Professor Robert Fern
Profiles

Professor Robert Fern

Professor in Translational Neurobiology

Peninsula Medical School (Faculty of Health)

Biography

Biography

Qualifications

Leadership:

2019-present     Associate Dean-Research, Faculty of Health, Plymouth University.

2019-2020       Director, Institute of Translational and Stratified Medicine, Plymouth University.

2017-2019       Lead, Biomedical Research Group, Plymouth University.

2017-present     UoA1 coordinator REF2021, Plymouth University.

2016-present     Director and Chair (2018), PMS Facilities Ltd.

2014-2018       Academic lead, Derriford Research Facility (DRF) Project Board.

2013-2019       Safety Manager, FoMD, Plymouth University.

 

Academic:

2013-present     Professor, Plymouth University

2008-2013       Professor, University of Leicester.

2002-2008       Reader, University of Leicester.

1996-2002       Research Assistant Professor, Department of Neurology, University of Washington.

1994-1996       Associate Research Scientist, Department of Neurology, Yale University.

1992-1994        Post-Doctoral fellow, Department of Neurology, Yale University.


Additional:

2017-2020       Science Advisory Council, Ontario Brain Institute.

2015-present     Affiliate Professor (honorary), University of Malta

2014-present     Alzheimer’s UK South-West network committee.

2013-present     Fellow, Higher Education Academy.

2013-present     Home office project and personal license holder.

2013-present     AWERB, faculty representative.

2013-2020       Ontario Brain Institute: CP-NET Science Innovation Team.

2002-2011       Affiliate Faculty (Neurology), University of Washington.

2004-2011       Graduate Medical Degree Committee, University of Leicester.

2003-2005       Board of Studies, School of Biological Science, University of Leicester.

2003-2013       Graduate Tutor, Cell Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Leicester.

2002-2012        Senior planning group, Cell Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Leicester.

2002-2003       Study Section MDCN-3, NINDS, NIH.

2001-2002       Director, Cell Imaging Core, University of Washington.

1999-2002       Independent Study in Medical Science coordinator, University of Washington.

1999-2002       Scientific Board, Pediatric Epilepsy Research Council, University of Washington.

1996-2002       Affiliate, Center on Human Development and Disability, University of Washington.


Key publications

Doyle S, Hansen DB, Vella J, Bond P, Harper G, Zammit C, Valentino M & Fern R (2018) 'Vesicular glutamate release from central axons contributes to myelin damage' Nature Communications 9, (1) 0-0 , DOI Open access
Fern RF, Matute C & Stys PK (2014) 'White matter injury: Ischemic and nonischemic' Glia 62, (11) 1780-1789 Author Site , DOI
Butt AM, Fern RF & Matute C (2014) 'Neurotransmitter signaling in white matter' Glia 62, (11) 1762-1779 , DOI
Alix JJP & Fern R (2009) 'Glutamate receptor-mediated ischemic injury of premyelinated central axons' Ann Neurol 66, (5) 682-693 Author Site , DOI
Alix JJP, Dolphin AC & Fern R (2008) 'Vesicular apparatus, including functional calcium channels, are present in developing rodent optic nerve axons and are required for normal node of Ranvier formation' J Physiol 586, (17) 4069-4089 Author Site , DOI
Domercq M, Sanchez-Gomez MV, Sherwin C, Etxebarria E, Fern R & Matute C (2007) 'System x(c)(-) and glutamate transporter inhibition mediates microglial toxicity to oligodendrocytes' JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY 178, (10) 6549-6556 Author Site , DOI
View all publications
Teaching

Teaching

Teaching interests

2015-present: Delivery: BHCS3001 (student projects). FoH, University of Plymouth.

 

2015-present: Delivery: BHC3007: (third year Biomedical sciences). FoH, University of Plymouth.

 

2016-present: Delivery: BHCS2001: (second year Biomedical sciences). FoH, University of Plymouth.


Research

Research

Research interests

My laboratory is interested in neurological disorders and has a focus on early events in the disease process. We strive to understand the first steps in the pathology underlying conditions such as stroke, cerebral palsy and multiple sclerosis as well as dementia. We believe that to understand the cellular origin of the disorder will allow development of preventative strategies and removing the need to repair the brain. The brain is the most complicated thing in the universe and correspondingly hard to fix once damaged.

Within this field we focus on two underappreciated parts of the brain: glial cells and white matter. While we are all familiar with the little grey brain cells called neurons, which intergrade and store information, glial cells are less well known. Glial cells in fact outnumber neurons and play a multitude of roles including supporting neurons and regulating their extracellular environment, but also contributing in many ways to the neural processing that is the function of the organ. White matter is the internet of the brain, and houses the axons that interconnect neurons together. Because our brains are large and complex, it requires a lot of wiring and in fact about half of the human brain is white matter. Injury to glial cells or white matter are as important in neurological disease as is injury to neurons and grey matter, but receives much less attention. It may well be that this shortfall in emphasis on glia and white matter explains the slow and halting progress we have achieved toward effective interventions for many forms of brain disorder.

In my laboratory we use a variety of approaches that include electrophysiology, electron microscopy, confocal cell imaging and molecular biology to discover the early pathways to injury. We collaborate internationally with laboratories using complimentary techniques. We were the first group to describe the presence of functional calcium channels on mammalian axons, were one of several groups to first show that oligodendroglia express NMDA glutamate receptors that are central to injury of this cell type, and the first to describe glutamate release from axons via the fusion of vesicles.


Research groups

Research degrees awarded to supervised students

PhD/MRes students:

  • 1) 2004-2008 James Alix PhD*. NIHR Academic Clinical Fellow, University of Sheffield.
  • 2) 2007-2010 Antonio Domingues PhD*. Currently post-doc at the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Dresden.
  • 3) 2004-2008/2010 Phillip Vermehren PhD*. Medical doctor in the Neurology department at the Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield.
  • 4) 2011-2012 Narasimha Murthy MRes*. Returned to India to pursue career.
  • 5) 2011-2012 Rebecca Arkell. MRes*. Technician at Phillips Research.
  • 6) 2009-2013 Badrah Alghamdi. PhD*. Associate Professor, Saudi Arabia
  • 7) 2009-2013 Huria Elmesmari. PhD*. Currently faculty in Libya.
  • 8) 2010-2014 Mellisa Trotman. PhD*. Post-Doc, University of Leicester.
  • 9) 2012-2016 Hiwa Latif. PhD (University of Leicester).
  • 10) 2014-2018 Sean Doyle. PhD*. Post-Doc, Ireland.
  • 11) 2015-2019 Sarah Ellwood*. PhD student, (University of Plymouth).
  • 12) 2016-2020 Chris Bulman* PhD student, (University of Plymouth).
  • 13) 2018-present Verity Mitchener*. PhD student, (University of Plymouth).
  • 14) 2019-present Gideon Stone*. ResM student, (University of Plymouth).
  • 15) 2019-present Dan Morgan*. PhD student, (University of Plymouth).
  • 16) 2019-present TBA*. PhD student, (University of Plymouth).

 * Principle supervisor.


Grants & contracts

2020-2023       ‘Chronic infection and stroke injury’ PDSE PhD studentship PI: R. Fern.Direct costs: £69,000

2020-2023       ‘Pre-clinical targets for vascular dementia treatment.’ Brace PhD studentship.PI: R. Fern.Direct costs: £91,000

2018-2021       ‘The vulnerability of white matter to induction of a human tau mutation associated with dementia.’ Brace PhD studentship. PI: R. Fern. Direct costs: £90,000

Past (select):

2016-2019       ‘Focal ischemic injury in vitro. PI: R. Fern. Internal PhD studentshipDirect costs: £84,000

2016-2020       ‘Tackling autophagy and apoptosis for the potential therapy of Huntington's Disease’ PI: Shouqing Luo. £515,000CI: R. Fern: 5% effort. MRC (MR/M023605/1)

2014-2018       ‘Toxicant-induced synaptic dysfunction and neurotoxicity in Parkinson's disease’.NIH (R01 ES22274-01A1). PI: Kim Tieu.$737,220 CI: R. Fern: 5% effort

2014-2017       ‘Manipulating mitochondrial dynamics as a potential therapeutic strategy for Parkinson's disease’. PI: Kim Tieu. £511, 230MRC (MR/L022079/1) CI: R. Fern: 5% effort.

2014-2017      ‘Ion homeostasis in optic nerve astrocytes.’ PI: R. Fern. Direct costs: £425,069. BBSRC (BB/J016969/1).

2014-2017       Internal PhD studentship ‘Glutamate release mechanisms in white matter’. PI: R. Fern. Direct costs: £62,000

2015-2018       Internal PhD studentship ‘Astrocyte populations and disease’. PI: R. Fern. Direct costs: £62,000

2005-2007       "A new paradigm in ischemic brain diseases." Direct costs: £28,480. Medisearch, Leicester.

2004-2006       "Voltage-gated calcium channels in developing central axons." Direct costs: £35,600. Medisearch, Leicester.

2002-2009       "Ischemic injury of neonatal CNS white matter." Direct costs: $1,150,000. National Institutes of Health. USA.

1999            Infrastructure supplement. Direct costs: $50,000. National Institutes of Health. USA.

1997-2002       "Ischemic injury of neonatal CNS white matter." Direct costs: $345,000. National Institutes of Health, USA.


Publications

Publications

Key publications

Doyle S, Hansen DB, Vella J, Bond P, Harper G, Zammit C, Valentino M & Fern R (2018) 'Vesicular glutamate release from central axons contributes to myelin damage' Nature Communications 9, (1) 0-0 , DOI Open access
Fern RF, Matute C & Stys PK (2014) 'White matter injury: Ischemic and nonischemic' Glia 62, (11) 1780-1789 Author Site , DOI
Butt AM, Fern RF & Matute C (2014) 'Neurotransmitter signaling in white matter' Glia 62, (11) 1762-1779 , DOI
Alix JJP & Fern R (2009) 'Glutamate receptor-mediated ischemic injury of premyelinated central axons' Ann Neurol 66, (5) 682-693 Author Site , DOI
Alix JJP, Dolphin AC & Fern R (2008) 'Vesicular apparatus, including functional calcium channels, are present in developing rodent optic nerve axons and are required for normal node of Ranvier formation' J Physiol 586, (17) 4069-4089 Author Site , DOI
Domercq M, Sanchez-Gomez MV, Sherwin C, Etxebarria E, Fern R & Matute C (2007) 'System x(c)(-) and glutamate transporter inhibition mediates microglial toxicity to oligodendrocytes' JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY 178, (10) 6549-6556 Author Site , DOI

Key publications are highlighted

Journals
Articles
Fern R & Matute C (2019) 'Glutamate receptors and white matter stroke' Neuroscience Letters 694, 86-92 , DOI
Vermehren P, Trotman-Lucas M, Hechler B, Gachet C, Evans R, Gibson C & Fern R (2018) 'Cooperation between NMDA-Type Glutamate and P2 Receptors for Neuroprotection during Stroke: Combining Astrocyte and Neuronal Protection' Neuroglia 1, (1) 30-47 , DOI
Doyle S, Hansen DB, Vella J, Bond P, Harper G, Zammit C, Valentino M & Fern R (2018) 'Vesicular glutamate release from central axons contributes to myelin damage' Nature Communications 9, (1) 0-0 , DOI Open access
Jackson J, Bianco G, Rosa AO, Cowan K, Bond P, Anichtchik O & Fern R (2018) 'White matter tauopathy: Transient functional loss and novel myelin remodeling' Glia Author Site , DOI Open access
Trotman-Lucas M, Kelly ME, Janus J, Fern R & Gibson CL (2018) 'Correction: An alternative surgical approach reduces variability following filament induction of experimental stroke in mice (doi: 10.1242/dmm.029108)' Disease Models & Mechanisms 11, (1) , DOI
Fern R (2017) 'The Leukocentric Theory of Neurological Disorder: A Manifesto' Neurochemical Research 42, (9) 2666-2672 , DOI
Fern R (2017) 'Astrocytes snipH out bicarbonate to regulate acid-base' The Journal of Physiology 595, (8) 2417-2417 , DOI
Trotman-Lucas M, Kelly ME, Janus J, Fern R & Gibson CL (2017) 'An alternative surgical approach reduces variability following filament induction of experimental stroke in mice' Disease Models and Mechanisms 10, (7) 931-938 , DOI
Parpura V, Sekler I & Fern R (2016) 'Plasmalemmal and mitochondrial Na + -Ca 2+ exchange in neuroglia' Glia , DOI
Quraishe S, Wyttenbach A, Matinyarare N, Perry VH, Fern R & O’Connor V (2016) 'Selective and compartmentalized myelin expression of HspB5' Neuroscience 316, 130-142 , DOI
Fern R (2015) 'Ischemic tolerance in pre-myelinated white matter: the role of astrocyte glycogen in brain pathology' J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 35, (6) 951-958 Author Site , DOI
Alghamdi B & Fern R (2015) 'Phenotype overlap in glial cell populations: astroglia, oligodendroglia and NG-2(+) cells' FRONTIERS IN NEUROANATOMY 9, Author Site , DOI
Alghamdi B & Fern R (2015) 'Phenotype overlap in glial cell populations: astroglia, oligodendroglia and NG-2(+) cells' FRONTIERS IN NEUROANATOMY 9, Author Site , DOI Open access
Huria T, Beeraka NM, Al-Ghamdi B & Fern R (2015) 'Premyelinated central axons express neurotoxic NMDA receptors: relevance to early developing white-matter injury' J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 35, (4) 543-553 Author Site , DOI
Hansen DB, Garrido-Comas N, Salter M & Fern R (2015) 'HCO3(-)-independent pH regulation in astrocytes in situ is dominated by V-ATPase' J Biol Chem 290, (13) 8039-8047 Author Site , DOI Open access
Trotman M, Vermehren P, Gibson CL & Fern R (2015) 'The dichotomy of memantine treatment for ischemic stroke: dose-dependent protective and detrimental effects' J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 35, (2) 230-239 Author Site , DOI Open access
Fern RF, Matute C & Stys PK (2014) 'White matter injury: Ischemic and nonischemic' Glia 62, (11) 1780-1789 Author Site , DOI
Butt AM, Fern RF & Matute C (2014) 'Neurotransmitter signaling in white matter' Glia 62, (11) 1762-1779 , DOI
Alix JJP, Zammit C, Riddle A, Meshul CK, Back SA, Valentino M & Fern R (2012) 'Central axons preparing to myelinate are highly sensitive [corrected] to ischemic injury' Ann Neurol 72, (6) 936-951 Author Site , DOI
Fern R (2011) 'Sources of extracellular glutamate in developing white matter' Malta Medical Journal 23, (3)
Quimby S & Fern R (2011) 'Novel morphological features of developing white matter pericytes and rapid scavenging of reactive oxygen species in the neighbouring endothelia' J Anat 219, (1) 65-77 Author Site , DOI
Domingues AMDJ, Neugebauer KM & Fern R (2011) 'Identification of four functional NR3B isoforms in developing white matter reveals unexpected diversity among glutamate receptors' J Neurochem 117, (3) 449-460 Author Site , DOI
Domingues AMDJ, Taylor M & Fern R (2010) 'Glia as transmitter sources and sensors in health and disease' Neurochem Int 57, (4) 359-366 Author Site , DOI
Alix JJP & Fern R (2009) 'Glutamate receptor-mediated ischemic injury of premyelinated central axons' Ann Neurol 66, (5) 682-693 Author Site , DOI
Constantinou S & Fern R (2009) 'Conduction block and glial injury induced in developing central white matter by glycine, GABA, noradrenalin, or nicotine, studied in isolated neonatal rat optic nerve' Glia 57, (11) 1168-1177 Author Site , DOI
Arranz AM, Hussein A, Alix JJP, Perez-Cerda F, Allcock N, Matute C & Fern R (2008) 'Functional glutamate transport in rodent optic nerve axons and glia' GLIA 56, (12) 1353-1367 Author Site , DOI
Alix JJP, Dolphin AC & Fern R (2008) 'Vesicular apparatus, including functional calcium channels, are present in developing rodent optic nerve axons and are required for normal node of Ranvier formation' J Physiol 586, (17) 4069-4089 Author Site , DOI
Salter MG & Fern R (2008) 'The mechanisms of acute ischemic injury in the cell processes of developing white matter astrocytes' J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 28, (3) 588-601 Author Site , DOI
Domercq M, Sanchez-Gomez MV, Sherwin C, Etxebarria E, Fern R & Matute C (2007) 'System x(c)(-) and glutamate transporter inhibition mediates microglial toxicity to oligodendrocytes' JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY 178, (10) 6549-6556 Author Site , DOI
Back SA, Craig A, Kayton RJ, Luo NL, Meshul CK, Allcock N & Fern R (2007) 'Hypoxia-ischemia preferentially triggers glutamate depletion from oligodendroglia and axons in perinatal cerebral white matter' JOURNAL OF CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW AND METABOLISM 27, (2) 334-347 Author Site , DOI
Salter MG & Fern R (2005) 'NMDA receptors are expressed in developing oligodendrocyte processes and mediate injury' NATURE 438, (7071) 1167-1171 Author Site , DOI
Sherwin C & Fern R (2005) 'Acute lipopolysaccharide-mediated injury in neonatal white matter glia: Role of TNF-alpha IL-1,beta and calcium' JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY 175, (1) 155-161 Author Site , DOI
Thomas R, Salter MG, Wilke SR, Husen A, Allcock N, Nivison M, Nnoli AN & Fern R (2004) 'Acute ischemic injury of astrocytes is mediated by Na-K-Cl cotransport and not Ca2+ influx at a key point in white matter development' JOURNAL OF NEUROPATHOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROLOGY 63, (8) 856-871 Author Site , DOI
Wilke SR, Thomas R, Allcock N & Fern R (2004) 'Mechanism of acute ischemic injury of oligodendroglia in early myelinating white matter: The importance of astrocyte injury and glutamate release' JOURNAL OF NEUROPATHOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROLOGY 63, (8) 872-881 Author Site , DOI
Fern R (2003) 'Variations in spare electron transport chain capacity: The answer to an old riddle?' JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH 71, (6) 759-762 Author Site , DOI
Fern R (2001) 'Ischemia: astrocytes show their sensitive side' Prog Brain Res 132, 405-411 Author Site , DOI
Wender R, Brown AM, Fern R, Swanson RA, Farrell K & Ransom BR (2000) 'Astrocytic glycogen influences axon function and survival during glucose deprivation in central white matter' JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 20, (18) 6804-6810 Author Site , DOI
Fern R & Moller T (2000) 'Rapid ischaemic cell death in immature oligodendrocytes' JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON 523, 90P-90P Author Site
Fern R & Moller T (2000) 'Rapid ischemic cell death in immature oligodendrocytes: A fatal glutamate release feedback loop' JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 20, (1) 34-42 Author Site , DOI
Fern R (1998) 'Intracellular calcium and cell death during ischemia in neonatal rat white matter astrocytes in situ' JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 18, (18) 7232-7243 Author Site
Fern R (1998) 'Routes of Ca2+ influx during ischaemia in rat neonatal white matter astrocytes in situ' JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON 511P, 14P-14P Author Site
Brown AM, Fern R, Jarvinen JPL, Kaila K & Ransom BR (1998) 'Changes in [Ca2+](0) during anoxia in CNS white matter' NEUROREPORT 9, (9) 1997-2000 Author Site , DOI
Fern R, Davis P, Waxman SG & Ransom BR (1998) 'Axon conduction and survival in CNS white matter during energy deprivation: A developmental study' JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY 79, (1) 95-105 Author Site
Fern R (1997) 'Intracellular Ca2+ and ischaemic cell death in neonatal white matter glia in situ' JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON 504P, P167-P167 Author Site
Ransom BR & Fern R (1997) 'Does astrocytic glycogen benefit axon function and survival in CNS white matter during glucose deprivation?' GLIA 21, (1) 134-141 Author Site
Ransom BR & Fern R (1997) 'Does astrocytic glycogen benefit axon function and survival in CNS white matter during glucose deprivation?' Glia 21, (1) 134-141 , DOI
Fern R & Ransom BR (1997) 'Ischemic injury of optic nerve axons: The nuts and bolts' CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE 4, (5) 246-250 Author Site
Fern R, Black JA, Ransom BR & Waxman SG (1996) 'Cd2+-induced injury in CNS white matter' JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY 76, (5) 3264-3273 Author Site
Fern R (1996) 'Metabolic inhibition and selective axonal injury' NEUROSCIENTIST 2, (6) 313-314 Author Site , DOI
Fern R, Connolly GP & Harrison PJ (1996) 'Evidence for functional co-activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by glycine' NeuroReport 7, (12) 1953-1956 , DOI
Fern R, Ransom BR & Waxman SG (1996) 'Autoprotective mechanisms in the CNS - Some new lessons from white matter' MOLECULAR AND CHEMICAL NEUROPATHOLOGY 27, (2) 107-129 Author Site , DOI
Fern R, Ransom BR & Waxman SG (1996) 'White matter stroke: Auto protective mechanisms with therapeutic implications' CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES 6, (2) 59-65 Author Site , DOI
Fern R, Black JA, Ransom BR & Waxman SG (1996) 'Cd<sup>2+</sup>-induced injury in CNS white matter' Journal of Neurophysiology 76, (5) 3264-3273 , DOI
Fern R (1995) 'Axon Resealing: Filling in the Holes' The Neuroscientist 1, (5) 253-254 , DOI
FERN R, RANSOM BR & WAXMAN SG (1995) 'VOLTAGE-GATED CALCIUM CHANNELS IN CNS WHITE-MATTER - ROLE IN ANOXIC INJURY' JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY 74, (1) 369-377 Author Site
FERN R, WAXMAN SG & RANSOM BR (1995) 'ENDOGENOUS GABA ATTENUATES CNS WHITE-MATTER DYSFUNCTION FOLLOWING ANOXIA' JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 15, (1) 699-708 Author Site
Fern R, Waxman SG & Ransom BR (1995) 'Endogenous GABA attenuates CNS white matter dysfunction following anoxia' J Neurosci 15, (1 Pt 2) 699-708 Author Site
Fern R, Waxman SG & Ransom BR (1995) 'Endogenous GABA attenuates CNS white matter dysfunction following anoxia' Journal of Neuroscience 15, (1 II) 699-708 , DOI
FERN R, WAXMAN SG & RANSOM BR (1994) 'MODULATION OF ANOXIC INJURY IN CNS WHITE-MATTER BY ADENOSINE AND INTERACTION BETWEEN ADENOSINE AND GABA' JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY 72, (6) 2609-2616 Author Site
Fern R & Harrison PJ (1994) 'The contribution of ischaemia and deformation to the conduction block generated by compression of the cat sciatic nerve' Experimental Physiology 79, (4) 583-592 , DOI
Fern R & Harrison PJ (1994) 'The relationship between ischaemic conduction failure and conduction velocity in cat myelinated axons' Experimental Physiology 79, (4) 571-581 , DOI
FERN R, RANSOM BR, STYS PK & WAXMAN SG (1993) 'PHARMACOLOGICAL PROTECTION OF CNS WHITE-MATTER DURING ANOXIA - ACTIONS OF PHENYTOIN, CARBAMAZEPINE AND DIAZEPAM' JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL THERAPEUTICS 266, (3) 1549-1555 Author Site
Fern R & Harrison PJ (1993) 'The variation in safety factor with myelinated axon diameter: experiments with low sodium perfusion' Brain Research 616, (1-2) 48-52 , DOI
Fern R & Harrison PJ (1991) 'The effects of compression upon conduction in myelinated axons of the isolated frog sciatic nerve' The Journal of Physiology 432, (1) 111-122 , DOI
Fern R, Harrison PJ & Riddell JS (1988) 'The ascending projection of interneurones activated by group I muscle afferent fibres of the cat hindlimb' The Journal of Physiology 405, (1) 275-288 , DOI
Fern R, Harrison PJ & Riddell JS (1988) 'The dorsal column projection of muscle afferent fibres from the cat hindlimb' The Journal of Physiology 401, (1) 97-113 , DOI
Chapters
Fern R (2013) 'Focal Ischemic White Matter Injury in Experimental Models' White Matter Injury in Stroke and CNS Disease Springer New York 169-179 , DOI
Conference Papers
Mitchener VFT & Fern R (2019) 'Later-life Alzheimer's-related tauopathy in white matter: An Electon Microscopy (EM) study of rTG4510 murine model' E227-E227
Bulman CD & Fern R (2019) 'Mechanisms of ischaemia-induced potassium release in grey and white matter' E423-E424
Rosa AO & Fern R (2015) 'A new in vitro model of focal ischemia: towards the understanding of re-oxygenation specific damage in the white matter' E262-E262
Doyle S & Fern R (2015) 'Glutamate release mechanisms in pre-myelinated CNS white matter' E258-E259
Hansen DB, Garrido-Comas N, Salter M & Fern R (2015) 'HCO3--independent pH regulation in astrocytes in situ is dominated by V-ATPase' E444-E445
Vermehren P & Fern R (2013) 'Parallel pathways of glutamate and ATP-mediated excitotoxicity cause significant neural cell death during ischaemia: potential for novel neuroprotective strategies' 111-111
Shannon C, Salter M & Fern R (2007) 'GFP imaging of live astrocytes: regional differences in the effects of ischaemia upon astrocytes' 684-692 , DOI
FERN R, RANSOM BR & WAXMAN SG (1994) 'Ca2+-mediated injury in anoxic white matter: Autoprotective mechanisms and therapeutic strategies' 31-45
Fern R & Harrison PJ (1991) 'The slow time course of conduction slowing in myelinated axons of the isolated frog sciatic nerve perfused with a high concentration of potassium ions'
Fern R & Harrison PJ (1990) 'The contribution of ischaemia and axon deformation to conduction block induced by compression in the sciatic nerve of the anaesthetized cat'
Posters
Trotman ME, Kelly M, Fern R & Gibson CL Trotman ME, Kelly M, Fern R & Gibson CL 'A COMMON EXPERIMENTAL STROKE MODEL PRODUCES A BIMODAL PATTERN OF INJURY' Author Site