Dr John Tredinnick-Rowe

Dr John Tredinnick-Rowe

PenARC Research Fellow

Peninsula Medical School (Faculty of Health: Medicine, Dentistry and Human Sciences)


Research Assistant - Ehealth Market Research and Innovation (0.6 FTE)

Research Fellow - Complex Interventions at PenCLAHRC (0.4 FTE)


PhD Medical Services  (Exeter Medical School)

Professional membership

2016 – 2018 Association for the Study of Medical Education.

2016 – 2019 Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain.

2017 – 2019 International Association for Semiotic Studies.

2019 – 2020 Society for Academic Primary Care. 

Roles on external bodies

Work as a Journal Reviewer

I have reviewed papers for Tourism Management, Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, Oceans and Coastal Management and the BMJ Medical Humanities Journal. I have reviewed NIHR Health Services and Delivery Research Programme submissions as a methodological expert (ethnography).

Work as a Book Series Editor

I am on the editorial board of the forthcoming Springer book series Numanities– Arts and Humanities in Progress. This is a 7-year contract.  I have been involved in editing the following the first four volumes.

I am also on the Cambridge Scholars Editorial Advisory Board for Publications that relate to marketing, specifically texts that concern: positional marketing, marketing semiotics, healthcare marketing, and the sociology of marketing.

Teaching interests

I teach on the University's Masters in Clinical Education (MClinEd), especially on the Post-Graduate Diploma level course 'Assessment in Clinical Education’. My teaching relates to medical remediation and the assessment of validity in medical education. This covers a range of educational, psychological and psychometric theory.

The course attracts a wide variety of student from clinical professionals and applied health care as well as intercalating medical students. In addition, I ran the administration of this course and was responsible for the benchmark and marking of assignments on assessment design and reflective critical pieces. I also teach a Student Selected Unit (SSU) in the philosophy of diagnosis.

Research interests

Research Themes: Medical Revalidation and Appraisal, Remediation, Medical Education, Medical Semiotics, Biosemiotics, Theoretical Biology, Medical Service Innovation, Medical Service Evaluation, Process Evaluation, Complex Interventions, Clinical Trials, Null-effect Trials, eHealth, Health Technology, Socio-linguistics, Semiology, Edusemiotics, Scholastic Realism, Political Nationalism

Favourite Theorists: Bourdieu, Deleuze-Guattari, Foucault, Charles Sanders Peirce, Giannozzo Manetti, Thur von Uexküll, Kalevi Kull, John Deely.

Theoretical Interests: Normalisation Process Theory, Social Capital, Habitus, Policy Implementation, Suprasubjectivity.

Grants & contracts


-     Principal Applicant: Cornwall and Isles of Scilly Digital Health Technology Incubator: Testing, trials and evaluation of digital health technology, Higher Education Academy £21,303.


-      Principal Applicant: Cornwall and Isles of Scilly Digital Health Technology Sandbox: Testing, trials and evaluation of digital health technology, Creative England, £40,000 (Deferred to Higher Education Academy system).

-      Co-applicant: Evaluating the impact of an electronic consultation tool in primary care: A mixed methods evaluation in Devon and Cornwall, funded through NHS Kernow CCG & NHS Northern, Eastern And Western Devon CCG, £90,000.

    -  Co-applicant: European Social Fund: Two Seas Programme, Healthy Ageing through Innovation in Rural Europe (HAIRE). In preparation for the first round (Projected €5.2 million). 

-      Principal Applicant:  Santander Undergraduate, postgraduate & staff Mobility Support  Scholarship 2017-18: Medical Semiology £5000.


-      Principal Applicant: Society for Research into Higher Education, Annual Research Awards £10,000 (Unsuccessful)

-      Principal Applicant: Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain and Ireland: Small Grant £689.

    Principal Applicant: PedRIO: Pedagogic Research and Teaching Innovation Fund – (An International Systematic Review of Medical Semiology) £5,000.


-      Co-applicant: Project Equinox: A Feasibility Study Proposal, for Project Equinox £6,780.

-      Principal Applicant: Council of Europe Travel fund to travel to 5-day workshop €369 plus accommodation and expenses.


-      Principal Applicant: The Lithuanian Council for Culture, Fee for delivering 5-day workshop - €450 plus accommodation and expenses.

-      Principal Applicant: Foundation for the Sociology of Health and Illness Post-Grad International Travel Grant £506.

-      Principal Applicant: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Travel Grant £75.


-      Principal Applicant: Royal Economics Society International Conference Grant £250.

-      Principal Applicant: University of Exeter Business School Travel Grant £200.

   Principal Applicant: Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry conference funding £250.  


-      Principal Applicant: COST ACTION IS1204 Tourism, Wellbeing and Ecosystem Services (TObeWELL) short-term scientific mission (STSM) € 2,498.

Creative practice & artistic projects


Second place award for a photo-ethnography exhibition, at the University of Plymouth’s Doctoral College Images of Research exhibition in January 2019.

Peer Reviewed Publications

Journal Articles


Tredinnick-Rowe, J., Walshe, K., Price, T. (2019). Implementing medical revalidation in the UK: a policy review (in preparation for BMC Medical Education).

Wakeling, Judy. Holmes, Sarah. Boyd, Alan. Bryce, Marie. Cameron, Niall. Marshall, Martin. Tredinnick-Rowe, John. Archer, Julian. (2019) Reflective practice for patient benefit: an analysis of doctors’ appraisal portfolios in Scotland. (Accepted in the Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions in press).

Price, T. Walsh, K. Tredinnick-Rowe, J. Tazzyman, Ferguson, J. Boyd, A. Bryce, M. Archer, J.  (2019). Reshaping clinical governance: a qualitative study of reforms to professional regulation and their effects on clinical accountability in the NHS in England. (Submitted to BMJ Quality and Safety).

Ferguson, J., Tazzyman, A. Walshe, K. Boyd, A., Archer, J., Bryce, M., Tredinnick-Rowe, J. Price, T. (2019). “You’re just a locum”: social identity and temporary workers in the medical profession (Accepted in Social Science and Medicine, in press).

Tazzyman, A., Bryce, M., Ferguson, J., Walshe, K., Boyd, A., Price, T., and Tredinnick-Rowe, J. (2019). Reforming regulatory relationships: the impact of medical revalidation on doctors, employers and the General Medical Council in the United Kingdom (Accepted in Regulation and Governance, in press). https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/rego.12237

Tazzyman, A, Ferguson, J., Bryce, A., Boyd, A., Tredinnick-Rowe, J. Archer, J., Walsh, K. (2019). Reforming medical regulation: a qualitative study of the implementation of medical revalidation in England, using Normalisation Process Theory (Accepted in Journal of Health Services Research & Policy, in press).

Tredinnick-Rowe, J. (2019). Winter Anthropology in Finland: exploring environmental human health in lowlight conditions (submitted to Medicine Anthropology Theory).



Tredinnick-Rowe, J. (2018) Can Semiotics be used to Drive Paradigm Changes in Medical Education? Sign System Studies 46 (4), P.491 -516 http://dx.doi.org/10.12697/SSS.2018.46.4.05

Tredinnick-Rowe J, Taylor T, Tuohino A. (2018). Public Health and Well-being Innovation in the Natural Environment Sector: Lessons from the UK and Finland. European Journal of Environment and Public Health. 2018; 2 (2), 08. https://doi.org/10.20897/ejeph/3904

Tredinnick-Rowe, J. (2018). Increasing the efficiency of a solar oven/ Aumentando la eficiencia de un horno solar. Campus 22 (24), P.149 – 170. http://www.usmp.edu.pe/campus/pdf/revista24/articulo1.pdf

Tredinnick-Rowe, J. (2018). Reflexiones sobre el refinamiento modular y el aprendizaje interprofesional en la educación clínica, Revista - Cátedra Villarreal 6, (1) P.11-15 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24039/cv201861250

Mindaugas Gapševičius, John Tredinnick-Rowe, Juan Pablo Diaz, Lina Rukevičiūtė, Brian Degger. (2018). Semiotic Thresholds, Between Arts and Biological Science: Green Technology and the Concept of Phytomining Semiotic Review, 6, 1 -25


Anbleyth-Evans, J. Tredinnick-Rowe, J. (2018). Aggregate dredging impacts in South East England: Improving ecological health by integrating fisher ecological knowledge with scientific research, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 135, P.129-138 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.06.051

Tazzyman, A. Ferguson, J., Walshe, K. Boyd, A. Tredinnick-Rowe, J. Hillier, C. Archer, J. (2018). The evolving purposes of medical revalidation in the United Kingdom: a qualitative study of professional and regulatory narratives. Academic Medicine 93 (4), P. 642–647 DOI:10.1097/ACM.0000000000001993 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5895134/          

Bryce, M.. Luscombe, K. Boyd, A. Tazzyman, A. Tredinnick-Rowe, J., Walsh, K.  Archer, J. (2017). Policing the profession? Regulatory reform, restratification and the emergence of Responsible Officers as a new locus of power in UK medicine Social Science and Medicine, 213, P.98-105 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.07.042



Tredinnick-Rowe, J.  (2017). Sign, Symptom and Sale – towards a semiotic oncology, (Accepted in Semiotica, forthcoming) doi: https://doi.org/10.1515/sem-2016-0107

Tredinnick-Rowe,J.  (2017). ¿Que es la Semiótica Médica? Revista - Cátedra Villarreal 4 (2) Pp.135 -155 -   ISSN: 2311-2212.

Tredinnick-Rowe, J. (2017). The (Re)-Introduction of Semiotics into medical Education: a literature review of the works of Thure von Uexküll’sGermanophone works. BMJ Medical Humanities, 42 Pp. 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/medhum-2016-010969

Tredinnick-Rowe, J. (2016). In Search of Thure von Uexküll: Psychosomatician? Biosemiotician? or Clinical Educator? Semiotics 2015: Virtual Identities. Legas Publishing, Ottawa, ON. Pp223-236 doi:10.5840/cpsem201524  

Tredinnick-Rowe, J. (2016). The Global Diffusion and Application of Medical Semiotics: From Medical Semiotics to MedicalSemiology. Association for Medical Humanities International Journal Conference2016 1 (1). P22-3   ISBN:978-0-9955193-0-5  

Tredinnick-Rowe,J. (2017). The Semiotics of Minority Language Branding: a study in the Celtic languages. Submitted to the InternationalJournal of Marketing Semiotics.  Vol5, ISSN: 2195-2280, p2-17. https://ijms.files.wordpress.com/2017/08/ijms-vol-v1.pdf

Walshe,K.  Boyd, A.  Bryce, M. Luscombe, K. Tazzyman, A. Tredinnick-Rowe, J. Archer, J. (2017). Implementing medical revalidation in the UnitedKingdom: findings about organisational changes and impacts from a survey of Responsible Officers Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 110 (1) pp. 23–30 http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0141076816683556

Tazzyman,A, Ferguson, J., Hillier, C., Boyd, A., Tredinnick-Rowe, J. Archer, J., Regande Bere, S., Walsh, K. (2017).The implementation of medical revalidation: an assessment using normalisation process theory. BMC Health Services Research 17, Pp 749 -755,  DOI: 101.1186/s12913-017-2710-5 https://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12913-017-2710-5  


Tredinnick-Rowe, J., Taylor, T. (2016). ¿Cuán saludable es mi Diseño? Cómo medir los beneficios psicológicos y físicos de los equiposde juego para niños. Campus, 21,Pp11- 24, ISSN: 1812-6049 http://www.repositorioacademico.usmp.edu.pe/bitstream/usmp/2167/1/11-24.pdf

Tredinnick-Rowe, J. (2015). The Paradox of Giving– insights into the gift economy, in Semiotics2014: The Semiotics of Paradox. Legas Publishing, Ottawa, ON.Pp 119-134, doi: 10.5840/cpsem20147

Willett, J. and Tredinnick-Rowe,J. (2016). The Fragmentation of the Nation State? Regional Development, Distinctiveness, and the Growth of Nationalism in Cornish Politics, Nations and Nationalism 22 (4), Pp.768–785https://doi.org/10.1111/nana.12188


Non-Peer Reviewed Publications

Book Chapters


Tredinnick-Rowe, J. (2018). The Role of Pedagogy in Clinical Education (Ed), Olga Bernad Cavero & Nuria Llevot Calvet. In, New Pedagogical Challenges in the 21st Century -Contributions of Research in Education, Intech: London, P269-285. ISBN 978-953-51-5488-4 https://www.intechopen.com/books/new-pedagogical-challenges-in-the-21st-century-contributions-of-research-in-education/the-role-of-pedagogy-in-clinical-education


Tredinnick-Rowe, J. (2017). Feminism in Cornwall( Ed). Gerard Bona i Fonoll, Fflur Arwel and Iva Petković. In, Feminism in the Peripheries of Europe. Centre MauritsCoppieters.  Brussels. Pp 68 – 79. 

Alfonsi,François. Zañartu, Max. Macias, Xabier. Dauwen, Günther. (2017). Imagi-nation: 100 years of political visual communication on self-determination. Centre Maurits Coppieters. Brussels.ISBN: 978-90-826321-2-5 (I collected some of the visual plates for the publication)

Taylor, Tim. Tredinnick-Rowe, John. (2017). Critical issues in ageing, tourism, wellbeing and ecosystem services (Ed), Gareth saw. In, Tourism, Wellbeing and Ecosystem Services (accepted - forthcoming).


Tredinnick-Rowe, J. And Taylor, T. (2015). Contested Natures: lessons from environmental and human health. In: The Role of Humanities in Contemporary Society: Semiotics, Culture, Technologies. Selected Proceedings from the 1st International Congress of Numanities. Eds. Audronė Daubarienė, Dario Martinelli.   Pp159-167. ISBN:978-609-02-1139-7

Tredinnick-Rowe.J. (2015) Cornwall: employment in a rural periphery (Eds). Olrik Bouma. InSocio-economic Youth Issues. Centre Maurits Coppieters. (Unpublished –available on request)

Tredinnick-Rowe.J. And Khanwalkar, S. (2015). Cornish Self-determination: a semiotic analysis of political cartooning. (Ed). Gerard Bona i Fonoll. In Democracy and European Emerging Values: The Right to decide.  Centre Maurits Coppieters.  Brussels. Pp. 22-43.


Rowe, J. and Taylor, T. (2014) The use of local culture and sustainability in local food and beverage entrepreneurship: Case studies in Cornwall (Eds) Philip Sloan et al. In, The Routledge handbook of Sustainable Food and Gastronomy. Abingdon, Pp 96- 110


Rowe, J. (2012) Being young in Cornwall (Ed). Jana Baceva, In, The Future of Europe: An Integrated Youth Approach.  CentreMaurits Coppieters. Brussels.  Pp 14-23

PhD Thesis

Tredinnick-Rowe, John. (2015). Positioning the environment as a health and well-being resource: a Bourdieusian approach.  (Unpublished PhD thesis) Peninsula Colleges of Medicine and Dentistry.  http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.703105


Book Reviews


Review of Bonnin, Juan Eduado (2019) Discourse and Mental Health: Voice, inequality and resistance in medical settings. Routledge: Oxford. For Social Semiotics (Forthcoming)


Review of Olteanu, Alin (2015). Philosophy of education in the Semiotics of Charles Peirce: A Cosmology of Learning and loving, Peter Lang, Oxford.  For Journal of Philosophy of Education. http://www.philosophy-of-education.org/publications/book-review-philosophy-of-education-in-the-semiotics-of-charles-peirce.html


Review of DeShazer, Mary K. (2013).Mammographies: The Cultural Discourses of Breast Cancer Narratives, University of Michigan Press, Michigan.   For Sociology of Health and Illness. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-9566.12319/abstract


News Articles

I have contributed articles to the online news journal - Nationalia

Tredinnick-Rowe. 2016. Brexit and Stateless Nations, why does Cornwall have Eurosceptics? In Nationalia.http://www.nationalia.info/opinion/10688/brexit-and-stateless-nations-why-does-cornwall-have-eurosceptics

A Catalán version can be found here:  http://www.nationalia.cat/opinion/10688/brexit-and-stateless-nations-why-does-cornwall-have-eurosceptics?llengua_ant=ca

External Reports


Archer, J., Cameron, N., Lewis, M., Marshall, M., Regan de Bere, S., Walshe, K., Wilson. S., Boyd, A., Bryce, M., Ferguson, J., Holmes, S., Lalani, M., Baines, R., Rae, P., Roberts, M., Tazzyman, A., Tredinnick-Rowe, J., Wakeling, J., Zahra, D. Gabe-Thomas, E., Stevens, S. (2018). UK Medical Revalidation Collaboration, Evaluating the regulatory impact of medical revalidation; final report April 2018 for the General Medical Council.



Price, T. Regan de Bere, S. Archer, J. Ayres, R. Baines, R. Gravett, T.  Stevens, S. Tredinnick-Rowe, J. (2017). SustainingProject Equinox: A Feasibility Study. Plymouth.

Archer, J., Cameron, N., Lewis, M., Marshall, M., Regan de Bere, S., Walshe, K., Wilson. S., Boyd, A., Bryce, M., Ferguson, J., Holmes, S., Lalani, M., Baines, R., Rae, P., Roberts, M., Tazzyman, A., Tredinnick-Rowe, J., Wakeling, J., Zahra, D. Gabe-Thomas, E., Stevens, S. (2017). UK Medical Revalidation Collaboration, Evaluating the regulatory impact of medical revalidation; progress report January 2017 for the General Medical Council.


Archer, J.,Cameron, N., Laugharne, K., Marshall, M., Regan de Bere, S., Walshe, K.,  Boyd, A., Bryce, M., Hillier, C., Holmes, S.,Howarth, S., Lalani, M., Roberts, M., Tazzyman, A., Tredinnick-Rowe, J.,Wakeling, J., Zahra, D., Gabe-Thomas, E., Stevens. S. (2016). UK MedicalRevalidation Collaboration Interim report for the General Medical Council. Available at http://www.gmc-uk.org/UMbRELLA_interim_report_FINAL.pdf_65723741.pdf.

Walshe, K., Archer, J., Boyd, A., Bloor, K., Gutacker, N., Bojke, C., Tazzyman, A., Hillier, C., Tredinnick-Rowe, J., Luscombe, K. (2016). Evaluating the development of medical revalidation in England and its impact on organisational performance and medical practice Interim Report for theDepartment of Health Policy Research Programme (PR-R9-0114-11002).


Tredinnick-Rowe, J. (2013). Report for COST ACTION IS1204: Tourism, Wellbeing and Ecosystem Services (TObeWELL) Short TermScientific Mission – STSM. Accessible at: http://www.tobewell.eu/stsm/year1reports/

Conference papers


Tredinnick-Rowe, J. Association for Medical Humanities Annual Conference: Material Medicine: Objects and Bodies. Objects, Signs and Representamen in Medicine: the story of Peircean semiotics. Plymouth, UK, June 26-28, 2019.


Tredinnick-Rowe, J. Medical semiotics and medical semiology in South America, Peruvian Research Network, Queen Mary University, London. 3rd May 2018         


Tredinnick-Rowe, J. Springer Book Series: Numanities – Arts and Humanities in Progress, Medical Humanities Awayday, Meavy, Devon: Peninsula Medical School,  July 2017

Tredinnick-Rowe, J. Subjectivity and Adaptation in Medical Education and Assessment – is there a role for semiotics? [learning as adaptation panel], International Association for Semiotic Studies,13th World Congress of Semiotics Kaunas, Lithuania, 26-30 June 2017 DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.16339.89124 


Tredinnick-Rowe, J. Association for Medical Humanities Annual Conference. The Global Diffusion and Application of Medical Semiotics - From Medical Semiotics to Medical Semiology. University of Greenwich, London, July 2016. DOI:10.13140/RG.2.2.12145.58721

Read, James. Tredinnick-Rowe, J. The Semantics of Remediation - primed to fail? The impact of negative word association upon student performance in remediation, European Board of Medical Assessors Annual Conference: Crossing Boundaries - Assessment inMedical Education, Exeter, UK, October 2016.


Tredinnick-Rowe, J. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, What is Medical Semiotics? ESRC Sociology of DiagnosisWorkshop, London May 2015.

Tredinnick-Rowe, J. International SemioticsSociety, 2nd Annual conference of Numanities, Sign, Symptoms and Sales: towards a semiotic oncology, Kaunas, Lithuania, May 2015.

Tredinnick-Rowe, J. International SemioticsSociety, 2nd Annual conference of Numanities, Phytomining: case for a homestead and Mars, Kaunas, Lithuania, May 2015. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.12984.44806


Willett, J. and Tredinnick-Rowe, J. Neo-Liberal Economic Development, Competitiveness, and the Growth of Mebyon Kernow in Cornish Politic, In the proceedings of the 64th Political Studies Association annual international conference, Manchester, UK,  April 2014.

Tredinnick-Rowe, J. And Taylor, T. contested natures: lessons from environment and human health proceedings in the 1st international congress of Numanities, Kaunas, Lithuania, June 2014.

Tredinnick-Rowe, J. Financial Sustainability and Accountability in Medical Services. Health and Medical Research Showcase, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK. June 2014. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.17178.75208

Tredinnick-Rowe, J. And Taylor, T. The Paradox of giving – insights into the gift economy. Proceedings in The Semiotic Society of America 39th Annual Meeting, Seattle, UnitedStates of America, October 2014. 

Tredinnick-Rowe, J. Heteroglossia in CornishLanguage Literature – the uniqueness of Enys Tresour. The Cornish Research Landscape, Organised by the Cornish Language Partnership. Pool, Cornwall, UK, October 2014.


Tredinnick-Rowe, J.Innovation in the Natural Environment: Products and Services, Peninsula Environment and Human Health Forum (ERDF), 28th November 2012, Pendennis Cornwall.  DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.21373.05609

Reports & invited lectures

External seminars


Tredinnick-Rowe, J. Masterclass: SME and social enterprise funding options for E-health in Devon and the South West. PeterChalk Centre, the University of Exeter on 6th of June 2018.


Tredinnick-Rowe, J. Speech at the Devon Chamber of Commerce, Network meeting. Plymouth, Devon 06/12/2017.

Tredinnick-Rowe, J.  Kartounweyth Politek a Omervirans Kernewek. At the Agan Tavas Cornish Association, Murdoch House, Redruth, Cornwall, April 1st 2017.


Tredinnick-Rowe, J. The use of Medical Semiotics for intercultural communication of medical concepts in refugee camps - Workshop organised by Council of Europe on Youth Perspectives on Migration in Europe, Budapest, Hungry August 2016.


Tredinnick-Rowe, J. Medical Semiotics and Clinical Education. Medical Humanities Seminar Series, Roehampton University. London, 20th October 2015 DOI:10.13140/RG.2.2.15501.03047

Other academic activities

Work as an English Language Proof Editor


I have worked as a paid English Language Proof Reader for academic monographs, for researchers at the Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania & edited an entire book for the Lithuanian Academy of Music and Theatre:  Zangwill, Nick. Stanevičiūtė, Rūta. Povilionienė, Rima. 2018. Between Music and Philosophy, Essence and Context. Springer: Oxford.

Research Journals

I have edited an entire issue of Lithuanian Musicology (Lietuvos muzikologija) as an English language proof-reader and formatter.

 Masters Theses

I have edited Masters Theses in Clinical Education Module as an Englishlanguage proof-reader and formatter.

Work as a Journal Editor

I am an external partner of the Editorial Committee for the Journal CAMPUS, the official journal of the faculty of engineering and architecture at the Universidad San Martín de Porres, Lima, Peru. http://www.usmp.edu.pe/campus/nosotros.php

Work as an Ethics Committee Member

I am a member of the Plymouth University’s faculty of education research ethics committee. I review post-grad and staff ethics applications on a wide variety of educational (including clinical education) topics.


Research Gate: https://bit.ly/2SlAR2q
Google Scholar: https://bit.ly/2QARvO8
Twitter: @ RoweTredinnick 
ORCID: 0000-0002-1154-7410