Dr Sandra Barkhof

Dr Sandra Barkhof

Lecturer in History

School of Society and Culture (Faculty of Arts, Humanities and Business)

Dr Sandra Barkhof can be contacted through arrangement with our Press Office, to speak to the media on these areas of expertise.
  • German history
  • German Pacific colonies
  • First World War/civilian internment
  • Postcolonial Germany
  • Cold War Space Race
  • Star Trek


Lecturer in Modern History


MSc Social Research

PhD Politics (University of Plymouth)

Professional membership

HEA Teaching Fellow


The International Society for First World War Studies

The German Studies Association

German History Society



Teaching interests

  • German History esp. Imperial Germany and German colonialism
  • Cold War history including Soviet Russia, the spread of communism, Germany and the Cold War, The Space Race, Sino-Soviet relations
  • WW1 history especially the global war (war in the colonies with focus on the Pacific, civilian internment, German POW in Japan, enemy alien policies etc)



Research interests

My research centers on Germany's Pacific colonies during WW1 including the German colony of Tsingtau (China) and the German POW in Japan during the First World War. I am also researching German POW and civilian interness in Australia and New Zealand during WW1. I have recently started to focus on interwar German post-colonialism and colonial revisionism, colonial memoir and colonial memory in relation to decolonisation and post-colonial moralization. 


International Asian Arts and Humanities Conference in Osaka/Japan (2010)

German Historical Institute's Annual Conference in Oakland/USA (2010)

War and Displacement Conference in Plymouth (2011) 

International WW1 Conference in London (2014)

AHRC symposium on Alternate Spaces in Plymouth (2014)

First World War and the Homefront Conference at the NA, London, September 2016

Gender and History workshop: Gender and Global Warfare in the Twentieth Century (Minneapolis, May 2015)

Internment Conference, NWM North (Manchester, May 2015) 

International Conference of the International Society for First World War Studies in Melbourne (2018).

Workshop WW1, Qingdao and the German POW in Japan in Heidelberg (2019)



Key publications

Key publications are highlighted


Barkhof, S (2017) 'German Prisoners of War in Japan during the First World War: Letters from the Colonial Frontline’. In: Journal of War and Culture Studies (Vol 10, No 3)

Barkhof, S (2006) European Identity and the European Dimension in Secondary Education. In: The International Journal of Diversity in Organisations, Communities and Nations, Vol 6, issue 5, pp.143-152

Barkhof S (2017) 'German Prisoners of War in Japan During the First World War: Letters from the Colonial Frontline' Journal of War & Culture Studies 10, (3) 253-265 , DOI Open access
Barkhof S (2015) 'Women and Democracy in Cold War Japan, by Jan Bardsley' The English Historical Review 130, (546) 1280-1282 , DOI
Barkhof S (2009) 'Germany: The Long Road West, 1933-1990, vol 2' HISTORY 94, (313) 128-129 Author Site , DOI
Barkhof S (2008) 'Gender, taste, and material culture in Britain and North America, 1700-1830' HISTORY 93, (311) 429-430 Author Site , DOI
Barkhof S (2008) 'The China question: Great Power rivalry and British isolation, 1894-1905' HISTORY 93, (311) 408-409 Author Site , DOI
Barkhof S (2008) 'Germany: The long road west, 1789-1933, vol 1' HISTORY 93, (309) 135-136 Author Site , DOI
Barkhof S (2006) 'European Identity and the European Dimension in Secondary Education' The International Journal of Diversity in Organisations, Communities and Nations 6, (5) 143-152
David M & Barkhof S (1999) 'IT in the social sciences: A student's guide to the information and communications technologies' SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW 47, (3) 634-637 Author Site

Angela K Smith and S Barkhof (eds), War and Memory in the Twentieth Century (London, New York: Routledge, 2018).

Barkhof, S and A K Smith, eds, (2014) War and Displacement in the Twentieth Century. New York: Routledge

Smith AK & Barkhof S (2018) Introduction. Routledge , DOI
(2018) War, Experience and Memory in Global Cultures Since 1914. Routledge , DOI
(2016) The Routledge Handbook of Ethnic Conflict. Routledge , DOI
Smith AK & Barkhof S (2014) Introduction: The no-man’s-land of displacement. , DOI

Barkhof, Sandra. “Internment and enemy alien policy in German Samoa 1914-18” (10,000 words) In: Panikos Panayi, Stefan Manz and Matthew Stibbe (eds) Internment During the First World War ( London, New York: Routledge, 2018).

Barkhof, S (2011) Playing the Ethnic Card: Liberal Democratic and Authoritarian Practices Compared. In: Cordell, K and Wolff, S (ED) Routledge Handbook of Ethnic Conflict

Smith AK & Barkhof S (2015) 'War and Displacement in the Twentieth Century: Global Conflicts' in Smith AK; Barkhof S New York and London Routledge 1-277
Barkhof S (2010) 'Routledge handbook of ethnic conflict' in Cordell K; Wolff S Routledge handbook of ethnic conflict Taylor & Francis US
Conference Papers
Barkhof S (2018) 'The New Zealand occupation of German Samoa during the First World War, 1914–18' Routledge 205-226 , DOI
Barkhof S (2018) '“My War Experiences in Samoa”' Routledge 213-235 , DOI
Barkhof S (2011) 'The German Pacific Colonies during WW1' War and Displacement University of Plymouth 9-/-0/20119-/-0/2011
Barkhof S (2010) 'Japanese-German relations and German Prisoners-of-War in Japan 1915-1919' German Studies Association Annual Conference Oakland, USA 0-/-1/20100-/-1/2010
Barkhof S (2010) '‘Germany’s Forgotten War’- German POW from Tsingtau in Japanese POW camps during WW1' Asian Conference on Arts and Humanities Osaka 6-/-0/20106-/-0/2010


Reports & invited lectures

Lecture 'German POW in Japan', Siebold Museum, Wurzburg (2016)

Lecture 'WW1 in the Pacific), public lecture University of Plymouth and HA (Nov 2019)

Conferences organised

War and Displacement Conference, Plymouth University, September 2011

Alternative Spaces of War, Plymouth University, July 2015