl0=
Sebastiani, G., Stander, J. and Cortina Borja, M. (2020). Some comparisons between Italy and the UK for Covid-19: March to April 2020. Significance. 657-some-comparisons-between-italy-and-the-uk-for-covid-19-march-to-april-2020?highlight= WyJzdGFuZGVyIl0=
S-M. Zhou, R. A. Lyons, M. A Rahman, A. Holborow, S. Brophy. " Predicting hospital readmission for campylobacteriosis from electronic health records: A machine learning and text mining perspective", Journal of Personalized Medicine, 2022, 12(1), 86; (
Somayeh Nasiri, Farahnaz Sadoughi, Afsaneh Dehnad, Mohammad Hesam Tadayon, Hossein Ahmadi, Layered Architecture for Internet of Things-Based Healthcare System: A Systematic Literature Review, Informatica, Vol 45, No 4 (2021).
Stander, J.,Dalla Valle, L., Taglioni, C., Liseo, B., Wade, A. and Cortina-Borja, M. (2019) Analysis of paediatric visual acuity using Bayesian copula models with sinh-arcsinh marginal densities. Statistics in Medicine, 15 August 2019, Vol.38(18), pp.3421-3443.  DOI: 10.1002/sim.8176.
Stander, M. and Stander, J. (2020). A simple method for correcting for the Will Rogers phenomenon. Biometrical Journal, 62 (4), 1080–1089.
Surodina S, Lam C, Grbich S, Milne-Ives M, van Velthoven M, Meinert E (2021) Authors’ Response to Peer Reviews of “Machine Learning for Risk Group Identification and User Data Collection in a Herpes Simplex Virus Patient Registry: Algorithm Development and Validation Study” JMIRX MED Vol.2 Iss.2 10.2196/28917  
Surodina S, Lam C, Grbich S, Milne-Ives M, van Velthoven M, Meinert E (2021) Machine Learning for Risk Group Identification and User Data Collection in a Herpes Simplex Virus Patient Registry: Algorithm Development and Validation Study JMIRX MED Vol.2 Iss.2 10.2196/25560  
Tsang, G., Xie, X., Zhou, S.-M. (2020)“Harnessing the Power of Machine Learning in Dementia Informatics Research: Issues, Opportunities and Challenges.” IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering, 13: 113-129; 2020 ( (‡Corresponding author)
Vranopoulos G, Clarke N & Atkinson S (2022) 'Addressing big data variety using an automated approach for data characterization' Journal Of Big Data 9, (1) , DOI Open access
Yunus J, Ifeachor E & Edworthy JE (2020) 'Improving Alarm Response in ICU/CCU' International Journal of Simulation Systems Science & Technology , DOI
Z. Almowil, S.-M. Zhou and S. Brophy. “Concept Libraries for Automatic Electronic Health Record Based Phenotyping: A Review.” International Journal of Population Data Science, 2021 Jun 16;6(1):1362 (
Zahra Ahmed Almowil, Shang-Ming Zhou, Jodie Croxall, and Sinead Brophy. “Concept libraries for repeatable and reusable research: a qualitative study exploring the needs of users.” JMIR Human Factors, 2022 Mar 15;9(1):e31021.

Other technologies


Bioengineering is a multidisciplinary STEM field that integrates knowledge across engineering, materials science, biology and medicine to develop new devices, algorithms, processes and systems that improve medical practice and health care delivery. Our research focuses on advanced engineering materials and the use of nanotechnology to build novel composites, biomaterials and implants with improved mechanical, physical and antibacterial properties with the aim to improve clinical outcomes. Within dentistry, for example, researchers have applied biological and molecular technologies including transgenic modelling, organoids, 3D bioprinting, 3D skin and oral mucosa stratification simulation as well as using 3 dimensional in vitro oral mucosal models to develop denture wear and salivary gland repair processes.

Recent publications

Bloor, J., Handy, R. D., Awan, S. A. and Jenkins, D., "Graphene oxide biopolymer aerogels for the removal of lead from drinking water", Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 208, 111422, 2021. 
Bungon T., Haslam C., Damiati S., O’Driscoll B., Whitley T., Davey P., Siligardi G., Charmet J. and Awan S. A., “Graphene FET Sensors for Alzheimer’s Disease Protein Biomarker Clusterin Detection”, Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences, 8:651232. DOI: 10.3389/fmolb.2021.651232
Damiati S., Haslam C., Søpstad S., Peacock M., Whitley T., Davey P., Awan S. A., "Sensitivity Comparison of Macro- and Micro-Electrochemical Biosensors for Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) Biomarker Detection", EEE Access, 2019, Vol. 7, pp. 94048-94058, DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2928132.
Gunputh U, Le H, Besinis A, Tredwin C & Handy R (2019) 'Multilayered composite coatings of titanium dioxide nanotubes decorated with zinc oxide and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Controlled release of Zn and antimicrobial properties against staphylococcus aureus' International Journal of Nanomedicine 14, , DOI Open access
Gunputh UF, Le H, Lawton K, Besinis A, Tredwin C & Handy RD (2019) 'Antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles grown in situ and anchored to titanium dioxide nanotubes on titanium implant against Staphylococcus aureus' Nanotoxicology 14, (1) 97-110 , DOI Open access
Lawton K, Le H, Tredwin C & Handy RD (2019) 'Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposites As Bone Implants: Nanostructure, Mechanical Strength And Biocompatibility' International Journal of Nanomedicine Volume 14, 7947-7962 , DOI Open access
Mehmood M, Khan UF, Maka AOM, Akhter J, Chaudhary TN, Masood F, Hasan SA & Lee YC (2022) 'A review of thermal impact of surface acoustic waves on microlitre droplets in medical applications' Advances in Mechanical Engineering 14, (8) , DOI Open access
Salaie RN, Besinis A, Le H, Tredwin C & Handy RD (2019) 'The biocompatibility of silver and nanohydroxyapatite coatings on titanium dental implants with human primary osteoblast cells' Materials Science and Engineering: C 107, 0-0 , DOI Open access

Diagnostic devices

In 2022, a study revealed that 1.25 million people per year die of antimicrobial resistant infections globally. Bacteria are evolving to develop resistance to the antibiotics we are using to treat them, rendering them ineffective to combat infection. A key way to manage infection is to rapidly diagnose infections at the point of care. The Molecular Microbiology Research Group focuses on understanding the mechanism of C. difficile spore resistance to biocides (e.g., chlorine releasing agents), evaluating the efficacy of new technologies to disinfect C. difficile, and molecular techniques to understand spore epidemiology. The group is also developing a point of care device able to aid clinicians in diagnosing AMR infections (particularly in the urinary tract), thus aiding antimicrobial stewardship. This interdisciplinary research is at the cutting edge of engineering, biophysics and molecular microbiology. 

Recent publications

Dyer C, Hutt LP, Burky R & Joshi LT (2019) 'Biocide Resistance and Transmission of Clostridium difficile Spores Spiked onto Clinical Surfaces from an American Health Care Facility' Applied and Environmental Microbiology , DOI Open access
Gartshore A, Kidd M & Joshi LT (2021) 'Applications of Microwave Energy in Medicine' Biosensors 11, (4) 96-96, DOI Open access
Gupta AK, Venkataraman M, Joshi LT & Cooper EA (2022) 'Potential use of Microwave Technology in Dermatology' Journal of Dermatological Treatment 1-26 , DOI Open access
Jones IA & Joshi LT (2021) 'Biocide Use in the Antimicrobial Era: A Review' Molecules 26, (8) 2276-2276 , DOI Open access
Joshi LT (2021) 'The G7 Summit 2021: Time for our world leaders to step up to the challenge of Anti-Microbial Resistance' Access Microbiology 3, (12) , DOI Open access
McKracken M, Garner C & Joshi LT (2020) 'COVID-19 and antibiotic resistance – The calm before the storm' AMRC Open Research , DOI Open access
Scott R, Joshi LT & McGinn C (2022) 'Hospital surface disinfection using ultraviolet germicidal irradiation technology: A review' Healthcare Technology Letters , DOI Open access
Toropov N, Osborne E, Joshi LT, Davidson J, Morgan C, Page J, Pepperell J & Vollmer F (2021) 'SARS-CoV-2 Tests: Bridging the Gap Between Laboratory Sensors and Clinical Applications' ACS sensors , DOI Open access