Professor Geoff Millward
Faculty of Science and Engineering
Research in Marine and Environmental Sciences.
Researcher in the Consolidated Radio-isotope Facility (CORiF).
Geoff Millward obtained his Graduateship of the Royal Institute of Chemistry in 1967 by part-time study, while working at the British Rail Research Laboratories at Derby and Doncaster. Subsequently, he undetook a PhD study, at the University of Keele, of gas phase reaction kinetics related to improving the efficiency of propulsion for hypersonic flight.
He obtained his PhD in 1970 and immediately emigrated to Canada where he undertook a postdoctoral study, at the University of Calgary, on the thermal stability of fluorochlorocarbon compounds used in the manufacture the heat shields on hypersonic vehicles. During this time he published several papers in the Journal of Physical Chemistry, Faraday Transactions, the International Journal of Chemical Kinetics and the Journal of Chemical Physics. He was then invited to join Simon Bauer's research team at Cornell University, New York, to work on a NASA contract, concerned with the thermal stability of sulphur compounds. In 1972, NASA announced the termination of the "Apollo" programme and he returned to the UK with the intention of starting in a new research field.
He entered the Oceanography Department at Southampton University as an MSc student and was awarded an MSc 1973. His research project was on the reactivity of mercury, which gave him an opportunity to transfer his knowledge of kinetics and mechanisms into the aquatic field. In 1973 he was appointed as a lecturer in Plymouth Polytechnic, where he has been ever since. Over the last 35 years most of his research has concerned reaction kinetics in aquatic systems, mainly involving praticle-water interactions, as well as being being involved in major thematic programmes, such as the North Sea Project, the Land-Ocean Interaction Study (LOIS) and Environmental Diagnostics.
In 1989 he was presented with a Churchill Silver Medal by Queen Elizabeth for his work on the North Sea.
2017-presentTrustee Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association
Roles on external bodies
2017 Guest editor for a special edition of Estuarine Coastal andShelf Science on papers presented at ECSA-55.
2015 Guest editor for a special edition of Marine Pollution Bulletin on the English Channel and its catchments.
2014 Guest editor for a special edition of Journal of Environmental Radioactivity on radioactivity and impact on health.
2013 Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Science: member of a research assessment panel for Environmental Sciences.
2012-2016 President of the Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association.
2012 Scientific Committee on Ocean Research (SCOR) Visiting Scholar to Thailand.
2008-2009 Guest editor for a special edition of Marine Pollution Bulletin on the Severn Estuary.
2006-2009 Member of the EPSRC Peer Review College.
2006 Registered consultant with the Portuguese Research Foundation.
2004-2007 Founder member and Member of the Steering Committee of the the NERC-funded AQUANET on Natural Aquatic Colloids.
2003-2008 Member of the External Advisory Committee of the Center for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), University of Aveiro.
2003-2006 Member of the Center of Excellence for Baltic Development, Education and Research (BALTDER), Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Poland.
2004 Chair of the Working Party on Background Concentrations of Natural and Xenobiotic Substances for the Oslo and Paris Commissions (OSPAR), The Hague, Netherlands.
2003-2004 Senior Editor for a volume of "Marine Pollution Bulletin" containing the reviewed papers delivered at ECSA-34.
2002-2003 Guest Editor (with Professor M.B. Jones) for a Special Volume of "Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science" to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the founding of ECSA.
2002-2003 Guest Editor (with C. Neal) for a Special Volume of "Science of the Total Environment" on modelling of environmental processes.
Education of students using the Consolidated Radio-isotope Facility, in particular on radiological safety, measurement of environmental radioactivity its and its distribution in natural and polluted environments throughout the world. There is also an commitment to the evaluation of processes related to the environmental transport of radionuclides.
Staff serving as external examiners
EXTERNAL EXAMINATION OF TAUGHT DEGREES
2005-2008 External Examiner for MSc programmes at School of Ocean and Earth Sciences, University of Southampton.
2000-2004 BSc Marine Chemistry, University of Wales-Bangor.
2000-2003 BSc Environmental Science, University of Wales-Bangor.
EXAMINATION OF RESEARCH DEGREES
2013 University of Tasmania, Australia
2009 University of Sindh, Pakistan
2007 University of Aveiro, Portugal
2005 University of Greenwich.
2005 PhD University of Aveiro, Portugal.
2004 PhD University Of Lancaster.
2004 PhD University of Wales-Bangor.
2003 PhD University of Vigo, Spain.
2002 PhD University of Wales-Cardiff.
2002 PhD University of Aveiro, Portugal.
2002 MPhil University of the West Indies, Jamaica.
Professor Millward has 30 years research experience focussing on the development of a fundamental understanding of contaminant behaviour in marine systems and the uptake of pollutants by marine organisms and he has published over 100 technical papers on the subject.
His research has received research grants from funding agencies (including DTI, EA, EU, NERC) and commissioned work for regulatory authorities. He has successfully supervised 30 Ph.D. students, in collaboration with the Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML) and British Maritime Technology (BMT), on the behaviour of heavy metals (e.g. As, Cd, Hg, Pb) and micro-organic pollutants (PCBs, PAHs, surfactants). In 1989 he was awarded a Churchill Silver Medal for his studies of the North Sea.
His research involves examination of particle character, coupled with radiochemical techniques to evaluate the kinetics and mechanisms of particle-water interactions of contaminants. Evaluation of time-dependent uptake, involving a range of particle types, can be used in the development of predictive, computer-based models for contaminant transport. The results of these studies are being used to enhance the performance of advanced computer codes (ECoS and PISCES) which are capable of predicting the fate of contaminants in natural and polluted systems. Professor Millward has worked on the the Ria de Aveiro, with Portuguese colleagues, studying in the fate of Hg contamination from a chlor-alkali plant. His group has evaluated the impact of the construction of a tidal barrage, in Plymouth, for the Environment Agency.
Research degrees awarded to supervised students
Kavinseksan, C. (2007). PhD "Metal Binding in Sediments and Cockles from Tropical and Temperate Estuaries".
Rattanchongkiat, S. (2004). PhD "Arsenic in the Pak Pa-Nang River Basin, Thailand".
Watts, S.J. (2004). PhD "Recovery of the Mersey Estuary from Metal Contamination".
Dale, A. (2003). PhD "The Oceanography and Modelling of the Pontevedra Ria (NW Spain)".
Jones-Hughes, T.L. (2002). PhD "The Influence of Surfactants on the Sorption of Phenanthrene in Natural Waters".
Rees, A.P. (2001). PhD "The Uptake and Flux of Dissolved Nitrogen in Marine Waters".
Richards, J.P. (2001). PhD "Implementing Marine Pollution Policy: Proposals for Change".
Since 1980 Professor Millward has supervised 36 PhDs and 2 MPhils.
Grants & contracts
2007 EPSRC £34,611 Mobilisation and transport of contaminated sediments in a high capacity flume
2006 Enviros Consulting & Environment Agency. £10,000. Interactions of radionuclides with sewage sludge.
2006 Environment Agency. £4,000. Review of the Severn Estuary in collaboration with the MBA.
2005 EU £120,000 Marie Curie Postdoctoral Fellowship.
2005 EPSRC £145,000 A test bed for coupling chemical reactivity with hydrodynamics.
2004 NERC £60,000 Formation of the "AQUANET" Geocolloids Group, with the University of Birmingham.
2003 NERC £ 26,500 Characteristics of estuarine particles, with the University of Birmingham.
2003 Thai Govt £ 60,000 PhD Research Studentship for 4 years.
2002 Leverhulme £105,000 Organic nitrogen in estuaries.
2002 British Council £ 5,000 Arsenic contamination in Thailand.
2001Thai Govt £ 60,000 PhD Research Studentship for 4 years.
Key publications are highlightedJournals
Iurian, A.R., Millward, G., Blake, W., Abril Hernandez, J.M. (2021). Fine-tuning of 210Pb-based methods for dating vegetated saltmarsh sediments. Quaternary Geochronolgy, 62, 101153.
Glegg, G.A., Barratt, C., Taylor, A., Gulson, E., Millward, G.E. (2021). Potential hazards of metal-contaminated soils in an estuarine impoundment. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 21, 530-544.
Wynants, M., Millward, G., Patrick, A., Taylor, A., Munishi, L., Mtei, K., . . . Blake, W. H. (2020). Determining tributary sources of increased sedimentation in East-African Rift Lakes. Science of The Total Environment, 717, 137266. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137266
Owens, P. N., Blake, W. H., & Millward, G. E. (2019). Extreme levels of fallout radionuclides and other contaminants in glacial sediment (cryoconite) and implications for downstream aquatic ecosystems. Scientific Reports, 9, 12531. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-48873-z
Taylor, A., Blake, W. H., Iurian, A. R., Millward, G. E., & Mabit, L. (2019). The use of Be-7 as a soil and sediment tracer. In Assessing Recent Soil Erosion Rates through the Use of Beryllium-7 (Be-7) (pp. 1-13). Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-10982-0_1
Iurian, A. R., & Millward, G. E. (2019). Measurement of Be-7 in environmental materials. In Assessing Recent Soil Erosion Rates through the Use of Beryllium-7 (Be-7) (pp. 29-44). Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-10982-0_3
Blake, W. H., Taylor, A., Iurian, A. R., Millward, G. E., & Mabit, L. (2019). Conversion of Be-7 activity concentrations into soil and sediment redistribution amounts. In Assessing Recent Soil Erosion Rates through the Use of Beryllium-7 (Be-7) (pp. 45-59). Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-10982-0_4
Rattikansukha, C., Millward, G. E., & Langston, W. J. (2019). Partitioning of Cd, Zn and Fe in the tissues and cytosols of blood cockles (Anadara granosa) from the Gulf of Thailand. Estuaries and Coasts, 42, 237-249. doi:10.1007/s12237-018-0452-1
Millward, G. E., & Turner, A. (2018). Metal Pollution ☆. In Encyclopedia of the Anthropocene (pp. 77-85). Elsevier. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-809665-9.09114-x
Foulkes, M., Millward, G., Henderson, S., & Blake, W. (2017). Bioaccessibility of U, Th and Pb in solid wastes and soils from an abandoned uranium mine. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 173, 85-96. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2016.11.030
Millward, G. E., & Taylor, A. (2017). Sediment Analysis ☆. In Reference Module in Chemistry, Molecular Sciences and Chemical Engineering. Elsevier. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-409547-2.14329-x
Little, S., Spencer, K. L., Schuttelaars, H. M., Millward, G. E., & Elliott, M. (2017). Unbounded boundaries and shifting baselines: Estuaries and coastal seas in a rapidly changing world. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 198, 311-319. doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2017.10.010
Iurian, A. R., Millward, G. E., Sima, O., Taylor, A., & Blake, W. (2017). Self-attenuation corrections for Pb-210 in gamma-ray spectrometry using well and coaxial HPGe detectors. Applied Radiation and Isotopes. doi:10.1016/j.apradiso.2017.06.048
Millward, G. E., Jha, A. N., Minier, C., Pope, N. D., & Langston, W. J. (2015). The English Channel and its catchments: Status and responses to contaminants. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 95, 523-528. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.02.004
Tappin, A. D., & Millward, G. E. (2015). The English Channel: Contamination status of its transitional and coastal waters. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 95, 529-550. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.12.012
Shams, L., Turner, A., Millward, G. E., & Brown, M. T. (2014). Extra- and intra-cellular accumulation of platinum group elements by the marine microalga, Chlorella stigmatophora. Water Research, 50, 432-440. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2013.10.055
Varma, R., Turner, A., Brown, M. T., & Millward, G. E. (2013). Metal accumulation kinetics by the estuarine macroalga, Fucus ceranoides. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 128, 33-40. doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2013.05.014
Fitzsimons, M. F., Lohan, M., Tappin, A. D., & Millward, G. E. (2012). Role of suspended particles in estuarine and coastal biogeochemistry. In E. Wolanski, & D. McLusky (Eds.), Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science (Vol. 12, pp. 71-114). Academic Press.
Millward, G. E., Kadam, S., & Jha, A. N. (2012). Tissue-specific assimilation, depuration and toxicity of nickel in Mytilus edulis.. Environmental Pollution, 162, 406-412. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2011.11.034
Takahashi, C. K., Turner, A., Millward, G. E., & Glegg, G. A. (2012). Persistence and metallic composition of paint particles in sediments from a tidal inlet.. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 64, 133-137. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.10.010
Jaeschke, B. C., Millward, G. E., Moody, A. J., & Jha, A. N. (2011). Tissue-specific incorporation and genotoxicity of different forms of tritium in the marine mussel, Mytilus edulis.. Environmental Pollution, 159, 274-280. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2010.08.033
Tappin, A. D., Millward, G. E., & Fitzsimons, M. F. (2010). Particle-water interactions of organic nitrogen in turbid estuaries. Marine Chemistry, 122, 28-38. doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2010.08.006
Langston, W. J., Jonas, P. J. C., & Millward, G. E. (2010). The Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel: a 25 year critical review.. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 61, 1-4. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2009.12.009
Jonas, P. J. C., & Millward, G. E. (2010). Metals and nutrients in the Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel: contemporary inputs and distributions.. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 61, 52-67. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2009.12.013
Couceiro, F., Rauen, W., Millward, G. E., Lin, B., Turner, A., & Falconer, R. (2009). Transport and reactivity of nickel in estuarine sediments: Results from a high capacity flume. Marine Chemistry, 117, 71-76. doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2009.06.005
Santos-Echeandia, J., Prego, R., Cobelo-Garcia, A., & Millward, G. E. (2009). Porewater geochemistry in a Galician Ria (NW Iberian Peninsula): Implications for benthic fluxes of dissolved trace elements (Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Zn). Marine Chemistry, 117, 77-87. doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2009.05.001
Turner, A., Millward, G. E., & Stemp, M. (2009). Distribution of tritium in estuarine waters: the role of organic matter. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 100, 890-895. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2009.06.018
Convenor for the 2nd International Conference on "Geocolloids and Nanoparticles". Plymouth University, 13-14 September 2006. A product of the NERC AQUANET Consortium.
Convenor for the Estuarine, Coastal Sciences Association (ECSA) Symposium on "Estuaries of South West England", 6-8 April 2005, University of Plymouth.