CAMERa continuum of education

An appropriately skilled healthcare workforce is largely dependent on the education, professional development and support healthcare professionals receive throughout their training and beyond. Our group seeks to carry out educational research across the continuum of education including undergraduate, postgraduate, continuing education and additional support measures to ensure we are training and supporting healthcare professionals using evidence-based approaches.  

CAMERa’s continuum of education research includes studies commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR), General Medical Council (GMC), Advance HE and Health Education England.

Most recently our work in this area has focused on medical graduates’ preparedness for practice and the remediation of doctors.

Preparedness for practice

Graduates being prepared for practice is the main goal of undergraduate healthcare programmes and our work in this areas explores the transition from medical student to practising doctor, medical graduates preparedness for future anticipated healthcare needs, the health and well-being of Interim Foundation Year 1 doctors and the prescribing practices of doctors in training.


The effective remediation of underperforming doctors has an important role to play in providing additional support for doctors and therefore ensuring workforce sustainability. Proficient and safe doctors, operating efficiently within multi-disciplinary teams, are an essential part of the provision of high-quality and safe care for patients. If the performance of a doctor is lacking, patients may be at risk. Remediation is the process by which a doctor’s poor performance is “remedied” and the doctor returned to safe practice.

A programme of research on the remediation of doctors’ is being carried out by members of the CAMERa team. The specific areas of the remediation research agenda being addressed include how remediation interventions produce their effects (RESTORE 1 study), the impact of remediation on professional identities, the remediation of professionalism lapses and optimising the delivery of remediation programmes.


Preparedness for practice

Mattick K, Brennan NM, Briscoe S, Papoutsi C & Pearson M (2019) 'Optimising feedback for early career professionals: a scoping review and new framework' Medical Education 53, (4) 355-368 , DOI Open access

Papoutsi C, Mattick K, Pearson M, Brennan N, Briscoe S & Wong G (2018) 'Interventions to improve antimicrobial prescribing of doctors in training (IMPACT): a realist review' Health Services and Delivery Research 6, (10) 1-136 , DOI Open access

Papoutsi C, Mattick K, Pearson M, Brennan N, Briscoe S & Wong G (2017) 'Social and professional influences on antimicrobial prescribing for doctors-in-training: a realist review' Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 72, (9) 2418-2430 , DOI Open access

Bleakley A & Brennan N (2011) 'Does undergraduate curriculum design make a difference to readiness to practice as a junior doctor?' Medical Teacher 33, (6) 459-467 , DOI Open access

Brennan N, Corrigan O, Allard J, Archer J, Barnes R, Bleakley A, Collett T & de Bere SR (2010) 'The transition from medical student to junior doctor: today's experiences of Tomorrow's Doctors' Med Educ 44, (5) 449-458 Author Site , DOI Open access


Price T, Wong G, Withers L, Wanner A, Cleland J, Gale T, Prescott-Clements L, Archer J, Bryce M & Brennan N (2021) 'Optimising the delivery of remediation programmes for doctors: A realist review' Medical Education , DOI Open access.

Price T, Brennan N, Wong G, Withers L, Cleland J, Wanner A, Gale T, Prescott-Clements L, Archer J, Bryce M (2021) Remediating doctors’ performance to restore patient safety: A realist review (RESTORE) Health Services and Delivery Research Journal, 9, (11) 1-116, DOI.

Brennan N, Price T, Archer J, Brett J & Brennan N (2019) 'Remediating professionalism lapses in medical students and doctors: a systematic review' Medical Education , DOI Open access

Price T & Archer J 2017 'UK Policy on Doctor Remediation' Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions 37, (3) 207-211 , DOI.

Price, T, Brennan N., Cleland J., Prescott-Clements, L., Wanner A., Wong G & Archer J. (2018) 'Remediating doctor’s performance to restore patient safety: a realist review protocol', BMJ Open, doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-02594.

Who's involved