Dr Mark Whiteside
Profiles

Dr Mark Whiteside

Lecturer in Animal Welfare

School of Biological and Marine Sciences (Faculty of Science and Engineering)

Biography

Biography

Lecturer in Animal Welfare


Qualifications

2015-2019: Postdoctoral research associate in Centre for Research in Animal Behaviour, University of Exeter.

2012-2015: PhD jointly funded by the University of Exeter and the Game and Wildlife Conservation Trust.

2009-2010: Animal Behaviour MSc, University of Exeter

2003-2006: Biology BSc, University of Bristol.


Teaching

Teaching

Teaching interests

I am currently contributing to Methods in Biology (BIOL234) and the Animal Behaviour and Welfare Field Course (BIOL224).


Research

Research

Research interests

I am both a behavioural ecologist and an applied ethologist. My research focusses on how early life environments can influence individual behavioural, cognitive and physiological development which I then place into evolutionary and applied frameworks.

My work concentrates on a novel system, pheasant rearing, where I can test for individual characteristics during a time when pheasants are housed in captivity and I can then release them into the wild to follow their behaviour, movement and fate.


Other research

Applied

Pheasants are reared commercially in the UK for recreational shooting and I have been drawn in to highly applied questions related to the species and its role in the landscape. I am interested in the welfare of pheasants at all stages of their life (early development and post release), in particular how we can use physiological, behavioural and cognitive indicators of welfare to determine how best to measure the welfare of pheasants. I am experienced in using environmental manipulation (structural, dietary, social and informational) to improve welfare and survival of pheasants in captivity and in the wild. Finally, with large scale release of pheasants in the UK, I am also involved with understanding the ecological impact of this on the landscape, especially the relationship with predators.

Social

I am interested in how social environments (sex ratios; group sizes) can influence the cognitive (associative learning, memory), physiological (colouration, secondary sexual traits) and behavioural (vigilance patterns, aggression levels) development and how in turn, these can shape social structures (sexual segregation, affiliation, networks) and interactions (mate preference).

Cognition

I also study individual differences in cognitive performance during early life (inhibitory control, associative learning, spatial ability) and how it relates with measures including: other cognitive performances (g), degree of lateralisation, social rank, group size, and environmental perturbations.

Evolutionary

After testing, pheasants can be released into the wild where they are subject to natural pressures. In the wild I am interested in how the biological, physiological and cognitive development can influence behaviour, diet, movement patterns, reproductive success and survival and, thus, demonstrate evolutionary consequences.


Publications

Publications

Key publications

Key publications are highlighted

Journals

Beardsworth, C. E., Whiteside, M. A., Laker, P. R., Nathan, R., Orchan, Y., Toledo, S., . . . Madden, J. R. (2021). Is habitat selection in the wild shaped by individual‐level cognitive biases in orientation strategy?. Ecology Letters, 24(4), 751-760. doi:10.1111/ele.13694

Beardsworth, C. E., Whiteside, M. A., Capstick, L. A., Laker, P. R., Langley, E. J. G., Nathan, R., . . . Madden, J. R. (2021). Spatial cognitive ability is associated with transitory movement speed but not straightness during the early stages of exploration. Royal Society Open Science, 8(3), 201758. doi:10.1098/rsos.201758

Langley, E. J. G., Adams, G., Beardsworth, C. E., Dawson, D. A., Laker, P. R., van Horik, J. O., . . . Madden, J. R. (2020). Heritability and correlations among learning and inhibitory control traits. Behavioral Ecology, 31(3), 798-806. doi:10.1093/beheco/araa029

Langley, E. J. G., Horik, J. O., Whiteside, M. A., Beardsworth, C. E., Weiss, M. N., & Madden, J. R. (2020). Early‐life learning ability predicts adult social structure, with potential implications for fitness outcomes in the wild. Journal of Animal Ecology, 89(6), 1340-1349. doi:10.1111/1365-2656.13194

Whiteside, M. A., Bess, M. M., Frasnelli, E., Beardsworth, C. E., Langley, E. J. G., van Horik, J. O., & Madden, J. R. (2020). No evidence that footedness in pheasants influences cognitive performance in tasks assessing colour discrimination and spatial ability. Learning & Behavior, 48(1), 84-95. doi:10.3758/s13420-019-00402-8

Madden, J. R., Santilli, F., & Whiteside, M. A. (2020). The welfare of game birds destined for release into the wild: a balance between early life care and preparation for future natural hazards. Animal Welfare, 29(1), 1-18. doi:10.7120/09627286.29.1.001

Griffin, K. R., Beardsworth, C. E., Laker, P. R., van Horik, J. O., Whiteside, M. A., & Madden, J. R. (2020). The inhibitory control of pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) weakens when previously learned environmental information becomes unpredictable. Animal Cognition, 23(1), 189-202. doi:10.1007/s10071-019-01328-4

van Horik, J. O., Beardsworth, C. E., Laker, P. R., Whiteside, M. A., & Madden, J. R. (2020). Response learning confounds assays of inhibitory control on detour tasks. Animal Cognition, 23(1), 215-225. doi:10.1007/s10071-019-01330-w

van Horik, J. O., Beardsworth, C. E., Laker, P. R., Langley, E. J. G., Whiteside, M. A., & Madden, J. R. (2019). Unpredictable environments enhance inhibitory control in pheasants. Animal Cognition, 22(6), 1105-1114. doi:10.1007/s10071-019-01302-0

van Horik, J. O., Langley, E. J. G., Whiteside, M. A., & Madden, J. R. (2019). A single factor explanation for associative learning performance on colour discrimination problems in common pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Intelligence, 74, 53-61. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2018.07.001

Whiteside, M. A., van Horik, J. O., Langley, E. J. G., Beardsworth, C. E., Capstick, L. A., & Madden, J. R. (2019). Patterns of association at feeder stations for Common Pheasants released into the wild: sexual segregation by space and time. Ibis, 161(2), 325-336. doi:10.1111/ibi.12632

Whiteside, M. A., Bess, M. M., Frasnelli, E., Beardsworth, C. E., Langley, E. J. G., van Horik, J. O., & Madden, J. R. (2018). Low survival of strongly footed pheasants may explain constraints on lateralization. Scientific Reports, 8(1). doi:10.1038/s41598-018-32066-1

Cauchoix, M., Chow, P. K. Y., van Horik, J. O., Atance, C. M., Barbeau, E. J., Barragan-Jason, G., . . . Morand-Ferron, J. (2018). The repeatability of cognitive performance: a meta-analysis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 373(1756), 20170281. doi:10.1098/rstb.2017.0281

Madden, J. R., Langley, E. J. G., Whiteside, M. A., Beardsworth, C. E., & van Horik, J. O. (2018). The quick are the dead: pheasants that are slow to reverse a learned association survive for longer in the wild. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 373(1756), 20170297. doi:10.1098/rstb.2017.0297

Madden, J. R., Hall, A., & Whiteside, M. A. (2018). Why do many pheasants released in the UK die, and how can we best reduce their natural mortality?. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 64(4). doi:10.1007/s10344-018-1199-5

Langley, E. J. G., van Horik, J. O., Whiteside, M. A., & Madden, J. R. (2018). Individuals in larger groups are more successful on spatial discrimination tasks. Animal Behaviour, 142, 87-93. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.05.020

van Horik, J. O., Langley, E. J. G., Whiteside, M. A., Laker, P. R., & Madden, J. R. (2018). Intra-individual variation in performance on novel variants of similar tasks influences single factor explanations of general cognitive processes. Royal Society Open Science, 5(7), 171919. doi:10.1098/rsos.171919

van Horik, J. O., Langley, E. J. G., Whiteside, M. A., Laker, P. R., Beardsworth, C. E., & Madden, J. R. (2018). Do detour tasks provide accurate assays of inhibitory control?. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 285(1875), 20180150. doi:10.1098/rspb.2018.0150

Langley, E. J. G., van Horik, J. O., Whiteside, M. A., & Madden, J. R. (2018). Group social rank is associated with performance on a spatial learning task. Royal Society Open Science, 5(2), 171475. doi:10.1098/rsos.171475

Meier, C., Pant, S. R., van Horik, J. O., Laker, P. R., Langley, E. J. G., Whiteside, M. A., . . . Madden, J. R. (2017). A novel continuous inhibitory-control task: variation in individual performance by young pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Animal Cognition, 20(6), 1035-1047. doi:10.1007/s10071-017-1120-8

Whiteside, M. A., van Horik, J. O., Langley, E. J. G., Beardsworth, C. E., Laker, P. R., & Madden, J. R. (2017). Differences in social preference between the sexes during ontogeny drive segregation in a precocial species. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 71(7). doi:10.1007/s00265-017-2332-2

van Horik, J. O., Langley, E. J. G., Whiteside, M. A., & Madden, J. R. (2017). Differential participation in cognitive tests is driven by personality, sex, body condition and experience. Behavioural Processes, 134, 22-30. doi:10.1016/j.beproc.2016.07.001

Whiteside, M. A., Langley, E. J. G., & Madden, J. R. (2016). Males and females differentially adjust vigilance levels as group size increases: effect on optimal group size. Animal Behaviour, 118, 11-18. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2016.04.025

Whiteside, M. A., Sage, R., & Madden, J. R. (2016). Multiple behavioural, morphological and cognitive developmental changes arise from a single alteration to early life spatial environment, resulting in fitness consequences for released pheasants. Royal Society Open Science, 3(3), 160008. doi:10.1098/rsos.160008

Whiteside, M. A., Sage, R., & Madden, J. R. (2015). Diet complexity in early life affects survival in released pheasants by altering foraging efficiency, food choice, handling skills and gut morphology. Journal of Animal Ecology, 84(6), 1480-1489. doi:10.1111/1365-2656.12401

Madden, J. R., & Whiteside, M. A. (2014). Selection on behavioural traits during ‘unselective’ harvesting means that shy pheasants better survive a hunting season. Animal Behaviour, 87, 129-135. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2013.10.021

Madden, J. R., & Whiteside, M. A. (2013). Variation in female mate choice and mating success is affected by sex ratio experienced during early life. Animal Behaviour, 86(1), 139-142. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2013.05.003

Langley, E. J. G., van Horik, J. O., Whiteside, M. A., Beardsworth, C. E., & Madden, J. R. (n.d.). The relationship between social rank and spatial learning in pheasants, Phasianus colchicus: cause or consequence?. PeerJ, 6, e5738. doi:10.7717/peerj.5738

Whiteside, M. A., van Horik, J. O., Langley, E. J. G., Beardsworth, C. E., & Madden, J. R. (n.d.). Size dimorphism and sexual segregation in pheasants: tests of three competing hypotheses. PeerJ, 6, e5674. doi:10.7717/peerj.5674

van Horik, J. O., Langley, E. J. G., Whiteside, M. A., Beardsworth, C. E., & Madden, J. R. (n.d.). Pheasants Learn Five Different Binomial Color Discriminations and Retain these Associations for at Least 27 Days. Animal Behavior and Cognition, 5(3), 268-278. doi:10.26451/abc.05.03.02.2018


Articles
Beardsworth CE, Whiteside MA, Capstick LA, Laker PR, Langley EJG, Nathan R, Orchan Y, Toledo S, van Horik JO & Madden JR (2021) 'Spatial cognitive ability is associated with transitory movement speed but not straightness during the early stages of exploration' Royal Society Open Science 8, (3) 201758-201758 , DOI Open access
Beardsworth CE, Whiteside MA, Laker PR, Nathan R, Orchan Y, Toledo S, Horik JO & Madden JR (2021) 'Is habitat selection in the wild shaped by individual‐level cognitive biases in orientation strategy?' Ecology Letters 24, (4) 751-760 , DOI Open access
Langley EJG, Horik JO, Whiteside MA, Beardsworth CE, Weiss MN & Madden JR (2020) 'Early‐life learning ability predicts adult social structure, with potential implications for fitness outcomes in the wild' Journal of Animal Ecology 89, (6) 1340-1349 , DOI
Langley EJG, Adams G, Beardsworth CE, Dawson DA, Laker PR, van Horik JO, Whiteside MA, Wilson AJ & Madden JR (2020) 'Heritability and correlations among learning and inhibitory control traits' Behavioral Ecology 31, (3) 798-806 , DOI
Whiteside MA, Bess MM, Frasnelli E, Beardsworth CE, Langley EJG, van Horik JO & Madden JR (2020) 'No evidence that footedness in pheasants influences cognitive performance in tasks assessing colour discrimination and spatial ability' Learning & Behavior 48, (1) 84-95 , DOI Open access
Madden JR, Santilli F & Whiteside MA (2020) 'The welfare of game birds destined for release into the wild: a balance between early life care and preparation for future natural hazards' Animal Welfare 29, (1) 1-18 , DOI
Griffin KR, Beardsworth CE, Laker PR, van Horik JO, Whiteside MA & Madden JR (2019) 'The inhibitory control of pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) weakens when previously learned environmental information becomes unpredictable' Animal Cognition 23, (1) 189-202 , DOI
van Horik JO, Beardsworth CE, Laker PR, Whiteside MA & Madden JR (2019) 'Response learning confounds assays of inhibitory control on detour tasks' Animal Cognition 23, (1) 215-225 , DOI
van Horik JO, Beardsworth CE, Laker PR, Langley EJG, Whiteside MA & Madden JR (2019) 'Unpredictable environments enhance inhibitory control in pheasants' Animal Cognition 22, (6) 1105-1114 , DOI
van Horik JO, Langley EJG, Whiteside MA & Madden JR (2019) 'A single factor explanation for associative learning performance on colour discrimination problems in common pheasants (Phasianus colchicus)' Intelligence 74, 53-61 , DOI
Langley EJG, van Horik JO, Whiteside MA, Beardsworth CE & Madden JR (2018) 'The relationship between social rank and spatial learning in pheasants, Phasianus colchicus: cause or consequence?' PeerJ 6, e5738-e5738 , DOI
Whiteside MA, van Horik JO, Langley EJG, Beardsworth CE & Madden JR (2018) 'Size dimorphism and sexual segregation in pheasants: tests of three competing hypotheses' PeerJ 6, e5674-e5674 , DOI
Whiteside MA, Bess MM, Frasnelli E, Beardsworth CE, Langley EJG, van Horik JO & Madden JR (2018) 'Low survival of strongly footed pheasants may explain constraints on lateralization' Scientific Reports 8, (1) , DOI
Madden JR, Langley EJG, Whiteside MA, Beardsworth CE & van Horik JO (2018) 'The quick are the dead: pheasants that are slow to reverse a learned association survive for longer in the wild' Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 373, (1756) 20170297-20170297 , DOI
Cauchoix M, Chow PKY, van Horik JO, Atance CM, Barbeau EJ, Barragan-Jason G, Bize P, Boussard A, Buechel SD & Cabirol A (2018) 'The repeatability of cognitive performance: a meta-analysis' Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 373, (1756) 20170281-20170281 , DOI
Langley EJG, van Horik JO, Whiteside MA & Madden JR (2018) 'Individuals in larger groups are more successful on spatial discrimination tasks' Animal Behaviour 142, 87-93 , DOI
van Horik JO, Langley EJG, Whiteside MA, Beardsworth CE & Madden JR (2018) 'Pheasants Learn Five Different Binomial Color Discriminations and Retain these Associations for at Least 27 Days' Animal Behavior and Cognition 5, (3) 268-278 , DOI
Whiteside MA, van Horik JO, Langley EJG, Beardsworth CE, Capstick LA & Madden JR (2018) 'Patterns of association at feeder stations for Common Pheasants released into the wild: sexual segregation by space and time' Ibis 161, (2) 325-336 , DOI
van Horik JO, Langley EJG, Whiteside MA, Laker PR & Madden JR (2018) 'Intra-individual variation in performance on novel variants of similar tasks influences single factor explanations of general cognitive processes' Royal Society Open Science 5, (7) 171919-171919 , DOI
Madden JR, Hall A & Whiteside MA (2018) 'Why do many pheasants released in the UK die, and how can we best reduce their natural mortality?' European Journal of Wildlife Research 64, (4) , DOI
van Horik JO, Langley EJG, Whiteside MA, Laker PR, Beardsworth CE & Madden JR (2018) 'Do detour tasks provide accurate assays of inhibitory control?' Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 285, (1875) 20180150-20180150 , DOI
Langley EJG, van Horik JO, Whiteside MA & Madden JR (2018) 'Group social rank is associated with performance on a spatial learning task' Royal Society Open Science 5, (2) 171475-171475 , DOI
Meier C, Pant SR, van Horik JO, Laker PR, Langley EJG, Whiteside MA, Verbruggen F & Madden JR (2017) 'A novel continuous inhibitory-control task: variation in individual performance by young pheasants (Phasianus colchicus)' Animal Cognition 20, (6) 1035-1047 , DOI
Whiteside MA, van Horik JO, Langley EJG, Beardsworth CE, Laker PR & Madden JR (2017) 'Erratum to: Differences in social preference between the sexes during ontogeny drive segregation in a precocial species' Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 71, (8) , DOI
Whiteside MA, van Horik JO, Langley EJG, Beardsworth CE, Laker PR & Madden JR (2017) 'Differences in social preference between the sexes during ontogeny drive segregation in a precocial species' Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 71, (7) , DOI
van Horik JO, Langley EJG, Whiteside MA & Madden JR (2017) 'Differential participation in cognitive tests is driven by personality, sex, body condition and experience' Behavioural Processes 134, 22-30 , DOI
Whiteside MA, Langley EJG & Madden JR (2016) 'Males and females differentially adjust vigilance levels as group size increases: effect on optimal group size' Animal Behaviour 118, 11-18 , DOI
Whiteside MA, Sage R & Madden JR (2016) 'Multiple behavioural, morphological and cognitive developmental changes arise from a single alteration to early life spatial environment, resulting in fitness consequences for released pheasants' Royal Society Open Science 3, (3) 160008-160008 , DOI
Whiteside MA, Sage R & Madden JR (2015) 'Diet complexity in early life affects survival in released pheasants by altering foraging efficiency, food choice, handling skills and gut morphology' Journal of Animal Ecology 84, (6) 1480-1489 , DOI
Madden JR & Whiteside MA (2014) 'Selection on behavioural traits during ‘unselective’ harvesting means that shy pheasants better survive a hunting season' Animal Behaviour 87, 129-135 , DOI
Madden JR & Whiteside MA (2013) 'Variation in female mate choice and mating success is affected by sex ratio experienced during early life' Animal Behaviour 86, (1) 139-142 , DOI