Medical Statistics: selected publications


Price L, Wyatt K, Lloyd J, Abraham C, Creanor S, Dean S, Hillsdon M. 2018. Children’s Compliance With Wrist-Worn Accelerometry Within a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial: Findings From the Healthy Lifestyles Programme Doi: 10.1123/pes.2017-0179 – Pediatric Exercise Science

Wyatt K, LLoyd J, Creanor S, Green C, Dean SG, Hillsdon M, Abraham C, Tomlinson R, Pearson V, Taylor RS, Ryan E, Streeter A, McHugh C, Hurst A, Price L, Crathorne L, Krägeloh C, Siegert R, Logan S. 2018. Cluster randomised controlled trial and economic and process evaluation to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a novel intervention [Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP)] to prevent obesity in school children Doi: – Public Health Research

Thompson TP, Callaghan L, Hazeldine E, Quinn C, Walker S, Byng R, Wallace G, Creanor S, Green C, Hawton A, Annison J, Sinclair J, Senior J, Taylor AH. 2018. Health trainer-led motivational intervention plus usual care for people under community supervision compared with usual care alone: a study protocol for a parallel-group pilot randomised controlled trial (STRENGTHEN) Doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023123 – BMJ Open

Thompson TP, Taylor AH, Wanner A, Husk K, Wei Y, Creanor S, Kandiyali R, Neale J, Sinclair J, Nasser M, Wallace G. 2018. Physical activity and the prevention, reduction, and treatment of alcohol and/or substance use across the lifespan (The PHASE review): protocol for a systematic review Doi: 10.1186/s13643-018-0674-0 – Systematic Reviews

Logan A, Freeman J, Kent B, Pooler J, Creanor S, Vickery J, Enki D, Barton A, Marsden J. 2018. Standing Practice In Rehabilitation Early after Stroke (SPIRES): a functional standing frame programme (prolonged standing and repeated sit to stand) to improve function and quality of life and reduce neuromuscular impairment in people with severe sub-acute stroke-a protocol for a feasibility randomised controlled trial Doi: 10.1186/s40814-018-0254-z – Pilot and Feasibility Studies

Rickard AC, Vassallo J, Nutbeam T, Lyttle MD, Maconochie IK, Enki DG, Smith JE. 2018. Paediatric Traumatic Cardiac Arrest: A Delphi study to establish consensus on definition and management Doi: 10.1136/emermed-2017-207226 – Emergency Medicine Journal

Sweet D, Byng R, Webber M, Enki DG, Porter I, Larsen J, Huxley P, Pinfold V. 2018. Personal well-being networks, social capital and severe mental illness: findings from an exploratory study Doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.117.203950 – British Journal of Psychiatry

Cunningham R, Jones L, Enki DG, Tischhauser R. 2018. Proton Pump Inhibitor use as a risk factor for Enterobacteriaceal infection: a case-control study Doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2018.05.023 – The Journal of Hospital Infection

Lauria M, Persico M, Dordevic N, Cominetti O, Matone A, Hosking J, Jeffery A, Pinkney J, Da Silva L, Priami C, Montoliu I, Martin F-P. 2018. Consensus Clustering of temporal profiles for the identification of metabolic markers of pre-diabetes in childhood (EarlyBird 73) Doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-19059-2 – Scientific Reports 


Allison R, Kilbride C, Chynoweth J, Creanor S, Frampton I, Marsden J. 2017. What is the longitudinal profile of impairments and can we predict difficulty caring for the profoundly-affected arm in the first year post-stroke? Doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2017.07.016 – Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Lloyd J, Creanor S, Logan S, Green C, Dean SG, Hillsdon M, Abrahan C, Tomlinson R, Pearson V, Taylor RS, Ryan E, Price L, Streeter A, Wyatt K. 2017. Effectiveness of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP) to prevent obesity in UK primary-school children: a cluster randomised controlled trial Doi: 10.1016/S2352-4642(17)30151-7 – The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health

Gunn H, Andrade J, Paul L, Miller L, Creanor S, Green C, Marsden J, Ewings P, Berrow M, Vickery J, Barton A, Marshall B, Zajieck J, Freeman JA. 2017. Balance Right in Multiple Sclerosis (BRiMS): a guided self-management programme to reduce falls and improve quality of life, balance and mobility in people with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: a protocol for a feasibility randomised controlled trial Doi: 10.1186/s40814-017-0168-1 – Pilot and Feasibility Studies

Lloyd J, Dean S, Creanor S, Abraham C, Hillsdon M, Ryan E, Wyatt KM. 2017. Intervention fidelity in the definitive cluster randomised controlled trial of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP) trial: findings from the process evaluation Doi: 10.1186/s12966-017-0616-6 – International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity

Pritchard C, Smith JE, Creanor S, Squire R, Barton A, Benger J, Cocking L, Ewings P, Rockett M, PASTIES writing group. 2017. The cost-effectiveness of patient-controlled analgesia vs. standard care in patients presenting to the Emergency Department in pain, who are subsequently admitted to hospital Doi: 10.1111/anae.13932 – Anaesthesia

Lloyd J, Creanor S, Price L, Abraham C, Dean S, Green C, Hillsdon M, Pearson V, Taylor RS, Tomlinson R, Logan S, Hurst A, Ryan E, Daurge W, Wyatt K. 2017. Trial baseline characteristics of a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school-located obesity prevention programme; the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP) trial Doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4196-9 – BMC Public Health

Gallacher S, Enki D, Stevens S, Bennett MJ. 2017. An experimental model to measure the ability of headphones with active noise control to reduce patient’s exposure to noise in an intensive care unit Doi: 10.1186/s40635-017-0162-1 – Intensive Care Medicine Experimental

Jones R, Kirenga BJ, Katagira W, Singh SJ, Pooler J, Okwera A, Kasiita R, Enki DG, Creanor S, Barton A. 2017. A pre-post intervention study of pulmonary rehabilitation for adults with post-tuberculosis lung disease in Uganda Doi: 10.2147/COPD.S146659 – International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Graham B, Smith J, Enki D. 2017. Strengths and weaknesses in team communication processes in a UK emergency department setting: findings using the Communication Assessment Tool-Team Doi: 10.1097/MEJ.0000000000000395 – European Journal of Emergency Medicine

Nutbeam T, Clarke R, Luff T, Enki D, Gay D. 2017. The height of the cricothyroid membrane on computed tomography scans in trauma patients Doi: 10.1111/anae.13905 – Anaesthesia

Jeffery SC, Hosking J, Jeffery AN, Murphy MJ, Voss LD, Wilkin TJ, Pinkney J. 2017. Insulin resistance is higher in prepubertal girls but switches to become higher in boys at age 16: A Cohort Study (EarlyBird 57) Doi: 10.1111/pedi.12571 – Pediatric Diabetes

Jones BG, Stevens K, Chynoweth J, et al.. 2017. Epistaxis 2016: national audit of management Doi: 10.1017/S002221511700202X – Journal of Laryngology and Otology

Stevens KN, Asher L, Griffin K, Friel M, O'Connell N, Collins LM. 2017. A comparison of inferential analysis methods for multilevel studies: Implications for drawing conclusions in animal welfare science Doi: 10.1016/j.applanim.2017.08.002 – Applied Animal Behaviour Science

Streeter AJ, Lin NX, Crathorne L, Haasova M, Hyde C, Melzer D, Henley WE. 2017. Adjusting for unmeasured confounding in non-randomised longitudinal studies: a methodological review Doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2017.04.022 – Journal of Clinical Epidemiology


Creanor S, Lloyd J, Hillsdon M, Dean S, Green C, Taylor RS, Ryan E, Wyatt K. 2016. Detailed statistical analysis plan for a cluster randomised controlled trial of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP), a novel school-based intervention to prevent obesity in school children Doi: 10.1186/s13063-016-1737-y – Trials

Fox EE, Hough AD, Creanor S, Gear M, Freeman JA. 2016. Effects of Pilates-Based Core Stability Training in Ambulant People With Multiple Sclerosis: Multicenter, Assessor-Blinded, Randomized Controlled Trial Doi: 10.2522/ptj.20150166 – Physical Therapy

Freeman JA, Hendrie W, Creanor S, Jarrett L, Barton A, Green C, Marsden J, Rogers E, Zajicek J. 2016. Standing up in multiple sclerosis (SUMS): protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial evaluating the clinical and cost effectiveness of a home-based self-management standing frame programme in people with progressive multiple sclerosis Doi: 10.1186/s12883-016-0581-8 – BMC Neurology

Patel N, Batten T, Roberton A, Enki D, Wansbrough G, Davis J. 2016. A comparison of energy consumption between the use of a walking frame, crutches and a Stride-on rehabilitation scooter Doi: 10.1016/j.foot.2016.04.002 – The Foot

Hilton DA, Shivane A, Kirk L, Bassiri K, Enki DG, Hanemann CO. 2016. Activation of multiple growth factor signalling pathways is frequent in meningiomas Doi: 10.1111/neup.12266 – Neuropathology

Enki DG, Garthwaite PH, Farrington CP, Noufaily A, Andrews NJ, Charlett A. 2016. Comparison of Statistical Algorithms for the Detection of Infectious Disease Outbreaks in Large Multiple Surveillance Systems Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0160759 – PLOS ONE

Noufaily A, Farrington P, Garthwaite P, Enki DG, Andrews N, Charlett A. 2016. Detection of infectious disease outbreaks from laboratory data with reporting delays Doi: 10.1080/01621459.2015.1119047 – Journal of American Statistical Association

Williams EL, Stimpson ML, Collins PL, Enki DG, Sinha A, Lee RW, Dhanda AD. 2016. Development and validation of a novel bioassay to determine glucocorticoid sensitivity Doi: 10.1186/s40364-016-0079-y – Biomarker Research

Whitehouse KJ, Jeyaretna DS, Enki DG, Whitfield PC. 2016. Head injury in the elderly: what are the outcomes of neurosurgical care? Doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2016.07.057 – World Neurosurgery

Enki DG, Noufaily A, Farrington P, Garthwaite P, Andrews N, Charlett A. 2016. Taylor’s power law and the statistical modelling of infectious disease surveillance data Doi: 10.1111/rssa.12181 – Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A

Mostazir M, Jeffery A, Hosking J, Metcalf B, Voss L, Wilkin T. 2016. Evidence for energy conservation during pubertal growth. A 10-year longitudinal study (EarlyBird 71) Doi: 10.1038/ijo.2016.158 – International Journal of Obesity

Tan HK, Little SA, Leelarathna L, Walkinshaw E, Lubina-Solomon A, Hosking J, Speight J, Kerr D, Heller SR, Evans ML, Shaw JAM, Flanagan D. 2016. Low–Blood Glucose Avoidance Training Improves Glycemic Variability in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes Complicated by Impaired Awareness of Hypoglycemia: HypoCOMPaSS Trial Doi: 10.2337/dc15-2431 – Diabetes Care


Smith JE, Rockett M, Creanor S, Squire R, Hayward C, Ewings P, Barton A, Pritchard C, Eyre V, Cocking L, Benger J. 2015. PAin SoluTions In the Emergency Setting (PASTIES)-patient controlled analgesia versus routine care in emergency department patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain: randomised trial Doi: 10.1136/bmj.h3147 – BMJ

Smith JE, Rockett M, Creanor S, Squire R, Hayward C, Ewings P, Barton A, Pritchard C, Eyre V, Cocking L, Benger J. 2015. PAin SoluTions In the Emergency Setting (PASTIES)-patient controlled analgesia versus routine care in emergency department patients with pain from traumatic injuries: randomised trial Doi: 10.1136/bmj.h2988 – BMJ

Lai CW, Starkie T, Creanor S, Struthers RA, Portch D, Erasmus PD, Mellor N, Hosie KB, Sneyd JR, Minto G. 2015. Randomised controlled trial of stroke volume optimisation during elective major abdominal surgery in patients stratified by aerobic fitness Doi: 10.1093/bja/aev299 – British Journal of Anaesthesia

Madhu C, Hashim H, Enki DG, Yaasin M, Drake M. 2015. Coital incontinence: what can we learn from urodynamic assessment? Doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2015.02.007 – Urology

Madhu C, Enki DG, Yaasin M, Drake M, Hashim H. 2015. Functional effects of cigarette smoking on the lower urinary tract: a urodynamic perspective Doi: 10.1159/000438928 – Urologia Internationalis

Whitehouse KJ, Jeyaretna SD, Enki DG, Whitfield PC. 2015. Head injury in the elderly Doi: 10.3109/02688697.2015.1022328 – British Journal of Neurosurgery

Pinfold V, Sweet D, Porter I, Quinn C, Bying R, Griffiths C, Billsborough J, Enki DG, Chandler R, Webber M, Larsen J, Carpenter J, Huxley P. 2015. Improving community health networks for people with severe mental illness: a case study investigation Doi: 10.3310/hsdr03050 – Health Services and Delivery Research

Madhu CK, Hashim H, Enki D, Drake MJ. 2015. Risk factors and functional abnormalities associated with adult onset secondary nocturnal enuresis in women Doi: 10.1002/nau.22912 – Neurourology and Urodynamics

Metcalf BS, Hosking J, Jeffery AN, Henley WE, Wilkin TJ. 2015. Exploring the Adolescent Fall in Physical Activity: A 10-yr Cohort Study (EarlyBird 41) Doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000644 – Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

Metcalf BS, Hosking J, Henley WE, Jeffery AN, Mostazir M, Voss LD, Wilkin TJ. 2015. Physical activity attenuates the mid-adolescent peak in insulin resistance but by late adolescence the effect is lost: a longitudinal study with annual measures from 9–16 years (EarlyBird 66) Doi: 10.1007/s00125-015-3714-5 – Diabetologia

Nason G, Stevens K. 2015. Bayesian Wavelet Shrinkage of the Haar-Fisz Transformed Wavelet Periodogram Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0137662 – PLOS ONE

Jeffery A, Streeter AJ, Hosking J, Wilkin TJ, Nelson SM. 2015. Anti-Müllerian hormone in children: a ten-year prospective longitudinal study (EarlyBird 39) Doi: 10.1515/jpem-2014-0517 – Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism


Creanor S, Millward BA, Demaine A, Price L, Smith W, Brown N, Creanor SL. 2014. Patients' attitudes towards screening for diabetes and other medical conditions in the dental setting Doi: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2013.1247 – British Dental Journal

Langford R, Brown I, Vickery J, Mitchell K, Pritchard C, Creanor S. 2014. Study protocol for a double blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of continuous subpectoral local anaesthetic infusion for pain and shoulder function following mastectomy: SUB-pectoral Local anaesthetic Infusion following MastEctomy (SUBLIME) study Doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006318 – BMJ Open

Enki DG, Noufaily A, Farrington CP. 2014. A time-varying shared frailty model with application to infectious diseases Doi: 10.1214/13-AOAS693 – The Annals of Applied Statistics

Noufaily A, Ghebremichael-Weldeselassie Y, Enki DG, Garthwaite PH, Andrews N, Charlett A, Farrington P. 2014. Modeling reporting delays for outbreak detection in infectious disease data Doi: 10.1111/rssa.12055 – Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A

Jeffery AN, Metcalf BS, Hosking J, Mostazir MB, Voss LD, Wilkin TJ. 2014. Awareness of body weight by mothers and their children: repeated measures in a single cohort (EarlyBird 64) Doi: 10.1111/cch.12167 – Child: Care, Health and Development

Hosking J, Metcalf BS, Jeffery AN, Streeter AJ, Voss LD, Wilkin TJ. 2014. Divergence between HbA1c and fasting glucose through childhood: implications for diagnosis of impaired fasting glucose ( EarlyBird 52) Doi: 10.1111/pedi.12082 – Pediatric Diabetes

Voss LD, Hosking J, Metcalf BS, Jeffery AN, Fremeaux AE, Wilkin TJ. 2014. Metabolic risk in contemporary children is unrelated to socio-economic status: longitudinal study of a UK urban population (EarlyBird 42) Doi: 10.1111/pedi.634 – Pediatric Diabetes

Jeffery AN, Hyland ME, Hosking J, Wilkin TJ. 2014. Mood and its association with metabolic health in adolescents: a longitudinal study, EarlyBird 65 Doi: 10.1111/pedi.12125 – Pediatric Diabetes

Clarke-Harris R, Wilkin TJ, Hosking J, Pinkney J, Jeffery AN, Metcalf BS, Godfrey KM, Voss LD, Lillycrop KA, Burdge GC. 2014. PGC1α promoter methylation in blood at 5-7 years predicts adiposity from 9 to 14 years (EarlyBird 50) Doi: 10.2337/db13-0671 – Diabetes

Pinkney J, Streeter A, Hosking J, Mostazir M, Jeffery A, Wilkin T. 2014. Adiposity, chronic inflammation and the prepubertal decline of sex hormone binding globulin in children: evidence for associations with the timing of puberty (EarlyBird 58) Doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-3902 – Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism


Gunn H, Creanor S, Haas B, Marsden J, Freeman J. 2013. Frequency, characteristics, and consequences of falls in multiple sclerosis: findings from a cohort study Doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2013.08.244 – Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation