Book pages turning over yellow background. Pages flipping over. Credit: Matthew Egginton, courtesy of Shutterstock


This page holds academic publications (journal and conference), technical papers, news and talks given by members of the group. These span a wide range of topics related to maritime cybersecurity.  
The Accepted Manuscripts (free to read) version of all our publications are on ResearchGate. These are also on PEARL, the University's open access repository. All news and events (with more links/photos) can be found on our LinkedIn account. Visit Maritime Cyber Threats research group to view the funding/authors for these papers.
Image: wordcloud made from paper titles.
wordcloud 2023 May~ publication titles


Erstad, E., Hopcraft, R., Palbar, J. D., & Tam, K. (2023). CERP: A Maritime Cyber Risk Decision Making Tool. TransNav
Gurren, J., Harish, A. V., Tam, K., & Jones, K. (2023, April). Security Implications of a Satellite Communication Device on Wireless Networks Using Pentesting. WiMob.
Walter, M. J., Barrett, A., Walker, D. J., & Tam, K. (2023). Adversarial AI testcases for maritime autonomous systems. AI, Computer Science and Robotics Technology.
Erstad, E., Hopcraft, R., Vineetha Harish, A., & Tam, K. (2023). A human-centred design approach for the development and conducting of maritime cyber resilience training. WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, 22(2), 241-266.
Söner, Ö., Kayisoglu, G., Bolat, P., & Tam, K. (2023). Cybersecurity risk assessment of VDR. The Journal of Navigation, 76(1), 20-37.
Hopcraft, R., Harish, A. V., Tam, K., & Jones, K. (2023). Raising the Standard of Maritime Voyage Data Recorder Security. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 11(2), 267.
Tam, K., Chang, B., Hopcraft, R., Moara-Nkwe, K., & Jones, K. (2023). Quantifying the econometric loss of a cyber-physical attack on a seaport. Front. Comput. Sci., 23 January 2023 Sec. Computer Security Volume 4 - 2022

Vineetha Harish A, Tam K, Jones K. Investigating the Security and Accessibility of Voyage Data Recorder Data using a USB attack. CYBER 2022: The Seventh International Conference on Cyber-Technologies and Cyber-Systems, Volume: ISBN: 978-1-61208-996-6, November 2022

Misas JP, Hopcraft R, Tam K. Future of Maritime Autonomy: Cybersecurity, Trust and Mariner’s Situational Awareness, Preprint, Institute of Marine Engineering, Science & Technology, November 2022

Tam K, Vineetha Harish A, Hopcraft R, Misas JP, Barrett D. Maritime Autonomous Ship System: AI and Security (MAS AIMSec) 2022 v2, Technical Report, University of Plymouth, October 2022

Kayişoğlu G, Yilmaz Bolat P, Tam K. Determining Maritime Cyber Security Dynamics and Development of Maritime Cyber Risk Check List for Ships. Conference Paper: IAMU AGA, October 2022

Kayişoğlu G, Yilmaz Bolat P, Tam K. Evaluating SLIM-based human error probability for ECDIS cybersecurity in maritime. The Journal of Navigation, October 2022

Hopcraft R, Tam K, Misas JP, Moara-Nkwe K, Jones K. Developing a maritime cyber safety culture: Improving safety of operations, MaritimeTechnology and Research, August 2022

Moara-Nkwe K, Tam K, Rowland C, and Jones K. Towards Smarter, Cleaner, and more Secure Maritime Ports, White paper written in consultation with UK Govt. Department for Transport and other organisations. Funded by University of Plymouth SPF Funding in 2021 to support research with local, regional, national, and international structures to effectively link with policy research priorities and opportunities. June 2022

Ross J, Walker D, Tam K, Jones K, Towards a Digital Twin of a Complex Maritime Site for Multi-Objective Optimization, 14th International Conference on Cyber Conflict: Keep Moving, Tallinn, Estonia, June 2022

Maritime Autonomous Ship System: AI and Security (MAS AIMSec) 2022 v2 (White Paper). A summary paper written after a workshop hosted at UoP for industry on industry needs and concerns for AI and security for MAS. 

Visky G, Lavrenovs A, Orye E, Heering D, Tam K. Multi-Purpose Cyber Environment for Maritime Sector, International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security, March 2022

Tam K, Hopcraft R, Moara-Nkwe K, Palbar Misas J, Andrews W, Vineetha Harish A, Giménez P, Crichton T, Jones K. Case Study of a Cyber-Physical Attack Affecting Port and Ship Operational Safety. Journal of Transportation Technologies > Vol.12 No.1, January 2022.

Hopcraft R, Tam K, Moara-Nkwe K, Jones K. Enhanced Transparency: Improving Maritime Cyber Governance. MARESEC, June 2021

Tam K, Hopcraft R, Crichton T, Jones K. The Potential Mental Health Effects of Remote Control in an Autonomous Maritime World. Journal of International Maritime Safety, Environmental Affairs, and Shipping May 2021

Tam K, Moara-Nkwe K, Jones K. A Conceptual Cyber-Risk Assessment of Port Infrastructure. World of Shipping Portugal, An International Research Conference on Maritime Affairs. January 2021

Tam K, Moara-Nkwe K, Jones K. The use of cyber ranges in the maritime context: Assessing maritime-cyber risks, raising awareness, and providing training. Maritime Technology and Research Vol 3 issue 1. July 2020

Tam K, Jones K D. "A Cyber-Security Review of Emerging Technology in the Maritime Industry" Conference: International Conference of Maritime Science & Technology NAŠE MORE, October 2019

Tam K, Jones K D. "Situational Awareness: Examining Factors that Affect Cyber-Risks in the Maritime Sector", International Journal on Cyber Situational Awareness (IJCSA), [accepted September 2019 – journal version of this paper]

Tam K, Forshaw K, Jones K D. "Cyber-SHIP: Developing Next Generation Maritime Cyber Research Capabilities", International Conference on Marine Engineering & Technology Oman (ICMET Oman) [accepted September 2019 – available December]

Tam K, Jones K. "Factors Affecting Cyber Risk in Maritime", IEEE Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics And Assessment (Cyber SA), Oxford, June 2019 [IJCSA journal version]

Tam K, Jones K. "Forensic Readiness within the Maritime Sector'", IEEE Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics And Assessment (Cyber SA), Oxford, June 2019

Karamperidis S and Moustakis F. "Cyber-security in the Maritime Sector: Previous cases and lessons learned from other sectors for commercial shipping", 3rd NMIOTC Cyber Security Conference, April 2019, Chania, Greece.

Tam K, Jones K. "MaCRA: A Model-Based Framework for Maritime Cyber-Risk Assessment", WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs [AM] Accepted 7 January 2019

Tam K, Jones K. Maritime cybersecurity policy: the scope and impact of evolving technology on international shipping [AM]. Journal of Cyber Policy, Accepted 03 August 2018, Published online: 29 August 2018

Tam K, Jones K. Cyber-Risk Assessment for Autonomous Ships, IEEE Cyber Security, 2018

Jones K, Tam K, and Papadaki M. Threats and Impacts in Maritime Cyber Security, IET Engineering & Technology Reference. April 2016

Talks, reports, news

Sense of Science Evidence Week in Parliament. July 4th 2023 [LinkedIn]
Juan Dorje Palbar Misas, Chloe Rowland and Aaron Barratt presented the work on "Future of Maritime Autonomy: Cybersecurity, Trust and Mariner's Situational Awareness" at the Combined Naval Event #cne2023 in Farnborough, UK. [LinkedIn][LinkedIn] May 2023
Professor Kevin Jones, Dr Kimberly Tam and Avanthika Vineetha Harish spoke at the JT "Let's Talk Security" event. Thanks to friend of Cyber-SHIP Lab and University of Plymouth alumnus, Jordan Gurren and colleagues for the invitation. April 2023. [LinkedIn]
Our own Chloe Rowland taking part in a panel discussion around academic research-informed perspectives on workforce development in the context of cyber security – part of the Australian Government-hosted Global Marine Transportation System Cybersecurity Symposium. Chloe and our University of Plymouth Maritime Cyber Threats Research Group leader, Professor Kevin Jones, have joined the Symposium at the Invitation of the Department for Transport (DfT), United Kingdom. [LinkedIn][LinkedIn] April 2023
Professor Kevin Jones, Chloe Rowland, and Dr Kimberly Tam's tour of Japan [ClassNK][British High Commission][link][Skuld/Sompo Japan Insurance Inc][Tokyo Uni Marine Science and Technology] January 2023
CS Talks is a lecture series hosted at TU Graz by the Faculty of Computer Science and Biomedical Engineering in cooperation with Know-Center. Its main focus is to show the profound importance of computer science in our modern society, as well as state-of-the-art applications and current challenges. On 28 March 2023, Dr Kimberly Tam delivered a presentation entitled “Why Maritime Cyber-security?
On 16 February 2023, University colleagues were invited by Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) to deliver a lecture towards discussing Cyber-MAR pilot 2. The aim was to raise awareness around maritime cyber-security, and the Cyber-MAR interconnected facilities (MaCRA/Econometric model, Testbed/cyber-range) used to do research and discuss findings. [post]
On 7 December 2022, Cyber-MAR project was presented by University colleague Mr Juan Palbar Misas to the Reardon Smith Nautical Trust.
Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands organised 8–10 November 2022 the International Ship Control Systems Symposium (iSCSS 2022). Cyber-MAR was represented by UoP colleagues, Juan Dorje Palbar Misas, Rory Hopcraft and Dr Kimberly Tam submitted a paper entitled “Future of Maritime Autonomy: Cybersecurity, Trust and Mariner’s Situation Awareness
Marine Autonomous Systems Showcase 2022 took place between 8–10 November 2022, in Southampton, UK. Dr Kimberly Tam from the Unievrsity delivered a speech on Cyber-security of evolving maritime technology.
Nov 2022 we held our 2nd maritime-themed hackathon for University students [post]
On 7 November 2022, at the UK Government Houses of Parliament, London, during the All Party Parliamentary Group on maritime cyber security of the UK Government, Mr Rory Hopcraft acting as both Speaker and Panellist participated in the Parliamentary Special Interest Group and delivered a presentation entitled: “Improving Maritime Digital Skills Turning Research into Operational Practices”. Part of this presentation was an extensive reference to Cyber-MAR project.
Cyber-SHIP Lab Annual Symposium 2022 took place 26–27 October 2022 at the International Maritime Organization, London.
Sea Tech Week® Septemver 26, 2022 included a conference, a professional trade fair, BtoB meetings, company and laboratory visits and a gala evening. University colleagues, namely Dr Kimberly Tam, Mrs Avanthika Vineetha Harish and Mrs Chloe Rowland, who delivered a presentation entitled: “Cyber-MAR: A real world attack scenario”
On 26 and 27 September 2022, at the Department for Transport US/UK Trade Mission, in New York, Mr Kevin Jones from the University, hosted a Special Interested Session panel and made a presentation entitled: “Port of New York Cyber-Attack Scenario”.
The Maritime Autonomous Ships – AIMSEC (Artificial Intelligence and Security) workshop took place on 13 September 2022, in Plymouth, UK. [post]
Kevin Forshaw, Kevin Jones and Kimberly Tam did a tour of Singapore and Malaysia during the first two weeks of September 2022. A*STAR Research Council – Singapore, Centre of Excellence for Autonomous & remotely OPerated vessels (CEAOPS) at Technology, Centre for Offshore and Marine, Singapore (TCOMS), Centre of Excellence in Modelling and Simulation for Next Generation Ports, National University of Singapore, Lloyds Register, Centre of Excellence in Maritime Safety (CEMS), Wartsila, Port of Penang in Malaysia, Peninsula College Ship campus in Malaysia.
DEF CON 30 took place on August 11–14, 2022 at Caesars Forum, Flamingo, Linq, and Harrah’s in Las Vegas, NV, USA. DEF CON 30 was a semi-hybrid event this year. University colleagues (Wesley Andrews, Avanthika Vineetha Harish, Rory Hopcraft, Juan Dorje Palbar Misas, Kevin Jones, Kimberly Tam, Chloe Rowland), who delivered a presentation for Cyber Physical Lab Environment for Maritime Cyber Security.
IMarEST Annual Conference 2022 took place 4 to 8 July 2022. The conference took place online (using the IMarEST’s online conference platform), with speakers and delegates able to attend, and network with each other, from anywhere in the world.  Dr Kimberly Tam, Lecturer in Cybersecurity & Academic lead of Cyber-SHIP Lab in University of Plymouth, presented Cyber-MAR, towards delivering a presentation entitled “Cybersecurity & Autonomy Understanding cyber related risks and vulnerabilities”.
Following Kevin Forshaw’s progress spreading the Cyber-SHIP Lab (amongst other messages) in Canada [post] June 2022
May 2022 Professor Kevin Jones and Chloe did a visit to India [VIT Chennai] [Indian Maritime University, Chennai] [Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University] [Synergy Marine Group]
Chloe at the South West Regional Defence and security cluster [link] 12 May 2022
After a hiatus of almost three years, Nor-Shipping, Your Arena for Ocean Solutions, was “back with a bang” in Norway between 4 and 7 April 2022. represented by Professor Kevin Jones (University of Plymouth). Professor Kevin Jones delivered a presentation on ‘Securing Maritime‘, on 6 April, 14:30– 5:00 at Hall E – Technical Seminar E1. His presentation included an executive summary of the latest maritime cyber threats research from the University of Plymouth, including real attacks on ships’ IT&OT physical twins. [post][post]
The 2021 Maritime Risk Symposium, hosted by the University of Houston College of Technology, was held 2–4 November 2021, in virtual format. Dr Kimberly Tam from University of Plymouth, delivered a presentation with the session entitled ‘Maritime Cybersecurity – The Business of Protection‘ on 3 November 2021.
The Cyber-SHIP Lab Annual Symposium took place 21–22 of October 2021, staged as an in-person/online hybrid event.
The Ergoship 2021 conference aimed to present the results of research related to MASS and Human Factors. The conference took place between 2 and 3 September 2021, in Korea Institute of Maritime and Fisheries Technology (KIMFT) in Busan, Republic of Korea and also in online mode.
The Marine Tech Expo 2021 took place virtually on 12 and 13 July 2021. The programme was focused both on the applications of autonomous technology and on the global agenda of sustainability, and the various innovations being developed, to tackle this agenda within the marine environment. Kevin Forshaw from University of Plymouth was one of the speakers during the first day in the session Data & Data Assurance
The Institute of Marine Engineering, Science & Technology (IMarEST) is an international membership body and learned society that brings marine engineers, scientists and technologists together. Τhe 2021 Annual Conference was held as a flexible two-week virtual event featuring multiple streams covering many of the hottest topics in the marine realm. Professor Kevin Jones from the University presented Cyber-MAR in the session entitled ‘Digitalisation & innovation in the marine sector‘ that was conducted on 28 June 2021.
The Research Festival took place between 28 June and 2 July 2021 and University colleagues talked about Cyber-MAR project, with reference also to the developed Cyber-SHIP Lab on 30 June.
The first European Workshop on Maritime Systems Resilience and Security (MARESEC 2021) was dedicated to the research on Resilience, Security, Technology and related Ethical, Legal, and Social Aspects (ELSA) in the context of Maritime Systems, including (Offshore/Onshore) Infrastructures, Navigation and Shipping, Autonomous Systems, etc. University colleagues prepared a technical paper entitled ‘Enhanced Transparency: Improving Maritime Cyber Governance‘, which is now under publication process in the conference proceedings and has been presented during the workshop.
Riviera has been organising internationally recognised maritime, offshore and energy conferences as well as webinars covering specific subject matter. The Maritime Cyber Tech & Ops Webinar Day took place on 10 June 2021. Colleagues from the University, participated in the Riviera media webinar entitled ‘Human factors in maritime cyber security‘ as part of the Maritime Cyber Tech & Ops Webinar Day. Rory Hopcraft was one of the panellists and provided a presentation entitled ‘Seafarer Digital Competencies‘.
Riviera has been organising internationally recognised maritime, offshore and energy conferences as well as webinars covering specific subject matter. The Maritime Cyber Security Webinar Week was held between 16 and 18 March 2021. Cyber-MAR colleagues from the University, participated in the Riviera media webinar entitled ‘Maritime’s zero-day exploit: port cyber security‘ as part of the Maritime Cyber Security Webinar Week, that took place on 17 March 2021. Dr Kemedi Moara-Nkwe was one of the panellists and provided a presentation entitled ‘Towards Secure Ports: Leveraging National Cyber-Security Centres to Improve Security‘.
Riviera Maritime Cybersecurity Week Webinar was held on 4–6 August 2020. Kimberly Tam from the University was one of the speakers during the webinar.

"Digital perils and risks at sea" The Insurance Insitute of London (Old Library, Lloyd's) 04 February 2020.

Professor Kevin Jones, Executive Dean Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth "Cyber-SHIP: Developing Next Generation Maritime Cyber Research Capabilities" Artificial Intelligence in the Marine and Maritime Environment (IMO event)
Tam K, 6th Annual Industrial Control Cybersecurity Europe, London October 2019, panel.
ICMET Oman 2019, MTC Campus in Muscat 5 November 2019. International Conference on Marine Engineering and Technology. Presentation on Cyber-SHIP by Professor Kevin Jones.
The NAŠE MORE Conference aimed to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers, research scholars and practitioners to exchange and share their experiences and research results about all aspects of maritime science and technology. Professor Kevin D. Jones from University of Plymouth, member of the Cyber-MAR consortium presented a Cyber Security Review of Emerging Technology in the Maritime Industry giving emphasis on Cyber-Ranges. 17 – 18 October 2019
Forshaw, K. SmartShip Exchange Athens, 9–11 October 2019
Jones, K, Norshipping: Safety at sea cyber security roundtable, 5 June 2019 Oslo [IHS Markit link]
Papadaki M. “Cyber Defence against Hybrid Threats in Maritime Domain”, invited presentation at Maritime Security Regimes Roundtable (MSR RT 2019) on improving Maritime Situational Awareness (MSA), Combined Joint Operations from the Sea (CJOS) 30 April–1 May 2019.
Tom Crichton, Maritime Cyber Presentation at the International Dry Bulk Terminals Group, Barcelona 10–12 April
Presented at the UK embassy in Athens Greece on maritime cyber-security [Hellenic Shipping News link] March 2019
The Minister for the Cabinet Office, the Rt Hon David Lidington CBE MP, visited the University to see marine and maritime excellence in action 
Cyber-podcast by the Honourable Company of Master Mariners (HCMM) [link not yet available]
MARITIME INFORMATION WARFARE 26 November 2018, London, United Kingdom
Cyber Security, October 2018 – the Fairplay survey results and what they mean for shipping [webinar] and IHS Safety at Sea Magazine 'Detecting The Risks' November 2018
Maritime Cyber Threats and Awareness Symposium, CyMar, London, 2 November 2018
Identifying Cyber-Threats, Devonport Naval Base, Engineering & Science Forum, June 2018
Marine Tech Expo "Maritime Cyber Risk" 21 June 2018 
Maritime Cyber Threats and Awareness Symposium, CyMar, 1 June 2018, Plymouth
Presentation to South West Company of Master Mariners, “Big Ships, Big Data and Big Risks” – A Beginners Guide to Maritime CyberSecurity, 25 May 2018.
Future Cities London Forum: Maritime cyber-attack will cost our cities, October 2017
Jones K, Tam K. UK Security Expo 2017, Maritime & Transport Security Conference. November 2017
Tam K, Jones K. Maritime Cyber Risk: Model-Based Assessments for the Global Fleet, at MRS 2017, US Merchant Marine Academy, and Rutgers. November 2017
Karamperidis, S., 2017. Comparative study between physical and cyber-crime in shipping sector. Report was produced for Supply Chain Risk Industry Partnership, October 2017.
Kevin D Jones "Maritime Cyber Threats". NATO Maritime Interdiction Operational Training Centre (NMIOTC) June 2015
Kevin D Jones "Maritime Cyber Threats: 'The State of the Nation'". NATO Maritime Interdiction Operational Training Centre (NMIOTC) October 
June 2023 A series of online training courses, organised by Cyber-MAR EU project, will be held between 15 and 16 June, 2021 with Rory Hopcraft and Kimberly Tam [link]
Marine Biology induction image of a Jellyfish. Courtesy of Shutterstock.