Professor David Bilton

Professor David Bilton

Professor of Aquatic Biology

School of Biological and Marine Sciences (Faculty of Science and Engineering)

David can be contacted through arrangement with our Press Office, to speak to the media on these areas of expertise.
  • Biodiversity
  • Invertebrates
  • Entomology
  • Beetles
  • Freshwater ecology
  • Fauna - UK
  • Conservation


Professor of Aquatic Biology, University of Plymouth

Vising Professor, Department of Zoology, University of Johannesburg, South Africa

Deputy Director, NERC ARIES DTP

Postgraduate Research Coordinator, School of Biological and Marine Sciences, University of Plymouth


Google Scholar Author Profile

ResearchGate Profile

Winner ZSL Marsh Award for Marine and Freshwater Conservation

Career History

2016 - Professor of Aquatic Biology, Plymouth University

1996- 2016 Lecturer/Senior Lecturer/Reader in Aquatic Biology, Plymouth University 

1995-1996 Browne Research Fellow in Biological Sciences, The Queen’s College, Oxford University.

1993-1995 Research Fellow in Biological Sciences, University of York.

1993 Royal Society Research Fellow, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

1992 Research Fellow in Genetics, Uppsala University, Sweden.

Education & Qualifications

2015 Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy

1997 SEDA Accredited Teacher in Higher Education

1988-1991 PhD (Population Genetics), University of London

1990 MA Zoology, Oxford University

1985-1988 BA (Hons) Zoology (First Class), Oxford University - Gibbs Prize for the highest academic performance in year

1979-1985 Trinity Comprehensive School, Carlisle

Professional membership

Fellow of the Royal Entomological Society

Fellow of the Linnean Society

Member of the Freshwater Biological Association

Member of the International Biogeography Society

Roles on external bodies

Deputy Director, NERC ARIES DTP

NERC Peer Review College - Member 2009-date.

Subject Editor - Biodiversity Data Journal

Associate Editor  Journal of Insect Conservation

Editorial Board - Psyche: A Journal of Entomology

Aquatic Coleoptera Conservation Trust - ACCT
. ACCT was founded to promote and co-ordinate conservation and research work on threatened water beetles. Aquatic beetles are a diverse group, and are excellent indicators of habitat quality, age, and 'naturalness'. Around 400 species of British beetle live in water for a significant proportion of their lives, including the familiar diving beetles. Many species have shown significant and dramatic contractions in range since the mid 20th century, in response to a variety of factors, particularly agricultural intensification and associated drainage of wetlands and increases in diffuse pollution, leading to eutrophication. (Secretary) . 

Ponds Advisory Council
. International body concerned with the biology and conservation of small water bodies. Ponds harbour the vast majority of regional aquatic biodiversity in most countries, but are often ignored by ecologists, who study the larger (and often ecologically simpler!) lakes and rivers instead. (Member).

Balfour-Browne Club. Aquatic Coleoptera World specialist group, with over 200 members, who, like water beetles, are distributed on all continents except Antarctica. Co-ordinated from the UK. (Committee Member).

Grant Referee
for NERC, BBSRC, Austrian Science Foundation.

Invited Referee for numerous journals, including: Molecular Ecology, Proceeding of the Royal Society Series B, Journal of Applied Ecology, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, Freshwater Biology, Conservation Genetics, Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, Functional Ecology, Hydrobiologia, Aquatic Conservation, Ecology Letters, Vie et Milieu, Annales Zoologici Fennici, Archive fur Hydrobiologie, Aquatic Insects, Diversity and Distributions, Ecography, Biological Conservation, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Estuaries, Journal of Biogeography, Ecological Entomology.

New animals I've named

Oniscus ancarensis Bilton, 1992
Terrestrial isopod  (woodlouse), endemic to NW Spain

Oniscus asellus occidentalis Bilton, 1994
Terrestrial isopod (woodlouse), known from the UK, Ireland and France, first recognized in Dartmoor woodlands.  Frequently hydridizes with the common Oniscus asellus asellus where the two meet.

Hydraena zezerensis Diaz-Pazos & Bilton, 1995
A hydraenid water beetle with elaborate male secondary sexual characters - endemic to a single headwater stream at the top of a glacial valley in Portugal's highest mountain massif, the Serra Estrela. Still known from knowhere else - one of the rarest water beetles in Europe.

Oniscus galicianus Bilton, 1997
Terrestrial isopod (woodlouse), endemic to NW Spain 

Agabus picotae Foster & Bilton, 1997
Diving beetle, endemic to SW Portugal and Spain. Associated with wet rock faces beside headwater streams. 

Hydraena hosseiniorum Bilton & Jach, 1998
Hydraenid water beetle endemic to the Zagros Mountains in western Iran - the most easterly member of its group.

Stictonectes rebeccae Bilton, 2012
A diving beetle endemic to the north and west of Spain and Portugal.

Discozantaena occidentalis Bilton & Perkins, 2012
A small 'water' beetle which has become secondarily terrestrial, living in damp litter by water. Known only from a single waterhole in West Coast National park, on the Western Cape of South Africa.

Pneuminion fontinalis Bilton & Perkins, 2012
Another small water beetle, restricted to permanent trickles of water, running like condensation on a window pane, in the high mountains near Paarl in the Western Cape of South Africa.

Crenitis bicolor Bilton, 2013
A hydrophilid water beetle so far only known from the high Kamiesberg in the Northern Cape of South Africa, an outlying fragment of the fynbos biome in arid Namaqualand.

Hydraena lotti Bilton, 2013
A small stream dwelling water beetle which I found to be common in high altitude streams in a very small area of the Taygetos Mountains in the Peloponnese, Greece. The 92 member of the "Haenydra" lineage, most of which are similarly narrow-ranged endemics. Its closest relatives are in eastern Greece and central Italy.

Prosthetops wolfbergensis Bilton, 2013
Yet another water beetle, which at 4.2 mm long is by far the largest known 'minute moss beetle' amongst the thousands described to date. Relatively widespread in the Western Cape mountains in South Africa, occurring in temporary pools where rainwater has dissolved bare rock. Named after the Wolfberg Arch, a striking geological feature of the Cederberg mountains, in whose shadow the beetle was abundant.

Sharphydrus brincki Bilton, 2013
A small diving beetle endemic to the Western Cape of South Africa, in mountain streams. The third known member of this genus, which is endemic to temperate South Africa. Named after the late Professor Per Brinck, who first collected this species in the early 1950s.

Sharphydrus kamiesbergensis Bilton, 2013
A small diving beetle so far only known from the high Kamiesberg in the Northern Cape of South Africa - the fourth known species of the genus.

Pterosthetops baini Bilton, 2014
A specialist of wet rock faces, living in a trickles of water and so far known from a single mountain pass in the Cape of South Africa. Named after the guy who directed the pass's construction in the 19th century, making accessible habitat available for these beetles in the process!

Pterosthetops coriaceus Bilton, 2014
A wet-rock seepage specialist, found only at a single site in the Cederberg mountains in South Africa.

Pterosthetops indwei Bilton, 2014
Another wet-rock seepage specialist, known from the Langeberg and Outeniquaberg mountains in South Africa - named after the Blue Crane, an iconic bird of this part of the Cape.

Pterosthetops pulcherrimus Bilton, 2014
Another wet-rock seepage specialist, this time known from one wet mountain pass in the Cederberg of South Africa. Named in reference to its strinking appearance, and the view form the type locality.

Pterosthetops swartbergensis Bilton, 2014
Another wet-rock seepage specialist, found, as its name suggests, in the Groote Swartberg, South Africa.

Pterosthetops tuberculatus Bilton, 2014
Yet another wet-rock seepage specialist - relatively widespread in the Western Cape, South Africa - on mountain passes.

Pterosthetops uitkyki Bilton, 2014
Again a wet-rock seepage specialist, known only from Uitkyk Pass in the Cederberg range, South Africa.

Laccobius leopardus Bilton & Gentili, 2014

Lives in pools in drying river margins on the edge of the Cederberg mountains in South Africa, an area transitional between fynbos and succulent karoo. Named after the leopards which frequent the area, and in reference to its spotted appearance.

Mesoceration hantam Bilton, 2014

From temporary pools and stream on the Hantamsberg, an inselberg in the Northern Cape of South Africa.

Parhydraena faeni Bilton, 2014

Again from temporary pools and stream on the Hantamsberg, an inselberg in the Northern Cape of South Africa.

Yola matsikammae Bilton, 2015

From a stream on the Matsikammaberg, another inselberg, this time on the northern edge of the Fynbos biome in the Western Cape of South Africa.

Capelatus prykei Turner & Bilton, 2015

An entirely new lineage of diving beetle from close to Cape Town. Not related to anything else in sub-Saharan Africa, its closest relatives being in the Mediterranean and Australasia. Also highly endangered by ongoing urbanisation and habitat loss.

Canthyporus namaqualacrimus Bilton, 2015

The name translates as "the tears of Namaqualand". A diving beetle known from seepages over rock in the highest mountains of this arid region of the Northern Cape. These summits present a mesic island in an otherwise semi-desert landscape, and a re home to many endemics.

Canthyporus pallidus Bilton, 2015

A small diving beetle of wet rock seepages and small rockpools on mountains around the edges of Namaqualand, South Africa.

Mesoceration caniplenum Bilton, 2015

A water beetle from trickling streams in the SE of the Drakensberg, South Africa. It's name is in reference to the type locality, Injisuthi, which means 'place of the well-fed dog' in isiZulu, in reference to the formerly abundant game of this area.

Mesoceration foggoi Bilton, 2015

A water beetle endemic to a table mountain at the northern end of the Fynbos biome in South Africa, where it is common in almost all running waters. Named after Andy Foggo, who helped collect it.

Mesoceration helmei Bilton, 2015

Known only from the high Winterhoek mountains in the Cape, in a small stream which spends a couple of months every year under snow. Named after Nick Helme, the South African botanist who dragged me up this mountain!

Mesoceration hirsutum Bilton, 2015

Yet another new species from the Cederberg Mountains, South Africa. Only known from the holotype, in a high altitude stream, where it lived with nine other members of the genus.

Mesoceration rugulosum Bilton, 2015

Known only from a wet rockface beside a mountain stream above Franschhoek, South Africa.

Mesoceration sinclairi Bilton, 2015

Common in a stream flowing down the Kogelberg into False Bay, in the far SW Cape of South Africa. Names after my old friend Magnus Sinclair.

Coelometopon glenavoni Bilton, 2015

Found on wet cliffs in the pray zone of Glen Avon Falls, in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. Eyes raised up like a hippo so that it can see out of the water film in which it lives.

Oomtelecopon disjunctum Bilton, 2015

A beetle from damp rocks beside a road close to Ceres in the Western Cape - the third new species so far from this place. It's only close relative lives close to Cape Town.

Oomtelecopon namaqum Bilton, 2016

A beetle from damp rocks beside a stream in the Kamiesberg mountains - an area of relatively high rainfall, supporting fynbos, in Namaqualand.

Pterostetops nitidus Bilton, 2016

Wet rockface specialist from the eastern side of False Bay, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Anacaena namaqua Bilton & Komarek, 2016

A common species where it occurs, in both pools and streams, in the area where the fynbos biome meets the succulent karoo in South Africa.

Hydrobiomorpha perissinottoi Bilton, 2016

The first species of this genus of relatively large water scavenger beetles reliably reported from South Africa. Common in iSimangaliso Wetland Park in the NE of the country.

Leielmis gibbosus Bilton, 2017

A relatively common riffle beetle in Western Cape mountain streams, which has previously been overlooked.

Leielmis hirsutus Bilton, 2017

One high altitude stream at ca. 1,200 m in the Western cape of South Africa. Common there.

Pterosthetops chrysomallus Bilton, 2017

Wet rock faces on the Bokkeveld Plateau, at the northern fringes of the Fynbos Biome in South Africa.

Parasthetops porcellus Bilton, 2017

Widespread on the Bokkeveld Plateau, at the northern fringes of the Fynbos Biome in South Africa.

Mesoceration castaneus Bilton, 2017

One male from a stream on the Bokkeveld Plateau, at the northern fringes of the Fynbos Biome in South Africa.

Mesoceration chasmum Bilton, 2017

Found in Oorlogskloof Canyon, on the Bokkeveld Plateau, at the northern fringes of the Fynbos Biome in South Africa.

Mesoceration sabulosum Bilton, 2017

Two steams over sand on the Bokkeveld Plateau, at the northern fringes of the Fynbos Biome in South Africa.

Meladema lepidoptera Bilton & Ribera, 2017

A cryptic sibling of the widespread large diving beetle Meladema coriacea. First detected from DNA sequence data, and subsequently found to differ morphologically as well. Restricted to parts of Italy and the Tuscan Archipelago.

Parhydraena cataracta Bilton, 2018

Semi-terrestrial 'water' beetle from permanently wet plant litter beside a mountain waterfall in the Hex River Mountains, South Africa. Closest relative is endemic to Table Mountain.

Approximately 20 additional water beetles and a millipede are in the system........

New animals named after me

Armadilloniscus biltoni Taiti & Ferrara, 1989
A terrestrial isopod (woodlouse) found in the entrance to a sea cave on the Togian Islands, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Althepus biltoni Deeleman-Reinhold, 1995
A spider from forests on the Togian Islands, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Neptosternus biltoni Hendrich and Balke, 1997
A small diving beetle from forest streams on one of the Togian Islands, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. The adjacent island had a different species, also new to science at the time.

Deronectes biltoni Fery & Hosseinie, 1998
A diving beetle endemic to mountains in northern Iran, close to the Caspian Sea.

Helophorus biltoni Angus, Mahdizadeh & Hosseinie, 2005
A small crawling water beetle endemic to the Zagros Mountains in western Iran, where I first collected it in the late 1990s. It has close relatives on the Golan Heights, and in Spain.

Hydraena biltoni Jach & Diaz-Pazos, 2012
A small water beetle currently known only from a handful of places in central Montenegro. Closely related to the widespread Hydraena morio, which also occurs in the region, but not, so far, in the same localities.

Galicisoma biltoni Mauries, 2015                                        

A winter-active millipede I found back in 1993 in a relict Atlantic oak woodland in Galicia in the far northwest of Spain.

Ochthebius biltoni Jach & Delgado, 2017                                 

A marine rockpool species I found in Sicily a few years ago.

Another water beetle and a centipede are currently on their way..........

Teaching interests

I am interested in a range of questions related to biogeography, conservation and evolution, particularly using aquatic invertebrates as models. Much of my teaching reflects my research interests, covering topics such as macroecology and biogeography, aquatic conservation, biological species concepts and speciation, and arthropod zoology. I teach on courses to all three undergraduate years, and supervise a range of BSc and MSc/MRes projects.

Stage 1

MBIO123 Biodiversity - Overview of the diversity of life, covering microbes, fungi, algae, plants and animals, plus some material on behaviour. I cover the arthropods - the most important animals on earth.  

MBIO120 Introduction to Marine Biology - What it says on the tin. I am heavily involved in field week, and lead field sampling trips to a number of locations in the region. In addition I give a lecture on the 'terrestrial' specialists of the shore

BIOL124PP Biology of Sex - Want to know about sexual conflict, what diving beetles can tell us about it how why Darwin got it wrong? This is all covered in my section of this module.

MBIO123 Marine Biology Field Course - I attend this residential course in Brittany each year, and do some of the taxonomy practicals before we go.

Stage 2

BIOL214 Ecology - An up-to-date exploration of the fundamental principles of population and community ecology. I teach community ecology from a large-scale, or macroecological, perspective, examining the assembly of communities, island biogeography, adaptive radiation, biodiversity and ecosystem function, and asking why most species are rare, and why there are there are more species of organisms in the tropics?

MBIO213 Coastal Biodiversity and Ecology Fieldcourse - An exploration of biodiversity in a coastal setting, currently in one of the World's Biodiversity Hotspots, on the western Cape of South Africa. I attend this residential course each year. 

Stage 3

MBIO324 Speciation and Diversity - What is a species? How do new species originate? What generates and maintains the diversity of life? How do we quantify this biodiversity? What are the ecological and evolutionary processes which underpin global patterns in biodiversity? Does biodiversity matter? An up-to-date exploration of the nature and generation of biological diversity, examining model taxa from a wide range of habitats and groups. I co-ordinate this course and teach biological species concepts and speciation.

BIOL304 Global Change Biology - what it says on the tin. Mostly on the causes and consequences of current global change. I deliver three lectures on Quaternary climate change and biological responses to ice ages, to give a wider historical/evolutionary context to ongoing change.

I supervise a range of projects in aquatic biology, ecology and evolution - typically 6-10 students per year.

Module leader for:

MBIO324 Speciation and Diversity

Personal Tutor

For approx.10 students in each year

Staff serving as external examiners

External Examiner for Undergraduate Programmes 

School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway College, University of London 2011-2014

PhD examinations

2019 Oxford University, UK. Taxonomy of Afrotropical Scarabaeinae. Dr Hitoshi Takano 

2018 Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa. Freshwater invertebrates of the Karoo. Dr Annah Mabidi

2015 Murdoch University, Australia. Invertebrate resistance to wetland drying. Dr Scott Strachan

2013 University of Sussex. The ecology of great diving beetles (Dytiscus spp.) on the Somerset Levels and Moors. Dr Anthony Serjeant

2011 Cardiff University. Phylogeography and conservation genetics of Lusitanian sea stars. Dr David Darrock

2011 Anglia Ruskin University/British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge. The taxonomy and ecology of Tardigrada. Dr Sandra MacInnes.

2010 Imperial College, London. The causes of insect endemicity with the example of Madagascar. Dr Benjamin Isambert.

2008 Murcia University, Spain. Use of Iberian water beetles in biodiversity conservation. Dr David Sanchez Fernandez.

2006 Murcia University, Spain. Conservation of freshwater biodiversity in southeastern Spain: methods and approaches from water beetle data. Dr Pedro Abellan Rodenas.

2003 Uppsala University, Sweden. Phylogeographic structure and genetic variation in Formica ants. Dr Anna Goropashnaya.

2003 Imperial College, London. Evolution and ecology of seed predation in weevils (genus Curculio). Dr Joseph Hughes

2003 Imperial College, London. Ecomorphological and Phylogenetic Analysis of Dung Beetle Communities in South Africa. Dr Claire Wilsher.

2002 Royal Holloway, University of London. Chromosomal studies on dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea). Dr Christine Wilson.

Research interests

My work addresses a range of questions in aquatic biology, using both freshwater and marine organisms as model systems, but with a particular focus on water beetles. Some of our water beetle work to date is summarized in a recent invited review in Annual Review of Entomology (Bilton, et al., 2019). Much of my research focuses on attempts to understand the geographical distribution and evolutionary differentiation of organisms at a number of spatial scales.  Specific areas of interest include:

Macroecology and macrophysiology of aquatic invertebrates
.  What determines relative geographical range size - why are most species rare? Testing hypotheses of rarity, using selected clades of aquatic insects as model systems. Investigation of thermal tolerance across clades containing both widespread and restricted endemic taxa. Unravelling the mechanisms underlying differences in thermal tolerance.

Systematics and evolution of aquatic beetles. I work extensively on the taxonomy and systematics of water beetles, in various families and regions, with a particular focus on the Western Palaearctic and Southern Africa. I have also co-authored a recent Royal Entomological Society/Field Studies Council guide the British and Irish hydrophiloid water beetles, and am working on a further guide to remaining aquatic taxa, as well as being a co-author on atlases of British and Irish Hydradephaga (predaceous water beetles), Hydrophiloidea (mainly water scavenger beetles) and a forthcoming atlas of the rest.

Ecology and conservation of temporary waters
. The invertebrate assemblages of temporary and fluctuating water bodies. Exploration of factors structuring communities at regional and local scales. The use of aquatic insects as biodiversity surrogates and indicator taxa in conservation.

Dispersal biology of aquatic invertebrates
. Causes and consequences of dispersal in aquatic invertebrates. 

Ecology and conservation of aquatic Coleoptera (water beetles)
. Evolution and ecology of aquatic beetles. Sexual conflict in diving beetles. Conservation biology of threatened taxa. Use of aquatic beetles as surrogates in ecosystem assessment and monitoring. Water beetle systematics and phylogeny. 

Current projects include:

Multiple stressors in inland waters, climate change vulnerability and the evolution of salinity tolerance in water beetles. Fundacion Seneca International Fellowship for Dr Susana Pallares.

Ecophysiology of European water beetles. Determinants of range size and ecological range; evolution of salinity tolerance. Collaborators: Ignacio Ribera (CSIC, Barcelona); Josefina Velasco & Andres Millan (Universidad de Murcia). 

Oxygen limitation in aquatic arthropods. Does oxygen limitation set thermal limits in aquatic arthropods, and does respiratory mode influence this? Collaborator: Dr Wilco Verberk (Radboud University, Netherlands).

Systematics and Biodiversity of South African water beetles. Fieldwork in poorly known areas of this biodiverse region is combined with taxonomic and systematic work, which has resulted in the discovery of numerous new species and genera. Collaborators: Prof. Renzo Perissonotto (Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa), Manfred Jach (Vienna Natural History Museum, Austria), Michael Balke (Zoologische Staatsammlung, Munich, Germany), Ignacio Ribera (CSIC, Barcelona).

Conservation biology of threatened aquatic beetles
Ecology and conservation of UK Biodiversity Action Plan species.  In association with the Aquatic Coleoptera Conservation Trust.

Sexual conflict in diving beetles
Inter-relationships between male and female morphology in sexually dimorphic taxa; evolution and biogeography of sexual dimorphism in dytiscids.

Other research

Current Postdocs

Dr Susana PallaresMultiple stressors in inland waters, climate change vulnerability and the evolution of salinity tolerance in water beetles. Fundacion Seneca International Fellowship.  

Current ResM & PhD Students

Ben Green. The aquatic macroinvertebrates of restored river gravels: community composition and ecosystem function. (Supervised with Andy Foggo). 

Balbina Ramsay. Tardigrade spatial ecology in the Andes. (Supervised with Simon Rundle). 

Recent Lab Visitors

Pedro Abellán (University de Murcia, Spain) 

Dr David Sanches-Fernandez (University de Murcia, Spain)

Dr Maragrita Florencio (Doñana Biological Station, Seville, Spain)

Dr Juan-Carlos Guitterez Estrada (University of Huelva, Spain)

Dr Félix Picazo Mota (University of Murcia, Spain)

Dr Cristina Coccia (Doñana Biological Station, Seville, Spain)

Dr Paula Arribas (University of Murcia, Spain)

Dr Simone Guareschi (University of Murcia, Spain)

Dr Jose Carbonell (University of Murcia, Spain)

Dr Susana Pallares (University of Murcia, Spain)

Prof Luis-Felipe Valladares (University of Leon, Spain)

Dr Vanessa Cespedes (Doñana Biological Station, Seville, Spain)

Dr Musa Mlambo (Albany Museum & Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa)

Vojtech Kolar (University of South Bohemia, České Budějovice, Czech Republic)

Research degrees awarded to supervised students

Dr Lucy Kelly
. Dispersal, Genetic Differentiation and Community Composition of Insular Stream Invertebrates. (Supervised with Simon Rundle). Awarded 2001.

Dr Louise McAbendroth
. Mediterranean Temporary Ponds in the UK: Ecology, Status and Management. (Supervised with Simon Rundle and Andy Foggo ). Awarded 2004.

Dr Punyasloke Bhadury
. Molecular resolution of marine nematode biodiversity: Development of a rapid assessment technique. (Supervised with Mel Austin & Gary Smerdon, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, and John Lambshead, Natural History Museum, London). Awarded 2006.

Dr Ena Mata-Zayas.
The distribution of phylogenetic diversity of mammals in Mexico and its implications for conservation. (Supervised with Miguel Franco). Awarded 2007.

Dr Victor Aguirre-Hidalgo
. Demographic and genetic diversity of the Mexican black iguana Ctenosaura pectinata. (Supervised with Miguel Franco). Awarded 2008. 

Dr Sonia Fontani
. Genetic biodiversity of the European barnacle Chthalamus montagui. (Supervised with John Bishop). Awarded 2009.

Dr Tony Bicknell.  Population biology of Leach's storm petrel. (Supervised with Steven Votier and Mairi Knight). Awarded 2011.

Dr Nigel Marley. Biology of Tardigrada. Awarded 2011.

Dr Rebekah Cioffi.   Understanding rarity and latitudinal range size relationships in European diving beetles (Dytiscidae) using metabolic plasticity and immunocopmetence. (Supervised with John Moody and Richard Billington). Awarded 2017.

Dr John Thorpe. Biogeograohy of rocky plateaus in the Western Ghats, India. (Supervised with Mairi Knight). Awarded 2018.

Grants & contracts

2019-2021 Multiple stressors in inland waters, climate change vulnerability and the evolution of salinity tolerance in aquatic beetles. PI. Fundacion Seneca Postdoctoral Fellowship for Susanna Pallares. (Euro 96,000).

2016-2020 Conservation biology of Europe's most threatened water beetles Mohamed bin Zayed Species Conservation Fund PI ($8,000)

2017-2019 CAVEHheAT - Climate change, thermal niche and conservation of subterranean biodiversity. Co-I with David Sanchez-Fernandez (Universidade de Castille la Mancha, Spain) (EURO 368,000)

2014-2017 The evolution of habitat transitions in aquatic Coleoptera. Co-I with Ignacio Ribera (CSIC, Barcelona) and Andres Millan & Josefina Velasco (Universidad de Murcia). CSIC (EURO 266, 200)

2013-2016 Jack of all trades, master of all? Physiological niche, immunocompetence metabolic plasticity and the evolution of geographical range size 
University of Plymouth (ca. £72,000 - Competitive PhD Studentship)

2011-2015 Integrating ecophysiological and evolutionary aspects to undersatnd past, present and future distributions of Iberian hypersaline beetles
Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation PI: Josefa Velasco García, Murcia, Spain. Co-PIs : David Bilton (University of Plymouth, UK), Andres Millan(Universidad de Murcia), Ignacio Ribera (CSIC, Barcelona)

2011-2013 Evolution of the thermal tolerance in Pleistocene range expansions of aquatic Coleoptera from Mediterranean refugia
Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation PI: Ignacio Ribera, Barcelona, Spain. Co-PIs: David Bilton (University of Plymouth, UK), Josefina Garrido (Universidad de Vigo), Luis Felipe Valladares (Universidad de León)

2010-2012 RESPIRE - Climate-driven oxygen limitation in freshwater macroinvertebrates 
European Union Marie Curie Fellowship (Euro 180,103) for Dr Wilco Verberk

2009-2011 Oxygen deficiency in stream ectotherms
Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research Rubicon Fellowship (Euro 97,060) for Dr Wilco Verberk  

2009-2012 THESEUS: Innovative technologies for safer European coasts in a changing climate 
European Union (Euro 250,000) Co-PI with R.C. Thompson, S.D. Rundle & M Hanley

2007-2010 Population genetics of grazing marsh invertebrates
Esmée Fairbairn Foundation (£38,000) PI

 2007-2010 Biodiversity of lower, tidally-influenced river reaches
Esmée Fairbairn Foundation (£128,000) Co-PI with S.D. Rundle & M.J. Attrill

 2007-2010 The evolution of the size of the geographical range as a key factor in the generation of biodiversity.  
Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation PI: Ignacio Ribera, Barcelona, Spain. Co-PIs: David Bilton (University of Plymouth, UK), Josefina Garrido (Universidad de Vigo), Juan Angel Díaz-Pazos (Universidad de Santiago de Compostela), Luis Felipe Valladares (Universidad de León), Michael Balke (Zoologische Staatssammlung München).

2008-2009 Thermal adaptation in ectotherms: linking life history, physiology, behaviour and genetics
European Science Foundation ThermAdapt Programme, collaboration Short Visit grant (working with Ignacio Ribera, Barcelona) (Euro 750) PI

 2006-2008 What determines a species' geographic range? Physiology and range size relationships in European diving beetles.
Leverhulme Trust (£51,000) PI

2005-2008 Neutral theories to explain genetic diversity of aquatic insects 
NERC (£272,000) Co-PI with A.P. Vogler & T.G. Barraclough, Natural History Museum & Imperial College, London

1999-2004 Status, ecology and management of Mediterranean Temporary Ponds in the UK
English Nature & UoP (£32,000 - £18,000 each) PI & DoS (supervised with Simon Rundle)

1999-2000 Molecular solutions to previously intractable aspects of trophic ecology NERC new investigator’s grant (£25,654) PI

Key publications are highlighted

Verberk WCEP, Calosi P, Brischoux F, Spicer J, Garland TJ & Bilton D 2020 'Universal metabolic constraints shape the evolutionary ecology of diving in animals' Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , DOI PEARL
Demirtas S, Silsupur M, Searle J, Bilton DT & Gunduz I 2020 'What should we call the Levant mole? Unravelling the systematics and demography of Talpa levantis Thomas, 1906 sensu lato (Mammalia: Talpidae)' Mammalian Biology , DOI PEARL
Blair J & Bilton DT 2020 'The call of the squeak beetle: bioacoustics of Hygrobia hermanni (Fabricius, 1775) revisited (Coleoptera: Hygrobiidae)' Aquatic Insects 1-14 , DOI PEARL
Jupe L, Bilton D & Knights A 2019 'Do differences in developmental mode shape the potential for local adaptation?' Ecology , DOI PEARL
Vasilikopoulos A, Balke M, Beutel RG, Donath A, Podsiadlowski L, Pflug JM, Waterhouse RM, Meusemann K, Peters RS & Escalona HE 2019 'Phylogenomics of the superfamily Dytiscoidea (Coleoptera: Adephaga) with an evaluation of phylogenetic conflict and systematic error' Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution Author Site , DOI PEARL
Bilton DT & Mlambo MC 2019 'Two new Mesoceration Janssens, 1967 from the Piketberg, South Africa (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae)' Zootaxa , DOI PEARL
Bilton DT, Ribera I & Short AEZ 2019 'Water beetles as models in ecology and evolution' Annual Review of Entomology PEARL
Bird MS, Mlambo M, Wasserman RJ, Dalu T, Holland AJ, Day JA, Villet MH, Bilton DT, Barber-James HM & Brendonck L 2018 'Deeper knowledge of shallow waters: reviewing the invertebrate fauna of southern African temporary wetlands' Hydrobiologia 827, (1) 89-121 , DOI PEARL
Bilton DT 2018 'Scotolemon doriae Pavesi, 1878, a soil-dwelling harvestman new to Britain (Opiliones: Phalangodidae)' Arachnology 17, (8) , DOI PEARL
Bilton DT 2018 'A new species of Leielmis Delève, 1964, with a revised key to members of the genus (Coleoptera: Elmidae)' Zootaxa PEARL
Thorpe CJ, Lewis TR, Kulkarni, S., Watve, A., Gaitonde, N., Pryce, D., Davies L, Bilton DT, Knight & M.E. 2018 'Micro-habitat distribution drives patch quality for sub-tropical rocky plateau amphibians in the northern Western Ghats, India' PLoS ONE , DOI PEARL
Ribera I, Bilton DT & Cardoso A 2018 'The Meladema Laporte, 1835 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae) of the Sahara Desert' Zootaxa 4399, (1) 119-122 Author Site PEARL
Bilton DT 2018 'A new humicolous Parhydraena d’Orchymont, 1937 from South Africa (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae)' Zootaxa 4378, (2) , DOI PEARL
Verberk WCEP, Calosi P, Spicer JI, Kehl S & Bilton DT 2017 'Does plasticity in thermal tolerance trade off with inherent tolerance? The influence of setal tracheal gills on thermal tolerance and its plasticity in a group of European diving beetles' J Insect Physiol Author Site , DOI PEARL
Bilton DT 2017 'Three new species of Crenitis Bedel, 1881 from South Africa, with a revised key to African species (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae)' Aquatic Insects 38, (3) 101-113 , DOI PEARL
Bilton DT & Ribera I 2017 'A revision of Meladema diving beetles (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae), with the description of a new species from the central Mediterranean based on molecules and morphology' ZooKeys 702, 45-112 , DOI PEARL
Pallarés S, Arribas P, Bilton DT, Millán A, Velasco J & Ribera I 2017 'The chicken or the egg? Adaptation to desiccation and salinity tolerance in a lineage of water beetles' Molecular Ecology , DOI PEARL
García-Vázquez D, Bilton DT, Foster GN & Ribera I 2017 'Pleistocene range shifts, refugia and the origin of widespread species in Western Palaearctic water beetles' Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution Author Site , DOI PEARL
BILTON DAVIDT 2017 'Water beetles from the Bokkeveld Plateau: a semi-arid hotspot of freshwater biodiversity in the Northern Cape of South Africa' Zootaxa 4268, (2) 191-191 , DOI PEARL
BILTON DAVIDT 2017 'A revision of the South African riffle beetle genus Leielmis Delève, 1964 (Coleoptera: Elmidae)' Zootaxa 4254, (2) 255-255 , DOI PEARL
Bilton DT, Turner LM & Foster GN 2017 'Frequent discordance between morphology and mitochondrial DNA in a species group of European water beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)' PeerJ , DOI PEARL
Bird MS, Bilton DT & Perissinotto R 2017 'Diversity and distribution of polyphagan water beetles (Coleoptera) in the Lake St Lucia system, South Africa' ZooKeys 656, 51-84 , DOI PEARL
Carbonell JA, Bilton DT, Calosi P, Millán A, Stewart A & Velasco J 2016 'Metabolic and reproductive plasticity of core and marginal populations of the eurythermic saline water bug Sigara selecta (Hemiptera: Corixidae) in a climate change context' Journal of Insect Physiology , DOI PEARL
Pallarés S, Velasco J, Millán A, Bilton DT & Arribas P 2016 'Aquatic insects dealing with dehydration: do desiccation resistance traits differ in species with contrasting habitat preferences?' PeerJ Publisher Site , DOI PEARL
Bilton DT & Komarek A 2016 'A new species of Anacaena Thomson, 1859 from South Africa (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae)' ZOOTAXA 4139, (4) 593-599 Author Site , DOI PEARL
Bilton DT 2016 'A new species of Hydrobiomorpha from iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae)' ACTA ENTOMOLOGICA MUSEI NATIONALIS PRAGAE 56, (1) 149-157 Author Site PEARL
Bilton DT 2016 'Two new water beetles from the South African Cape (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae)' ZOOTAXA 4137, (4) 585-591 Author Site , DOI PEARL
Bilton DT, Hayward JWG, Rocha J & Foster GN 2016 'Sexual dimorphism and sexual conflict in the diving beetle Agabus uliginosus (L.) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)' BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY 119, (4) 1089-1095 Author Site , DOI PEARL
Bilton DT & Foster GN 2016 'Observed shifts in the contact zone between two forms of the diving beetle Hydroporus memnonius are consistent with predictions from sexual conflict' PeerJ 4, e2089-e2089 Author Site , DOI PEARL
Perissinotto R, Bird M & Bilton D 2016 'Predaceous water beetles (Coleoptera, Hydradephaga) of the Lake St Lucia system, South Africa: biodiversity, community ecology and conservation implications' ZooKeys 595, 85-135 , DOI PEARL
Cioffi R, Moody AJ, Millán A, Billington RA & Bilton DT 2016 'Physiological niche and geographical range in European diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)' Biology letters 12, (6) , DOI PEARL
Votier SC, Aspinall S, Bearhop S, Bilton D, Newton J, Alström P, Leader P, Carey G, Furnes RW & Olsson U 2016 'Stable isotopes and mtDNA reveal niche segregation but no evidence of intergradation along a habitat gradient in the Lesser Whitethroat complex (Sylvia curruca; Passeriformes; Aves)' Journal of Ornithology , DOI PEARL
García-Vázquez D, Bilton DT, Alonso R, Benetti CJ, Garrido J, Valladares LF & Ribera I 2016 'Reconstructing ancient Mediterranean crossroads in Deronectes diving beetles' Journal of Biogeography n/a-n/a , DOI PEARL
Toussaint EFA, Beutel RG, Moriniere J, Jia F, Xu S, Michat MC, Zhou X, Bilton DT, Ribera I & Hajek J 2016 'Molecular phylogeny of the highly disjunct cliff water beetles from South Africa and China (Coleoptera: Aspidytidae)' ZOOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY 176, (3) 537-546 Author Site , DOI PEARL
Franzitta G, Hanley ME, Airoldi L, Baggini C, Bilton DT, Rundle SD & Thompson RC 2015 'Home advantage? Decomposition across the freshwater-estuarine transition zone varies with litter origin and local salinity' MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 110, 1-7 Author Site , DOI PEARL
Bilton DT, Toussaint EFA, Turner CR & Balke M 2015 'Capelatus prykei gen. et sp.n. (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Copelatinae) - a phylogenetically isolated diving beetle from the Western Cape of South Africa' SYSTEMATIC ENTOMOLOGY 40, (3) 520-531 Author Site , DOI PEARL
Guareschi S, Bilton DT, Velasco J, Millan A & Abellan P 2015 'How well do protected area networks support taxonomic and functional diversity in non-target taxa? The case of Iberian freshwaters' BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION 187, 134-144 Author Site , DOI PEARL
Verberk WC & Bilton DT 2015 'Oxygen-limited thermal tolerance is seen in a plastron-breathing insect and can be induced in a bimodal gas exchanger' J Exp Biol 218, (Pt 13) 2083-2088 Author Site , DOI PEARL
Bilton DT 2015 'New species and new records of Mesoceration Janssens, 1967 from South Africa (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae)' Zootaxa 3972, (4) 495-520 Author Site , DOI PEARL
Florencio M, Fernandez-Zamudio R, Bilton DT & Diaz-Paniagua C 2015 'The exotic weevil Stenopelmus rufinasus Gyllenhal, 1835 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) across a "host-free" pond network' Limnetica 34, (1) 79-84 Author Site , DOI PEARL
Bilton DT 2015 'A review of the Canthyporus exilis group, with the description of two new species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)' Zootaxa 3957, (4) 441-454 Author Site , DOI PEARL
Pallarés S, Arribas P, Bilton DT, Millán A & Velasco J 2015 'The comparative osmoregulatory ability of two water beetle genera whose species span the fresh-hypersaline gradient in inland waters (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae)' PLoS One 10, (4) e0124299-e0124299 Author Site , DOI PEARL
Bilton DT 2015 'A new species of Yola Gozis, 1886 from the Western Cape of South Africa (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Bidessini)' Zootaxa 3905, (3) 441-446 Author Site , DOI PEARL
Bilton DT 2015 'Two new species of madicolous water beetle from South Africa (Coleoptera: Hydraenidae)' AFRICAN INVERTEBRATES 56, (1) 181-190 Author Site PEARL
Hidalgo-Galiana A, Sánchez-Fernández D, Bilton DT, Cieslak A & Ribera I 2014 'Thermal niche evolution and geographical range expansion in a species complex of western Mediterranean diving beetles' BMC Evol Biol 14, Author Site , DOI PEARL
Bilton DT 2014 'What's in a name? What have taxonomy and systematics ever done for us?' JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL EDUCATION 48, (3) 116-118 Author Site , DOI PEARL
Bilton DT 2014 'New species and new records of Pterosthetops: eumadicolous water beetles of the South African Cape (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae)' ZOOTAXA 3811, (4) 438-462 Author Site PEARL
Bicknell AWJ, Knight ME, Bilton DT, Campbell M, Reid JB, Newton J & Votier SC 2014 'Intercolony movement of pre-breeding seabirds over oceanic scales: implications of cryptic age-classes for conservation and metapopulation dynamics' DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTIONS 20, (2) Author Site , DOI PEARL
Hoggart SPG, Hanley ME, Parker DJ, Simmonds DJ, Franklin EL, White AC, Bilton DT, Rundle SD, Penning-Rowsell EC & Trifonova E 2014 'The consequences of doing nothing: The effects of seawater flooding on coastal zones' Coastal Engineering , DOI
Bilton DT & Gentili E 2014 'Laccobius leopardus sp. nov. from the Western Cape of South Africa (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae)' Zootaxa 3835, (3) 397-400 Author Site PEARL
Bilton DT 2014 'Two new water beetles from the Hantamsberg, an inselberg in the Northern Cape of South Africa (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae)' Zootaxa 3887, (4) 471-480 Author Site PEARL
Bilton DT 2013 'A taxonomic revision of South African Sharphydrus, with the description of two new species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Bidessini)' Zootaxa 3750, 26-36 Author Site , DOI
Hanley ME, Yip PYS, Hoggart S, Bilton DT, Rundle SD & Thompson RC 2013 'Riding the storm: the response of Plantago lanceolata to simulated tidal flooding' JOURNAL OF COASTAL CONSERVATION 17, (4) 799-803 Author Site , DOI
Verberk WCEP & Bilton DT 2013 'Respiratory control in aquatic insects dictates their vulnerability to global warming' Biol Lett 9, (5) Author Site , DOI
Bilton DT 2013 'Prosthetops wolfbergensis sp nov.-a giant amongst the 'minute moss beetles', with new data on other members of the genus (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae)' ZOOTAXA 3666, (3) 345-357 Author Site , DOI
Bilton DT 2013 'Hydraena lotti sp nov., a new member of the "Haenydra" lineage from the Peloponnese (Greece), with additional records of Hydraena species in the region (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae)' ZOOTAXA 3637, (1) 29-38 Author Site , DOI
Bilton DT 2013 'Description of the male of Sebasthetops omaliniformis Jach, 1998-a phylogenetically isolated water beetle from South Africa, with notes on its ecology (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae)' ZOOTAXA 3635, (1) 94-100 Author Site , DOI
Bilton DT 2013 'Crenitis bicolor sp n. from the Kamiesberg of South Africa (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae)' ZOOTAXA 3626, (4) 589-592 Author Site , DOI
Gutierrez-Estrada JC, Pulido-Calvo I & Bilton DT 2013 'Consistency of fuzzy rules in an ecological context' ECOLOGICAL MODELLING 251, 187-198 Author Site , DOI
Coccia C, Calosi P, Boyero L, Green AJ & Bilton DT 2013 'Correction: Does Ecophysiology Determine Invasion Success? A Comparison between the Invasive Boatman Trichocorixa verticalis verticalis and the Native Sigara lateralis (Hemiptera, Corixidae) in South-West Spain' PLoS One 8, (11) Author Site , DOI
Coccia C, Calosi P, Boyero L, Green AJ & Bilton DT 2013 'Does ecophysiology determine invasion success? A comparison between the invasive boatman Trichocorixa verticalis verticalis and the native Sigara lateralis (Hemiptera, Corixidae) in South-West Spain' PLoS One 8, (5) Author Site , DOI
Massamba-N'Siala G, Calosi P, Bilton DT, Prevedelli D & Simonini R 2012 'Life-history and thermal tolerance traits display different thermal plasticities and relationships with temperature in the marine polychaete Ophryotrocha labronica La Greca and Bacci (Dorvilleidae)' JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MARINE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY 438, 109-117 Author Site , DOI
Bergsten J, Bilton DT, Fujisawa T, Elliott M, Monaghan MT, Balke M, Hendrich L, Geijer J, Herrmann J & Foster GN 2012 'The effect of geographical scale of sampling on DNA barcoding' Syst Biol 61, (5) 851-869 Author Site , DOI PEARL
Arribas P, Abellan P, Velasco J, Bilton DT, Millan A & Sanchez-Fernandez D 2012 'Evaluating drivers of vulnerability to climate change: a guide for insect conservation strategies' GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY 18, (7) 2135-2146 Author Site , DOI
Bilton DT & Perkins PD 2012 'Two new species of Parhydraenini from South Africa (Coleoptera: Hydraenidae)' ZOOTAXA (3342) 51-59 Author Site , DOI
Arribas P, Velasco J, Abellan P, Sanchez-Fernandez D, Andujar C, Calosi P, Millan A, Ribera I & Bilton DT 2012 'Dispersal ability rather than ecological tolerance drives differences in range size between lentic and lotic water beetles (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae)' JOURNAL OF BIOGEOGRAPHY 39, (5) 984-994 Author Site , DOI
BICKNELL AWJ, KNIGHT ME, BILTON D, REID JB, BURKE T & VOTIER SC 2012 'Population genetic structure and long-distance dispersal among seabird populations: Implications for colony persistence' Molecular Ecology 21, (12) 2863-2876 , DOI
Picazo F, Bilton DT, Luis Moreno J, Sanchez-Fernandez D & Millan A 2012 'Water beetle biodiversity in Mediterranean standing waters: assemblage composition, environmental drivers and nestedness patterns' INSECT CONSERVATION AND DIVERSITY 5, (2) 146-158 Author Site , DOI
Bilton DT 2012 'Stictonectes rebeccae sp n. from the Iberian Peninsula, with notes on its phylogenetic position (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae)' ZOOTAXA (3188) 42-54 Author Site
Calosi P, Bilton DT, Spicer JI, Verberk WCEP, Atfield A & Garland T 2012 'The comparative biology of diving in two genera of European Dytiscidae (Coleoptera)' J Evol Biol 25, (2) 329-341 Author Site , DOI
Sánchez-Fernández D, Aragón P, Bilton DT & Lobo JM 2012 'Assessing the congruence of thermal niche estimations derived from distribution and physiological data. A test using diving beetles' PLoS One 7, (10) Author Site , DOI PEARL
Bicknell AWJ, Dawson DA, Horsburgh GJ, Knight ME, Bilton DT & Votier SC 2011 'Characterisation and predicted genome locations of Leach's storm-petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa) microsatellite loci (Procellariidae, Aves)' CONSERVATION GENETICS RESOURCES 3, (4) 711-716 Author Site , DOI
Verberk WCEP, Bilton DT, Calosi P & Spicer JI 2011 'Oxygen supply in aquatic ectotherms: partial pressure and solubility together explain biodiversity and size patterns' Ecology 92, (8) 1565-1572 Author Site , DOI
Bicknell AWJ, Campbell M, Knight ME, Bilton DT, Newton J & Votier SC 2011 'Effects of formalin preservation on stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures in Calanoid copepods: implications for the use of Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey samples in stable isotope analyses' Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 25, (13) 1794-1800 Author Site , DOI
Florencio M, Díaz-Paniagua C, Serrano L & Bilton DT 2011 'Spatio-temporal nested patterns in macroinvertebrate assemblages across a pond network with a wide hydroperiod range' Oecologia 166, (2) 469-483 Author Site , DOI
Verberk WCEP & Bilton DT 2011 'Can oxygen set thermal limits in an insect and drive gigantism?' PLoS One 6, (7) Author Site , DOI PEARL
Sanchez-Fernandez D, Calosi P, Atfield A, Arribas P, Velasco J, Spicer JI, Millan A & Bilton DT 2010 'Reduced salinities compromise the thermal tolerance of hypersaline specialist diving beetles' PHYSIOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY 35, (3) 265-273 Author Site , DOI
Gutierrez-Estrada JC & Bilton DT 2010 'A heuristic approach to predicting water beetle diversity in temporary and fluctuating waters' ECOLOGICAL MODELLING 221, (11) 1451-1462 Author Site , DOI
Calosi P, Bilton DT, Spicer JI, Votier SC & Atfield A 2010 'What determines a species' geographical range? Thermal biology and latitudinal range size relationships in European diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)' J Anim Ecol 79, (1) 194-204 Author Site , DOI
Gaston KJ, Chown SL, Calosi P, Bernardo J, Bilton DT, Clarke A, Clusella-Trullas S, Ghalambor CK, Konarzewski M & Peck LS 2009 'Macrophysiology: a conceptual reunification' Am Nat 174, (5) 595-612 Author Site , DOI
Bilton DT, McAbendroth LC, Nicolet P, Bedford A, Rundle SD, Foggo A & Ramsay PM 2009 'Ecology and conservation status of temporary and fluctuating ponds in two areas of southern England' AQUATIC CONSERVATION-MARINE AND FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS 19, (2) 134-146 Author Site , DOI
Welter-Schultes F, Eikel O, Feuerstein V, Hörnschemeyer T, Klug R, Lutze A, Tröster G, Wieland F, Willmann R & Antezana Jerez T 2009 'Comment on the proposed Amendment of Articles of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to expand and refine methods of publication' Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 63, (3) 215-215
Bhadury P, Bridge PD, Austen MC, Bilton DT & Smerdon GR 2009 'Detection of fungal 18S rRNA sequences in conjunction with marine nematode 18S rRNA amplicons' AQUATIC BIOLOGY 5, (2) 149-155 Author Site , DOI
Bilton DT, Thompson A & Foster GN 2008 'Inter- and intrasexual dimorphism in the diving beetle Hydroporus memnonius Nicolai (Coleoptera : Dytiscidae)' BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY 94, (4) 685-697 Author Site , DOI
Sanchez-Fernandez D, Bilton DT, Abellan P, Ribera I, Vezasco J & Millan A 2008 'Are the endemic water beetles of the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands effectively protected?' BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION 141, (6) 1612-1627 Author Site , DOI
Bhadury P, Austen MC, Bilton DT, Lambshead PJD, Rogers AD & Smerdon GR 2008 'Evaluation of combined morphological and molecular techniques for marine nematode (Terschellingia spp.) identification' MARINE BIOLOGY 154, (3) 509-518 Author Site , DOI
Calosi P, Bilton DT & Spicer JI 2008 'Thermal tolerance, acclimatory capacity and vulnerability to global climate change' Biology Letters 4, (1) 99-102 , DOI
Calosi P, Bilton DT & Spicer JI 2007 'The diving response of a diving beetle: effects of temperature and acidification' Journal of Zoology 273, (3) 289-297 Author Site , DOI
Rundle SD, Bilton DT, Abbott JC & FOGGO A 2007 'An investigation of body size-range size and wing-size range size relationships in North American Enallagma damselflies' Freshwater Biology 52, 471-477
Foggo A, Bilton DT & Rundle SD 2007 'Do developmental mode and dispersal shape abundance-occupancy relationships in marine macroinvertebrates?' Journal of Animal Ecology 76, (4) 695-702
Bhadury P, Austen MC, Bilton DT, Lambshead PJD, Rogers AD & Smerdon GR 2007 'Exploitation of archived marine nematodes- a hot lysis DNA extraction protocol for molecular studies' Zoologica Scripta 36, 93-98
Dalesman S, Rundle SD, Bilton DT & Cotton PA 2007 'Phylogenetic relatedness and ecological interactions determine antipredator behavior' Ecology 88, (10) 2462-2467
Rundle SD, Bilton DT, Abbott JC & Foggo A 2007 'Range size in North American Enallagma damselflies correlates with wing size' Freshwater Biology 52, (3) 471-477
Calosi P, Bilton DT, Spicer JI & Atfield A 2007 'Thermal tolerance and geographic range size in the Agabus brunneus group of European diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)' Journal of Biogeography 35, 295-305
Calosi P, Bilton D & Spicer J 2007 'What determines a species' geographic range? Thermal biology and geographical range sizerelationships in European diving beetles' Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A-Molecular & Integrative Physiology 146, (4) S209-S209
Abellan P, Bilton DT, Millan A, Sanchez-Fernandez D & Ramsay PM 2006 'Can taxonomic distinctness assess anthropogenic impacts in inland waters? A case study from a Mediterranean river basin' Freshwater Biology 51, (9) 1744-1756
Bhadury P, Austen MC, Bilton DT, Lambshead PJD, Rogers AD & Smerdon GR 2006 'Development and evaluation of a DNA-barcoding approach for the rapid identification of nematodes' Marine Ecology-Progress Series 320, 1-9
Bilton DT, McAbendroth L, Bedford A & Ramsay PM 2006 'How wide to cast the net? Cross-taxon congruence of species richness, community similarity and indicator taxa in ponds' Freshwater Biology 51, 578-590
Bhadury P, Austen MC, Bilton DT, Lambshead PJD, Rogers AD & Smerdon GR 2006 'Molecular detection of marine nematodes from environmental samples: overcoming eukaryotic interference' Aquatic Microbial Ecology 44, (1) 97-103
Bhadury P, Austen MC, Bilton DT, Lambshead PJD, Rogers AD & Smerdon GR 2005 'Combined morphological and molecular analysis of individual nematodes through short-term preservation in formalin' Molecular Ecology Notes 5, (4) 965-968
Mcabendroth L, Ramsay PM, Foggo A, Rundle SD & Bilton DT 2005 'Does macrophyte fractal complexity drive invertebrate diversity, biomass and body size distributions?' Oikos 111, (2) 279-290
Alarie Y & Bilton DT 2005 'Larval morphology of Aspidytidae (Coleoptera : Adephaga) and its phylogenetic implications' Annals of the Entomological Society of America 98, (4) 417-430
Bilton DT 2005 'Questioning attitudes in freshwater ecology?' Global Ecology and Biogeography 14, 295-296
Bilton D 2005 'Questioning attitudes in freshwater ecology?' Global Ecology and Biogeography 14, (3) , DOI
Mcabendroth L, Foggo A, Rundle SD & Bilton DT 2005 'Unravelling nestedness and spatial pattern in pond assemblages' Journal of Animal Ecology 74, (1) 41-49
Biggs J, Bilton D, Williams P, Nicolet P, Briggs L, Eeles B & Whitfield M 2004 'Temporary ponds of eastern Poland: an initial assessment of their importance for nature conservation' Archives des Sciences 57, (2-3) 73-83
Ribera I, Bilton DT, Balke M & Hendrich L 2003 'Evolution, mitochondrial DNA phylogeny and systematic position of the Macaronesian endemic Hydrotarsus Falkenstrom (Coleoptera : Dytiscidae)' Systematic Entomology 28, (4) 493-508
Ribera I, Bilton DT & Vogler AP 2003 'Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography and population history of Meladema diving beetles on the Atlantic Islands and in the Mediterranean basin (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae)' Molecular Ecology 12, (1) 153-167
Foggo A, Rundle SD & Bilton DT 2003 'The net result: evaluating species richness extrapolation techniques for littoral pond invertebrates' Freshwater Biology 48, (10) 1756-1764
Rundle SD, Foggo A, Choiseul V & Bilton DT 2002 'Are distribution patterns linked to dispersal mechanism? An investigation using pond invertebrate assemblages' Freshwater Biology 47, (9) 1571-1581
Bilton DT, Paula J & Bishop JDD 2002 'Dispersal, genetic differentiation and speciation in estuarine organisms' Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 55, (6) 937-952
Kelly LC, Rundle SD & Bilton DT 2002 'Genetic population structure and dispersal in Atlantic Island caddisflies' Freshwater Biology 47, (9) 1642-1650
Mitchell TJ, Brown MT & Bilton D 2002 'Population genetics and biodiversity in a red agarophyte in south west Britain' The Phycologist 61,
Bilton DT, Freeland JR & Okamura B 2001 'Dispersal in freshwater invertebrates' Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 32, 159-181
de Villalobos LC, Ribera I & Bilton DT 2001 'First data of Iberian nematomorpha, with redescription of Gordius aquaticus Linnaeus, G-plicatulus Heinze, Gordionus wolterstorffii (Camerano) and Paragordius tricuspidatus (Dufour)' Contributions to Zoology 70, (2) 73-84
Alarie Y & Bilton DT 2001 'Larval morphology of Hydrotarsus Falkenstrom: Generic characteristics, description of H. compunctus (Wollaston), and analysis of relationships with other members of the tribe Hydroporini (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae)' Coleopterists Bulletin 55, 341-350
Kelly LC, Bilton DT & Rundle SD 2001 'Population structure and dispersal in the Canary Island caddisfly Mesophylax aspersus (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae)' Heredity 86, 370-377
Bilton DT, Foggo A & Rundle SD 2001 'Size, permanence and the proportion of predators in ponds' Archiv fur Hydrobiologie 151, (3) 451-458
Rundle SD, Bilton DT & Shiozawa DK 2000 'Global and regional patterns in lotic meiofauna' FRESHWATER BIOLOGY 44, (1) 123-134 Author Site , DOI
Bilton DT, Goode D & Mallet J 1999 'Genetic differentiation and natural hybridization between two morphological forms of the common woodlouse, oniscus asellus linnaeus 1758 ' Heredity (Edinb) 82 Pt 4, 462-469 Author Site , DOI
Attrill MJ, Bilton DT, Rowden AA, Rundle SD & Thomas RM 1999 'The impact of encroachment and bankside development on the habitat complexity and supralittoral invertebrate communities of the Thames Estuary foreshore' Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 9, (2) 237-247 , DOI
Attrill MJ, Bilton DT, Rowden AA, Rundle SD & Thomas RM 1999 'The impact of encroachment and bankside development on the habitat complexity and supralittoral invertebrate communities of the Thames Estuary foreshore' AQUATIC CONSERVATION-MARINE AND FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS 9, (2) 237-247 Author Site , DOI
Bilton DT, Mirol PM, Mascheretti S, Fredga K, Zima J & Searle JB 1998 'Mediterranean Europe as an area of endemism for small mammals rather than a source for northwards postglacial colonization' Proc Biol Sci 265, (1402) 1219-1226 Author Site , DOI
Bilton DT 1997 'The Oniscus asellus complex (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) in the Iberian peninsula with the description of a new species' REVUE SUISSE DE ZOOLOGIE 104, (1) 217-227 Author Site , DOI
Ribera I, Bilton DT, Aguilera P & Foster GN 1996 'A North African European transition fauna: Water beetles (Coleoptera) front the Ebro delta and other Mediterranean coastal wetlands in the Iberian peninsula' AQUATIC CONSERVATION-MARINE AND FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS 6, (3) 121-140 Author Site , DOI
RIBERA I, BILTON DT, AGUILERA P & FOSTER GN 1996 'A North African–European transition fauna: water beetles (Coleoptera) from the Ebro delta and other Mediterranean coastal wetlands in the Iberian peninsula' Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 6, (3) 121-140 , DOI
Bilton DT & Jaarola M 1996 'Isolation and purification of vertebrate DNAs' Methods Mol Biol 50, 25-37 Author Site , DOI
Bilton DT & Lott DA 1991 'Further records of aquatic Coleoptera from Ireland' Irish Naturalists' Journal 23, (10) 389-397

Foster, G.N., Bilton, D.T., Hammond, M. & Nelson, B.H. 2018. Atlas of the Hydrophiloid Beetles of Britain and Ireland. Field Studies Council.

Foster, G.N., Bilton, D.T. & Nelson, B.H. 2016. Atlas of the Predaceous Aquatic Beetles (Hydradephaga) of Britain and Ireland. Field Studies Council.

Foster, G.N., Bilton, D.T. & Friday, L.E. 2014. Keys to adults of the water beetles of Britain and Ireland (Part 2). Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects 4(5b): i-iv, 1-126.

Foster GN, Bilton DT, Hammond M & Nelson BH 2018 Atlas of the Hydrophiloid Beetles of Britain and Ireland. Telford, UK Field Studies Council
Foster GN, Bilton DT & Nelson BH 2016 Atlas of the Predaceous Water Beetles (Hydradephaga) of Britain and Ireland. Field Studies Council
Foster GN, Bilton DT & Friday LE 2014 A Key to the Adults of British Water Beetles Part 2. Handbooks For the Identification of British Insects
2015 'Case Studies Worldwide' Coastal Risk Management in a Changing Climate Elsevier 325-628 , DOI
Hoggart S, Hawkins SJ, Bohn K, Airoldi L, van Belzen J, Bichot A, Bilton DT, Bouma TJ, Colangelo MA & Davies AJ 2015 'Ecological Approaches to Coastal Risk Mitigation' Coastal Risk Management in a Changing Climate Elsevier 171-236 , DOI
Bilton DT 2014 'Dispersal in Dytiscidae' Ecology, Systematics, and the Natural History of Predaceous Diving Beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) Springer Netherlands 387-407 , DOI
Foster GN & Bilton DT 2014 'The Conservation of Predaceous Diving Beetles: Knowns, Unknowns and Anecdotes' Ecology, Systematics, and the Natural History of Predaceous Diving Beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) Springer Netherlands 437-462 , DOI
Rundle SD, Bilton DT & FOGGO A 2007 'Body size, range size and dispersal in aquatic invertebrates' in Hildrew AG; Raffaelli DG; Edmunds-Brown R Body size: the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 186-209
Ribera I & Bilton DT 2006 'Aspidytidae (Cliff Water Beetles)' in Stals R Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa. Volume 10: Aquatic Coleoptera Pretoria, South Africa
Rundle SD, Bilton DT, Galassi D & Shiozawa D 2002 'The geographical ecology of freshwater meiofauna' in Rundle SD; Robertson AL; Schmid-Araya JM Freshwater Meiofauna: Biology and Ecology Backhuys Publishers 279-294
Conference Papers
Verberk WCEP, Bilton DT, Calosi P & Spicer JI 2013 'How oxygen and temperature changes across latitude and elevation determine ecological distribution patterns' 1-/-0/1900 1-/-0/1900 E219-E219
Arribas P, Velasco J, Abellan P, Sanchez-Fernandez D, Calosi P, Bilton DT & Millan A 2009 'Dispersal responses and tolerance to temperature and salinity in two hydraenid beetles from hypersaline inland waters' 1-/-0/1900 1-/-0/1900 S171-S172 , DOI
Verberk WCEP & Bilton DT 2009 'Oxygen deficiency under elevated temperatures: a mechanism connecting the response of stream ectotherms to global warming?' 1-/-0/1900 1-/-0/1900 S169-S169 , DOI
N'Siala GM, Prevedelli D, Grandi V, Simonini R, Bilton DT & Calosi P 2009 'Thermal biology of the interstitial polychaete species Ophryotrocha labronica (Polychaeta, Dorvilleidae)' 1-/-0/1900 1-/-0/1900 S172-S172 , DOI