Dr Simon Ingram

Dr Simon Ingram

Lecturer in Marine Conservation

School of Marine Science and Engineering (Faculty of Science and Engineering)


Lecturer in Marine Conservation
Programme Leader, BSc Ocean Science and Marine Conservation
Academic Lead, Marine Conservation and Policy Research Centre 
Academic member Marine Biology and Ecology Research Centre

Follow me on Twitter @DrSimonIngram


PhD, University College Cork 1996-2000. The ecology and conservation of bottlenose dolphins using the Shannon estuary, Ireland.

MSc Ecology (taught) University of Aberdeen 1992-1993

BSc University of Sheffield, Zoology 2 i (hons) Zoology, 1987-1990

Previous to my PhD I worked on various marine mammal projects including spending two years aboard IFAWs cetacean research vessel 'Song of the Whale'  conducting acoustic and visual scientific surveys of cetaceans in the North Atlantic, Mediterranean and Caribbean waters.   I have also worked at SMRU assisting with seal surveys and recently at the University of Aberdeen's Lighthouse Field Station where I managed a Scottish Government funded project examining the distribution abundance and ranging behaviour of coastal bottlense dolphins. 

Professional membership

Member of the Society for Marine Mammalogy (SMM)
Member of the European Cetacean Society (ECS)

Associate editor for the journal Biodiversity and Conservation

Teaching interests

I teach marine biology and marine conservation to students enrolled on several degree programmes at Plymouth University. 

I delivery teaching to the following degree programmes

Ocean Science and Marine Conservation
Oceanography and Coastal Processes
Ocean Exploration and Surveying
Marine Biology
Ocean Science
Marine Biology and Oceanography
Environmental Science

Applied Marine Science
Marine Renewable Energy
Environmental Consultancy

I teach on the following modules (* = module leader);
Masters modules
MAR530 Managing Marine Ecosystems
MAR510 Marine Renewable Energy
MAR503 Coastal Impacts of Renewable Energy
ENV5113 Investigation and Assessment of Contaminated Environments

Undergraduate modules
OS101 Biological and Hydrography of the Ocean *
OS205 Managing Human Impacts in the Marine Environment
OS206 Researching the Marine Environment
MASC301 Marine Ecosystem Conservation* 
MBIO339 Ecology and Conservation of Marine Vertebrates*
Research Project supervision

Research interests

I am a field scientist specialising in the conservation ecology of marine mammal populations. I am particularly interested in understanding cetacean abundance and habitat use, individual ranging patterns, stock structure and the influence of oceanography on animal distribution and habitat use.

I also work on cooperative foraging interactions between bottlenose dolphins and artisanal fishermen at Laguna in Southern Brazil.

Grants & contracts

·    2005-08 senior post-doctoral research fellow and coordinator of Scottish Government funded project examining distribution and abundance of bottlenose dolphins in Scottish coastal waters.  

·  Collaborator on an SFI (Science Foundation of Ireland) Research Frontiers funded project examining the population structure of bottlenose dolphins in Irish waters. This project is using molecular genetics and stable isotope signatures to investigate gene flow and reproductive and geographic isolation of sub-populations using coastal sites.

·  2009 collaborator on a National Parks and Wildlife funded project estimating abundance and examining site fidelity of bottlenose dolphins using northwest Connemara in western Ireland.

·  2008 managed an Irish National Parks and Wildlife Service funded project to assess the abundance and population viability of bottlenose dolphins using the Shannon Estuary SAC in western Ireland.

·  2008 supervised a Heritage Council funded project examining bottlenose dolphin distribution and behaviour in northwest Mayo, western Ireland.

Research groups

  • Centre for Marine and Coastal Policy Research (MarCoPol)

Chen F, Shapiro GI, Bennett KA, Ingram SN, Thompson D, Vincent C, RussellDJF, Embling CB. 2016. Shipping noise in a dynamic sea: a case study ofgrey seals in the Celtic Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.09.054

Cox SL, Witt MJ, Embling CB, Godley BJ,Hosegood PJ, Miller PI, Votier SC, IngramSN. 2016. Temporal patterns in habitat use by small cetaceans at anoceanographically dynamic marine renewable energy test site in the Celtic Sea. DeepSea Research, Part II. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2016.07.001

Cox SL, Miller PI, Embling CB, ScalesKL, Bicknell AWJ, Hosegood PJ, Morgan G, IngramSN, Votier SC. 2016 Seabird diving behaviour reveals the functionalsignificance of shelf-sea fronts as foraging hotspots. Royal Society OpenScience http://dx.DOI: 10.1098/rsos.160317

Scales, KL, Miller PI, Ingram SN,Hazen EL,  Bograd SJ and Phillips RA.2016. Identifying predictable foraging habitats for a wide-ranging marinepredator using ensemble ecological niche models. Diversity and Distributions,DOI: 10.1111/ddi.12389 

Oudejans, M.G., Visser, F., Englund,A., Rogan, E., Ingram, S.N. 2015. Evidence for distinct coastal andoffshore communities of bottlenose dolphins in the North East Atlantic. PLoSONEDOI:10.1371/0122668

Scales K.L., Miller P., IngramS.N., Southall, E.J. Sims, D.W. 2015. Basking sharks and oceanographicfronts: quantifying associations in the north-east Atlantic. FunctionalBiology: DOI: 10.1111/1365-2435.12423

Scales K.L, Miller P.I, Embling C.B, IngramS.N, Pirotta E, Votier S.C. 2014. Mesoscale fronts as foraging habitats: compositefront mapping reveals oceanographic drivers of habitat use for a pelagicseabird. J. Royal. Soc. Interface 11: 20140679

Scales, K.L., Peter I. Miller, Lucy A. Hawkes, SimonN. Ingram, David W. Sims and Stephen C. Votier 2014 On the Front Line:frontal zones as priority at-sea conservation areas for mobile marinevertebrates Journal of Applied Ecology 2014 doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12330

Squires, N., Hodgson-Ball, K., Bennett, K., Votier, S. Ingram, S. 2014. Using passive acousticsand shore based surveys to investigate the occurrence of small odontocetes innearshore waters around Lundy. Journalof the Lundy Field Society, 4: 39-56.

Rees, S. E.,Fletcher, S., Glegg, G., Marshall, C., Rodwell, L., Jefferson, R., Campbell,M., Langmead, O., Ashley, M., Bloomfield, H., Brutto, D., Colenutt, A.,Conversi, A., Earll, B., Hamid, I. A., Hattam, C., Ingram, S., McKinley,E., Mee, L., Oates, J., Peckett, F., Portus, J., Reed, M., Rogers, S.,Saunders, J., Scales, K. & Wynn, R. 2013. Priority questions to shape the marineand coastal policy research agenda in the United Kingdom." MarinePolicy 38: 531-537.

Daura-Jorge, F. G., M. Cantor, S. N.Ingram, D. Lusseau, P. C. Simões-Lopes . 2012. The structureof a bottlenose dolphin society is coupled to a unique foraging cooperationwith artisanal fishermen. Biology Letters, doi:10.1098/rsbl.2012.0174

Cheney, B.,Thompson, P.M., Ingram, S.N. Hammond P.S., Stevick, P.T., Durban, J.W. Culloch, R.M. Elwen, S.H, Mandleberg, L. Janik,V.M.,Quick,N.J., Islas-villanueva, V., Robinson,K.P., Costa,M., Eisfeld, S.M.Walters, A., Phillips,C., Weir,C.R., Evans,P.G.H., Anderwald,P., Reid,R.J.Reid, J.B., Wilson,B. 2012. Integrating multiple data sources to assess thedistribution and abundance of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)in Scottish waters. Mammal Review doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2907.2011.00208.x

Daura-Jorge, F.G., Ingram, S. N. and Simões-Lopes, P.C. 2012. Seasonal abundance and adult survivalof bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in a community thatcooperatively forages with fishermen in Southern Brazil. Marine MammalScience

Mirimin, L., Miller, R.,Dillane, E., Berrow, S. D., Ingram, S., Cross, T. F., Rogan, E. 2011.Fine-scale population genetic structuring of bottlenose dolphins using Irishcoastal waters. Animal Conservation,14:342-352.

Cronin, M.A., Zuur, A.F., Ingram, S. andRogan, E. 2010. A modelling framework to optimize timing of haul-out counts forestimating harbour seal abundance. NAMMCO Scientific Publications, 8:213-225.

Thompson, P., Ingram, S., Lonergan, M. Northridge,S. Hall, A. Wilson, B., 2007. Climate change causingstarvation in harbour porpoises? Biology Letters, 3: 533-534.

Ingram, S.N., Walshe, L., Johnston, D. and Rogan,E.  2007. Habitat partitioning and theinfluence of benthic topography and oceanography on the distribution of fin andminke whales in the Bay of Fundy, Canada. Journal of the Marine Biological Association. 87:149-156.

Philpott E., A. Englund, A., Ingram, S. and Rogan, E.2007. Using T-pods to the echolocation of coastal bottlenose dolphins. Journal of the Marine BiologicalAssociation, 87;11-17.

Ingram, S.N. ,Walshe, L.,Johnson, D. and Rogan, E. 2003.  Thedistribution of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) and minke whales (Balaenopteraacutorostrata) in the Bay of Fundy, Canada: using a tour-boat as a platformof opportunity. SC/55/WW12 Report to the International Whaling commission.

Ingram,S.N. & Rogan, E. 2002.  Identifyingcritical habitat areas and habitat preferences of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiopstruncatus). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 244: 247-255.

Wilson, B., Arnold, H.,Bearzi, G., Fortuna, C., Gaspar, R., Ingram,S., Liret, C., Pribanic, S., Read, A., Ridoux, V., Schneider, K., Urian,K., Wells, R., Wood, W., Thompson, P.,M. and Hammond, P. 1999. Epidermaldiseases in bottlenose dolphins: impacts of natural and anthropogenic factors. Proceedingsof the Royal Society, London B 266:1077-1083.

Gordon, J., Moscrop, A.,Carlson, C., Ingram, S., Leaper, R.,Mathews, J. and Young, K. 1998. Distribution, movements and residency of spermwhales off the Commonwealth of Dominica, Eastern Caribbean: implications forthe development and regulation of the local whalewatching industry. Reportto the International Whaling Commission:48: 551-557.

Quicke, D.L.J. Fitton,M.G., Tunstead, J. Ingram, S.N. and Gaitens, P.V. 1994. Ovipositor structureand relationships within the Hymenoptera with special reference to theIchneumonoidea. Journal of Natural History, 28: 635-682.

Quicke, D.L.J., & Ingram, S.N. 1993. Braconine Wasps ofAustralia.  Memoirs of the QueenslandMuseum.  33 (1): 299-336.

Quicke,D.L.J., Ingram, S.N., Baillie, H. &Gaitens, P.V. 1992. Sperm structure and ultrastructure in the Hymenoptera. ZoologicaScipta, 21: 381-402.

Quicke, D.L.J., Ingram, S.N., Procter, J. &Huddlestone, T. 1992. Batesian & Mullerian mimicry between species withconnected life histories with a new example involving braconid wasp parasitesof Phoracantha beetles.Journal of Natural History 26: 1013-1034.

Quicke, D.L.J., Fitton,M.G. & Ingram, S.N. 1992.Phylogenetic implications of the structure and distribution of ovipositorvalvilli in the Hymenoptera (Insecta). Journal of Natural History. 26:1013-1034.



Ingram,S.N., Kavanagh, A.,Englund, A. and  Rogan, E. 2009. Siteassessment of the waters of northwest Connemara.A survey of bottlenose dolphins(Tursiops truncatus). Reportto the Irish National Parks and Wildlife Service 33pp.

Englund, A., Ingram,S.N., Rogan, E. (2007) Population Status report for bottlenose dolphinsusing the Shannon Estuary 2006-7. Report to the National Parks and WildlifeService, 35pp.

Roycroft, D., Cronin, M., Mackey, M., IngramS.N. and Ó Cadhla, O., (2007), Risk Assessment for Marine Mammal andSeabird Populations in South-Western Irish Waters (RAMSSI). Report to theHigher Education Authority, 198pp.

Ingram, S.N., O’Donovan, M.,Englund, A., Walshe, L. and Rogan., E. (2005). A review of marine naturetourism in Ireland and an assessment of the potential for boat-based marineeco- tourism in Tralee Bay and adjacent waters. Report to Tuatha ChiarraíTeo. University College Cork, 26pp.

Ingram, S.N., Englund, A.,O’Donovan, M., Walshe, L. and Rogan., E. (2005). A survey of marine wildlife inTralee Bay and adjacent waters. Report to Tuatha Chiarraí Teo.University College Cork, 20pp.

Ingram, S.N., O’Donovan, M.,Englund, A., Walshe, L. and Rogan., E. (2005). An assessment of the potentialfor shore-based marine nature tourism on the Kerry shore of the outer Shannonestuary. Report to Tuatha Chiarraí Teo. University College Cork, 23pp.

Ingram, S.N.,Englund, A., O’Donovan, M., Walshe, L. and Rogan., E. (2005). An assessment of the potential for dolphin-listeningecotourism at sites on the Kerry shore of the outer Shannon estuary. Report to Tuatha Chiarraí Teo. University College Cork, 15pp.

Ingram,S.N.and Englund, A. and Rogan, E. 2004. Methods of best practice for the use of T-PoD passive acoustic detectorsfor marine mammal research in Irish waters. Report to the Irish HeritageCouncil, 23pp.

Ingram, S.N., Englund, A. and Rogan, E.2003.  Habitat use,abundance and site-fidelity of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)in Connemara coastal waters, Co. Galway. Heritage Council Report no.12314, 27pp.

Ingram, S.N., and Rogan, E. 2003. Estimating abundance, sitefidelity and ranging patterns of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)in the Shannon Estuary and selected areas of the west-coast of Ireland. Reportto the National Parks and Wildlife Service, 28pp.

Rogan, E., Kelly, T., Ingram, S.N.,and Roycroft, D. 2003. The ecology of seabirds and marine mammals in afluctuating marine environment. Report to the Higher Education Authority,207pp.

OCadhla, O., Englund, A., Philpott, E., Mackey, M. and Ingram, S.N. 2003.Marine mammal monitoring in the waters of Broadhaven Bay and Northwest Mayo:2001-2002. Report to Enterprise Energy, Ireland Ltd, 74pp.

Ingram, S.N., Englund, A. and Rogan, E. 2001. An extensivesurvey of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) on the west coast ofIreland. Heritage Council Report no. WLD/2001/42 17pp.

Rogan,E., Ingram, S., Holmes, B and O’Flanagan, C. 2000.  A survey of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Shannonestuary. Marine Institute, MarineResource Series No. 9, 46pp.