Dr Christopher Smart

Dr Christopher Smart

Associate Professor (Reader) in Palaeontology

School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences (Faculty of Science and Engineering)



Associate Professor (Reader) in Palaeontology
Stage 4 Earth Sciences Leader
Member of the Marine Institute Strategy Team


1997 – Certificate in Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (University of Plymouth, UK)
1996 – The President's Award, The Geological Society of London
1993 – PhD Micropalaeontology, University of Southampton, UK
1989 – BSc (Hons) Geology, 1st Class, University of Exeter, UK

Professional membership

Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research (Member)
The Micropalaeontological Society (Member)

Roles on external bodies

2022-present: Member of the Editorial Board of Micropaleontology
2018-present: Member of the Neogene and Quaternary Planktonic Foraminifera Working Group (NQPFWG)
2010-2018: Member of the Paleogene Planktonic Foraminifera Working Group (PPFWG) (http://www.paleogene.org/working-group/north-europe/)
2015-present: Member of the English Riviera UNESCO Global Geopark Management Group (Torbay, UK) – University of Plymouth representative (http://www.englishrivierageopark.org.uk/)



Teaching interests

Teaching in palaeontology, micropalaeontology, palaeoceanography and general geology across the Earth Sciences programmes (undergraduate and postgraduate level). Currently, I teach on the following modules:

Stage 1:

• GEOL1001 (The Dynamic Earth) – the fossil record

• GEOL1003 (Geosystems) – atmosphere and oceans

• GEOL1004 (Palaeontology and Stratigraphy) – palaeontology

• ENVS1002 (The Physical Environment) – geology and soils

• Stage 1 tutorials

Stage 2:

• GEOL2001 (Sedimentology and Palaeontology) [Module Leader] – aspects of micropalaeontology

• Stage 2 tutorials

Stage 4:

• Stage 4 Project Adviser/Tutor (geological mapping, micropalaeontology projects)

Stage 5 (MGeol):

• GEOL5003 (Advanced Analytical Skills) – micropalaeontology

• MGeol Project Adviser – various palaeontology, micropalaeontology and palaeoceanography projects


• MAR514 (Marine Science) – aspects of palaeoceanography

• MSc/MRes Project Adviser: on average 1–2 students per year (MSc Applied Marine Science; previously: MSc/MRes Global Environmental Change; MSc/MRes Marine Micropalaeontology, MSc/MRes Marine Geosciences) – various palaeontology, micropalaeontology and palaeoceanography projects


• Stage 1 Earth Sciences fieldwork, SW England

• Stage 1 Earth Sciences residential field-trip to Cornwall and Dorset [Field-trip Leader 2008-2015]

• Stage 1 Earth Sciences and PGG residential field-trip to Cornwall [Field-trip Leader to SW Wales 2004-2007]

• Stage 2 Earth Sciences residential field-trip to Pembrokeshire, SW Wales

• Stage 2 Earth Sciences fieldwork, SW England

Staff serving as external examiners

2022 - ResM, University of Plymouth
2019 – PhD, University of Birmingham
2016 – PhD, University of Southampton
2015 – PhD, University of St Andrews
2015 – PhD, University of Plymouth
2014 – PhD, University of Plymouth
2013 – PhD, University of Plymouth
2006 – PhD, University of Plymouth
2004 – PhD, University College London
2004 – PhD, University of Southampton
2001 – PhD, University of Plymouth
2001 – PhD, University of Southampton
1999 – PhD, University College London



Research interests

I am interested in past climate and oceanographic change and I use microfossils (mainly foraminifera) to reconstruct past environments on various time scales. My research focusses on the ecology, palaeoecology and taxonomy of benthic and planktic foraminifera, and planktic gastropods. I study the assemblages and geochemical composition of their shells in order to understand the impact of climatic and environmental changes on modern and fossil organisms, particularly during the Neogene and Quaternary.

Current research projects: Streptochilus: morphology and palaeoecology; Miocene palaeoceanography; palaeoceanography of the Atlantic and Southern Oceans during the last 20 kyr; Recent foraminifera from SW England; planktic gastropods; changes in ocean acidification using foraminifera and planktic gastropods.

Research groups

Research degrees awarded to supervised students

PhD students:

2017- 2021: Kilian Eichenseer (University of Plymouth), Environmental and ecological drivers of the Phanerozoic evolution of skeletal composition in marine invertebrates. Funded by the University of Plymouth. Third supervisor.

2010-2016: AlEnezi, S. S. M. (University of Plymouth and Saudi Aramco), Micropalaeontological analysis of the lower to mid-Cretaceous succession of Saudi Arabia. Funded by Saudi Aramco. Second supervisor.

2010-2015: Pettit, L. R. (University of Plymouth), Assessing the effects of long-term ocean acidification at volcanic CO2 vents. Funded by NERC UKOARP. Third supervisor.

2009-2014: Leighton, A. D. (University of Plymouth), Benthic foraminiferal change and depositional history across the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary in the Brazos River area, Texas. Funded by the University of Plymouth. Director of Studies. 

2009-2013: Wall-Palmer, D. (University of Plymouth), The response of pteropod faunas to climate change and ocean acidification. Funded by the University of Plymouth. Director of Studies.

2007-2011: Hanif, M. (University of Plymouth), Stratigraphy and palaeoenvironment of the Palaeocene/Eocene boundary interval in the Indus Basin, Pakistan. Funded by NCEG University of Peshawar Pakistan. Third supervisor.

2006-2011: Bugler, M. (University of Plymouth), An investigation into the use of the freshwater gastropod Viviparus as a recorder of past climatic change. Funded by the University of Plymouth. Third supervisor.

2001-2007: Hudson, W. (University of Plymouth), Evolution and palaeobiogeography of Mesozoic planktonic foraminifera. Funded by the University of Plymouth. Second supervisor.

1998-2002: Oxford, M. J. (University of Plymouth), The distribution of foraminifera in Oxfordian sequences. Funded by the University of Plymouth. Third supervisor.

1996-2000: Hylton, M. D. (University of Plymouth), Microfaunal investigation of the early Toarcian (Lower Jurassic) extinction event in NW Europe. Funded by the University of Plymouth. Second supervisor.

MRes students:

2017-2018: Grace Lamyman (MRes Applied Marine Science), Miocene planktic foraminifera from DSDP Sites 608 (NE Atlantic Ocean) and 237 (NW Indian Ocean): palaeoenvironmental implications.

2014-2015: Jacob Meyers (MRes Applied Marine Science), Seasonal biodiversity of benthic foraminifera from the seagrass meadow of Fowey Estuary.

2012-2013: Amy Sparkes (MRes Applied Marine Science), Sea level during MIS 9: evidence from the Nar Valley, north Norfolk, UK.

2009-2010: Saeed Sadri (MRes Applied Marine Science), A temporal and spatial study of the benthic foraminifera from modern seagrass meadows in Torbay.

2007-2008: Deborah Wall-Palmer (MRes Global Environmental Change), The impact of volcanic deposits from the 2006 eruption of the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat on marine microfauna.

2006-2007: Tracy Aze (MRes Global Environmental Change), Experimental acidification and ecology of the benthic foraminifera of Plymouth Sound, England.  

Withold Ptak (MRes Global Environmental Change), Pteropod shells in the upper part of the borehole Car Mon 2 near island of Montserrat, Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc.

2004-2005: Richard Messenger (MRes Global Environmental Change), Late Quaternary pteropod abundances from the carbonate deposits of the Great Bahamas Bank and Montserrat, Caribbean Sea.

Géraldine Le Meur (MRes Global Environmental Change), Southern Ocean ventilation and productivity across the last deglaciation. 

2003-2004: Emily Lock (MRes Micropalaeontology), Dating of volcanic deposits off the coast of the island of Montserrat, West Indies.

2002-2003: Paul Tisserant (MRes Micropalaeontology), Early to middle Miocene deep ocean palaeoceanography of the Ceara Rise, western Atlantic Ocean.

2001-2002: Haydon Mort (MRes Global Change), Palaeoceanography, palaeoproductivity and the application of novel inorganic geochemical proxies during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.

MSc students:

2018-2019: Margaret Kitto (MSc Applied Marine Science), Sources of carbonate sediment on beaches in North Cornwall.

2015-2017: William Thornton (MSc Applied Marine Science), An investigation of the occurrence of benthic foraminifera in the water column at station L4, south of Plymouth.

2010-2011: Iain Posnett (MSc Applied Marine Science), Palaeoecology of the Late Permian mass extinction and recovery: Southwest Japan. 

2009-2010: Rodoulla Diakou (MSc Marine Geosciences), Palaeomagnetic analysis of the Pliocene marine sedimentary rocks of the Nicosia Formation of southern and northern Cyprus.

2008-2009: Nikki Khanna (MSc Marine Micropalaeontology), Foraminiferal response to late Eocene climate change in the Southern Ocean.

Andrew Leighton (MSc Marine Micropalaeontology), The micropalaeontology of the K/Pg boundary at Kulstirenden, Stevns Klint, Denmark.

2007-2008: Thomas Gregory (MSc Global Environmental Change), A multiproxy approach to Arctic sea-ice during the Holocene.

Nathan Weekes (MSc Applied Marine Science), The early recolonisation of the sea floor by deep-sea foraminifera following pyroclastic deposition during the 2006 Soufrière Hills (Montserrat) volcanic eruption.

2006-2007: Kenny Scott (MSc Global Environmental Change), The occurrence of the North Pacific diatom Neodenticula seminae in the North Atlantic during the Pleistocene with a correlation to planktonic foraminifera at ODP Site 963.

2005-2006: Iain Leighton (MSc Global Environmental Change), A foraminiferal study of Cuban mangrove sediments.

Rebecca Meyrick (MSc Global Environmental Change), Dating the cessation of activity for a volcanic centre in the Caribbean Sea: a micropalaeontological approach.

Jennifer Wiggins (MSc Global Environmental Change), The impact of the eruptions of the Soufrière Hills Volcano (Montserrat) on the sea floor foraminiferal biota.

Elizabeth Wilson (MSc Global Environmental Change), Changes in productivity shown by foraminifera in the Southern Ocean during the late Eocene.

2004-2005: Alice Howard (MSc Applied Marine Science), Planktonic foraminiferal abundance fluctuations during the late Pleistocene in the area around Montserrat.

2000-2001: Jennifer Hardwick (MSc Applied Marine Science), Using planktonic foraminifera to identify the Gulf Stream, near the New Jersey continental slope: an application for Pleistocene sediments.

MGeol students:

2021-2022: Lauren Perrett (MGeol), Mid-late Miocene benthic foraminifera and palaeoceanography of the Eastern Equatorial Pacific.

2016-2017: Luke Stanley (MGeol), Using planktic foraminifera to track North Atlantic climatic variability during the last 15kyr.  

2014-2015: Daniel Styles (MGeol), The Little Snowy Mountains Sauropod: a taphonomical study.

2011-2012: Thomas Gooding (MGeol), Palaeoecological change through the late Permian of East Greenland. 

Robbie Moore (MGeol), Quantifying the rotation history of the Troodos Ophiolite: palaeomagnetism in chalks, lavas and umbers in central Cyprus. 

Avalon Snider (MGeol), Reconstruction of the palaeoenviromental changes across the Miocene-Pliocene boundary in the Hatay Graben, southern Turkey.

2008-2009: Alexander Johnstone (MGeol), A palaeoenvironmental analysis of the benthic foraminifera from the Hatay Graben in southern Turkey.

Brett Metcalfe (MGeol), The Lilliput effect: growth rates and longevity in ‘Lilliput’ animals in the aftermath of the Late Permian extinction event.

2006-2007: Giles Potter (MGeol), The size of dragonflies through time.

2005-2006: Danielle Foy (MGeol), Micropalaeontological analysis of late Pleistocene planktonic foraminifera gathered from the Montserrat area, Lesser Antilles Arc.

Grants & contracts

2016 NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory (NIGL) support – Smart,C. W. [PI] and Wall-Palmer, D., Shelled heteropods: morphology, molecular taxonomy and global distributions (IP-1598-1115) (£5,200).

2014 Palaeontological Association Undergraduate Research Bursary – Smart, C. W. [Principal Supervisor], additional supervisors: Hart, M. B. and Wall-Palmer, D., student: Curtis Bracher (Stage 2 BSc Geology, PU), Variations in seasonality of productivity over the last 20 kyr in the bathyal NE Atlantic using foraminifera (£1600).

2014-2017 Plymouth University awarded a Leverhulme Trust Research Grant on ‘Shelled heteropods: morphology, molecular taxonomy and global distributions’ (£164,585). Project directed by Dr Christopher Smart (Principal Applicant), Dr Richard Kirby (Marine Institute) (Co-applicant) and Dr Debbie Wall-Palmer (Research Assistant).

2013 Marine Institute Small Collaborative Research Grant, Plymouth University – Smart, C. W. [PI], Hall-Spencer, J. and Hart, M. B., Holocene sea level rise and the separation of Jersey from France. (£5,000).

2013 NERC Research Grant (Directed, Research Programmes, IODP) – Smart, C. W. (PI) High resolution oxygen isotope stratigraphy of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program sites U1394, U1395 and U1396, off-shore Montserrat, Lesser Antilles (NE/K002724/1) (£59,354).

2012 Marine Institute Small Collaborative Research Grant, Plymouth University – Smart, C. W. [PI] and Shapiro, G., Can dense water overflow off continental shelves (cascading) be recognised in the geological past? (£4,775).

2011 NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory (NIGL) support – Smart, C. W., Hart, M. B. and Wall-Palmer, D., The response of pteropod and related faunas to climate change and ocean acidification (IP-1250-0511) (£7,300).

2007 Royal Society Conference Grant – To attend the 9th International Conference on Paleoceanography (ICP9), 3-7 September 2007, Shanghai, China (£1,750).

2006-2008 The Leverhulme Trust Research Project Grant – Tephrochronology of marine sediments around the volcanic island of Montserrat, Caribbean Sea (£58,492) - Hart, M. B., Smart, C. W., Price, G. D. and Sparks, S. J.

2004-2005 NERC/UKIODP Rapid Response Award – Miocene deep-sea benthic foraminiferal faunas from a depth transect on the Walvis Ridge, SE Atlantic (ODP Leg 208): palaeoceanographic implications (£965)

2003-2004 Royal Society Research Grant – Quaternary oceanic seasonality (£8,645)

2001-2002 NERC/UKODP Rapid Response Award – A high-resolution comparison of abundance records of planktonic foraminifera and radiolarians during the last 35 kyr from ODP Hole 658C (Leg 108): implications for upwelling intensity (£1,162)

2000-2001 NERC/UKODP Rapid Response Award – Pleistocene climatic history reflected in planktonic foraminifera from ODP Site 1073 (Leg 174A), New Jersey margin, NW Atlantic Ocean (£1,800)



Key publications

Key publications are highlighted

Hart MB, Gebhardt H, Setoyama E, Smart CW & Tyszka J (2023) 'Triassic and Jurassic possible planktonic foraminifera and the assemblages recovered from the Ogrodzieniec Glauconitic Marls Formation (uppermost Callovian and lowermost Oxfordian, Jurassic) of the Polish Basin' Journal of Micropalaeontology 42, (2) 277-290 , DOI Open access
Hart MB, Fisher JK, Smart CW, Speers R & Wall-Palmer D (2022) 'Re-colonization of hostile environments by benthic foraminifera: an example from Montserrat, Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc' Micropaleontology 68, (1) 1-27 , DOI Open access
Smart C (2021) 'Book review' Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 132, (5) 623-623 , DOI
Hart MB & Smart CW (2021) 'The Coral-rich Devonian Limestones of the English Riviera UNESCO Global Geopark' Geoconservation Research 4, (1) 170-195 , DOI Open access
Hart MB & Smart CW (2021) 'Trace Fossils in the Permian Rocks of English Riviera UNESCO Global Geopark' Geoconservation Research 4, (1) 255-265 , DOI Open access
Hart MB, Wall-Palmer D, Janssen AW & Smart CW (2020) 'Some observations on the geological history of the holoplanktonic gastropods' Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 131, (5) 443-449 , DOI
Hart MB, Fogerty T & Smart CW (2020) 'Foraminifera of the Gault Clay Formation: An update' Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 131, (3-4) 386-396 , DOI
Hart MB, Molina GS & Smart CW (2020) 'Estuarine foraminifera from South West England: impact of metal pollution in a mining heritage area' Journal of Sedimentary Environments 5, (1) 1-16 , DOI
Adojoh O, Marret-Davies F, Duller R, Osterloff P, Oboh-Ikuenobe F, Hart M & Smart C (2020) 'The biostratigraphy of the offshore Niger delta during the Late Quaternary: Complexities and progress of dating techniques' Quaternary Science Advances 1, , DOI Open access
Hart MB, Page KN, Price GD & Smart CW (2019) 'Reconstructing the Christian Malford ecosystem in the Oxford Clay Formation (Callovian, Jurassic) of Wiltshire: exceptional preservation, taphonomy, burial and compaction' Journal of Micropalaeontology 38, (2) 133-142 , DOI Open access
Eichenseer K, Balthasar K, Smart C, Stander J, Haaga KA & Kiessling W (2019) 'Jurassic shift from abiotic to biotic control on marine ecological success' Nature Geoscience Publisher Site , DOI Open access
Smart CW, Thomas E & Bracher CM (2019) 'Holocene variations in North Atlantic export productivity as reflected in bathyal benthic foraminifera' Marine Micropaleontology 149, 1-18 , DOI Open access
Hart M, Leighton A, Hampton M & Smart CW (2019) 'Global bioevents and the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in Texas and Alabama: Stratigraphy, correlation and ocean acidification' Global and Planetary Change , DOI Open access
Fogerty T, Hart MB, Page KN & Smart CW (2019) 'The foraminiferal biostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental interpretation of the Gault Clay Formation (Middle and Upper Albian) at Munday's Hill Quarry, Bedfordshire, UK' Micropaleontology 65, (6) 485-511 , DOI
Hart MB, Hughes Z, Page KN, Price GD & Smart CW (2018) 'Arm hooks of coleoid cephalopods from the Jurassic succession of the Wessex Basin, Southern England' PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGISTS ASSOCIATION 130, (3-4) 326-338 , DOI Open access
Wall-Palmer D, Metcalfe B, Leng MJ, Sloane HJ, Ganssen G, Vinayachandran PN & Smart CW (2018) 'Vertical distribution and diurnal migration of atlantid heteropods' Marine Ecology Progress Series 587, 1-15 , DOI Open access
Wall-Palmer D, Burridge AK, Goetze E, Stokvis FR, Janssen AW, Mekkes L, Moreno-Alcántara M, Bednaršek N, Schiøtte T & Vinther Sørensen M (2017) 'Biogeography and genetic diversity of the atlantid heteropods' Progress in Oceanography , DOI Open access
Barlow NLM, Long AJ, Gehrels WR, Saher MH, Scaife RG, Davies HJ, Penkman KEH, Bridgland DR, Sparkes A & Smart CW (2017) 'Relative sea-level variability during the late Middle Pleistocene: New evidence from eastern England' Quaternary Science Reviews 173, 20-39 , DOI Open access
Leighton AD, Hart MB, Smart CW, Leng MJ & Hampton M (2017) 'Timing recovery after the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary: evidence from the Brazos River, Texas, USA' Journal of Foraminiferal Research 47, (3) 229-238 , DOI Open access
Wall-Palmer D, Burridge AK, Peijnenburg KTCA, Janssen A, Goetze E, Kirby R, Hart MB & Smart CW (2016) 'Evidence for the validity of Protatlanta sculpta (Gastropoda: Pterotracheoidea)' Contributions to Zoology 85, (4) 423-435 Open access
Boulton SJ, Smart CW, Consolaro C & Snider A (2016) 'The Miocene – Pliocene boundary and the Messinian Salinity Crisis in the easternmost Mediterranean: insights from the Hatay Graben (Southern Turkey)' Sedimentary Geology 332, 51-51 , DOI Open access
Wall-Palmer D, Smart CW, Kirby R, Hart MB, Peijnenburg KTCA & Janssen AW (2016) 'A review of the ecology, palaeontology and distribution of atlantid heteropods (Caenogastropoda: Pterotracheoidea: Atlantidae)' Journal of Molluscan Studies eyv063-eyv063 , DOI Open access
Hart MB, FitzPatrick MEJ & Smart CW (2016) 'The Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary: Foraminifera, sea grasses, sea level change and sequence stratigraphy' Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 441, 420-429 , DOI
Hart MB, Clarke MR, De Jonghe A, Price GD, Page KN & Smart CW (2015) 'Statoliths from the Jurassic succession of south-west England, United Kingdom' Swiss Journal of Palaeontology 134, (2) 199-205 , DOI Open access
Pettit LR, Smart CW, Hart MB, Milazzo M & Hall-Spencer JM (2015) 'Seaweed fails to prevent ocean acidification impact on foraminifera along a shallow-water CO2 gradient' Ecology and Evolution 5, (9) 1784-1793 , DOI Open access
Hart MB, Stubbles SJ, Smart CW, Fisher JK, Hoddinott C, Marshall-Penn I & Yeo A (2015) 'Foraminifera from the Fowey Estuary, Cornwall' Geoscience in South-West England 13, 304-315 Open access
Hart MB, Cartwright K, Fisk B, Smart CW, Consolaro C & Hall-Spencer JM (2015) 'Foraminifera of the Fal Estuary (Cornwall), including taxa associated with maerl beds' Geoscience in South-West England 13, 483-490 Open access
Hall-Spencer JM, Pettit LR, Newcomb LA, Carrington E, Smart CW, Hart MB & Milazzo M (2015) 'IT WILL TAKE MORE THAN SEAWEED TO DEALWITH OCEAN ACIDIFICATION' EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY 50, 198-198 Open access
Leighton AD (2014) 'Possible hyperthermal events (Dan-C2 and Lower 29n) in the lowermost Paleocene of the Brazos River area, Texas' Rendiconti online della Società Geologica Italiana 31, 141-142 , DOI
Wall-Palmer D, Coussens M, Talling PJ, Jutzeler M, Cassidy M, Marchant I, Palmer MR, Watt SFL, Smart CW & Fisher JK (2014) 'Late Pleistocene stratigraphy of IODP Site U1396 and compiled chronology offshore of south and south west Montserrat, Lesser Antilles' Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 15, (7) 3000-3020 , DOI
Wall-Palmer D, Smart CW, Hart MB, Leng MJ, Borghini M, Aliani S & Conversi A (2014) 'Late Pleistocene pteropods, heteropods and planktonic foraminifera from the Caribbean Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean' Micropaleontology 60, (6) 557-558 , DOI
Hart MB, Leighton AD, Smart CW, Pettit LR, Medina-Sánchez IN, Harries PJ, Cárdenas AL, Hall-Spencer JM & Prol-Ledesma RM (2014) 'Ocean acidification in modern seas and its recognition in the geological record: the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in Texas and Alabama' Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions 64, 193-213 Publisher Site Open access
Pettit LR, Hart MB, Medina-Sánchez AN, Smart CW, Rodolfo-Metalpa R, Hall-Spencer JM & Prol-Ledesma RM (2013) 'Benthic foraminifera show some resilience to ocean acidification in the northern Gulf of California, Mexico' Mar Pollut Bull Author Site , DOI Open access
Trofimovs J, Talling PJ, Fisher JK, Sparks RSJ, Watt SFL, Hart MB, Smart CW, Le Friant A, Cassidy M & Moreton SG (2013) 'Timing, origin and emplacement dynamics of mass flows offshore of SE Montserrat in the last 110 ka: Implications for landslide and tsunami hazards, eruption history, and volcanic island evolution' Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 14, (2) 385-406 Author Site , DOI
Wall-Palmer D, Smart CW & Hart MB (2013) 'In-life pteropod shell dissolution as an indicator of past ocean carbonate saturation' Quaternary Science Reviews 81, 29-34 , DOI
Hart MB, De Jonghe A, Rundle AJ & Smart CW (2013) 'Statoliths: neglected microfossils' Journal of Micropalaeontology 32, (2) 219-220 , DOI
Hart MB, Hudson W, Smart CW & Tyszka J (2012) 'A reassessment of 'Globigerina bathoniana' Pazdrowa, 1969 and the palaeoceanographic significance of Jurassic planktic foraminifera from southern Poland' Journal of Micropalaeontology 31, (2) 97-109
Hart MB, Yancey TE, Leighton AD, Miller B, Liu C, Smart CW & Twitchett RJ (2012) 'The Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary on the Brazos river, Texas: new stratigraphic sections and revised interpretations' Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Journal 1, 69-80
Wall-Palmer D, Hart MB, Smart CW, Sparks RSJ, Le Friant A, Boudon G, Deplus C & Komorowski JC (2012) 'Pteropods from the Caribbean Sea: variations in calcification as an indicator of past ocean carbonate saturation' Biogeosciences 9, (1) 309-315 , DOI
Wall-Palmer D, Jones MT, Hart MB, Fisher JK, Smart CW, Hembury DJ, Palmer MR & Fones GR (2011) 'Explosive volcanism as a cause for mass mortality of pteropods' MARINE GEOLOGY 282, (3-4) 231-239 , DOI
Leighton AD, Hart MB & Smart CW (2011) 'A preliminary investigation into calcareous dinoflagellate cysts and problematic microfossils from an expanded Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary section at Kulstirenden, Stevns Klint, Denmark' Cretaceous Research 32, (5) 606-617 , DOI
De Jonghe A, Hart MB, Grimes ST, Mitlehner AG, Price GD & Smart CW (2011) 'Middle Eocene diatoms from Whitecliff Bay, Isle of Wight, England: stratigraphy and preservation' PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGISTS ASSOCIATION 122, (3) 472-483 , DOI
Sadri S, Hart MB & Smart CW (2011) 'Foraminifera from the sea grass communities of the proposed conservation zone in Tor Bay' Geoscience in South-West England 12, 269-277
Maslin MA & Smart CW (2010) 'Holocene bipolar climate seesaw: possible subtle evidence from the deep North East Atlantic Ocean?' J QUATERNARY SCI 25, (3) 237-242 , DOI
Smart CW, Waelbroeck C, Michel E & Mazaud A (2010) 'Benthic foraminiferal abundance and stable isotope changes in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean during the last 20 kyr: Paleoceanographic implications' PALAEOGEOGRAPHY PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY PALAEOECOLOGY 297, (3-4) 537-548 , DOI
Gregory TR, Smart CW, Hart MB, Massé G, Vare LL & Belt ST (2010) 'Reply to Comment: Holocene palaeoceanographic changes in Barrow Strait, Canadian Arctic: foraminiferal evidence. T. R. Gregory, C. W. Smart, M. B. Hart, G. Massé, L. L. Vare and S. T. Belt (2010). <i>Journal of Quaternary Science</i><b>25</b>: 903–910' Journal of Quaternary Science 25, (7) 1192-1192 , DOI
Dias BB, Hart B, Smart CW & Hall-Spencer JM (2010) 'Modern seawater acidification: the response of foraminifera to high-CO<sub>2</sub> conditions in the Mediterranean Sea' JOURNAL OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 167, (5) 843-846 , DOI Open access
Gregory TR, Smart CW, Hart MB, Massé G, Vare LL & Belt ST (2010) 'Holocene palaeoceanographic changes in Barrow Strait, Canadian Arctic: foraminiferal evidence' Journal of Quaternary Science 25, (6) 903-910 , DOI
Trofimovs J, Fisher JK, MacDonald HA, Talling PJ, Sparks RSJ, Hart MB, Smart CW, Boudon G, Deplus C & Komorowski J-C (2009) 'Evidence for carbonate platform failure during rapid sea-level rise; <i>ca</i> 14 000 year old bioclastic flow deposits in the Lesser Antilles' SEDIMENTOLOGY 57, (3) 735-759 , DOI
Smart CW, Maslin MA & Dixon KE (2009) 'NE Atlantic surface water mass changes over the last 15 kyr' PALAEOGEOGRAPHY PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY PALAEOECOLOGY 282, (1-4) 58-66 , DOI
Darling KF, Thomas E, Kasemann SA, Seears HA, Smart CW & Wade CM (2009) 'Surviving mass extinction by bridging the benthic/planktic divide' PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 106, (31) 12629-12633 , DOI
Vare LL, Masse G, Gregory TR, Smart CW & Belt ST (2009) 'Sea ice variations in the central Canadian Arctic Archipelago during the Holocene' QUATERNARY SCIENCE REVIEWS 28, (13-14) 1354-1366 , DOI
Hart MB, Price GD & Smart CW (2009) 'Foraminifera and sequence stratigraphy of the lower part of the Speeton Clay Formation (Lower Cretaceous) in N. E. England' Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 110A, 423-442
Hudson W, Hart MB & Smart CW (2009) 'Palaeobiogeography of early planktonic foraminifera' Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 180, (1) 27-38 , DOI
Le Friant A, Lock EJ, Hart MB, Boudon G, Sparks RSJ, Leng MJ, Smart CW, Komorowski JC, Deplus C & Fisher JK (2008) 'Late Pleistocene tephrochronology of marine sediments adjacent to Montserrat, Lesser Antilles volcanic arc' JOURNAL OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 165, 279-289 , DOI
Fisher JK, Hart MB, Smart CW, Leng MJ, Sparks RSJ, Talling PJ & Trofimovs J (2008) 'Tephrochronology of marine sediments around the Island of Montserrat, Lesser Antilles volcanic arc' The Sedimentary Record 6, 4-8
Hart MB & Smart CW (2008) 'The 2007 recipient of the Brady Medal: Professor John W. Murray' Journal of Micropalaeontology 27, (1) 95-96 , DOI
Hart MB, Aze T, Hudson W & Smart CW (2007) 'Planktic foraminifera from the proposed GSSP for the Oxfordian Stage: Redcliff Point, near Weymouth' GEOSCIENCE IN SOUTH-WEST ENGLAND, VOL 11, PT 4, 2007 11, 273-279
Smart CW & Thomas E (2007) 'Emendation of the genus Streptochilus Bronnimann and Resig 1971 (Foraminifera) and new species from the lower Miocene of the Atlantic and Indian oceans' Micropaleontology 53, (1-2) 73-103
Smart CW, Thomas E & Ramsay ATS (2007) 'Middle-late Miocene benthic foraminifera in a western equatorial Indian Ocean depth transect: Paleoceanographic implications' Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 247, (3-4) 402-420
Smart CW & Gooday AJ (2006) 'Benthic foraminiferal trends in relation to an organic enrichment gradient on the continental slope (850 m water depth) off North Carolina (USA)' Journal of Foraminiferal Research 36, (1) 34-43
Haslett SK & Smart CW (2006) 'Late quaternary upwelling off tropical NW Africa: new micropalaeontological evidence from ODP Hole 658C' Journal of Quaternary Science 21, (3) 259-269
Smart CW & Thomas E (2006) 'The enigma of early Miocene biserial planktic foraminifera' Geology 34, (12) 1041-1044
Olson HC & Smart CW (2004) 'Pleistocene climatic history reflected in planktonic foraminifera from ODP site 1073 (Leg 174A), New Jersey margin, NW Atlantic Ocean' Marine Micropaleontology 51, (3-4) 213-238
Hart MB, Hylton MD, Oxford MJ, Price GD, Hudson W & Smart CW (2003) 'The search for the origin of the planktic Foraminifera' Journal of the Geological Society 160, 341-343
Smart CW (2002) 'A comparison between smaller (>63 μm) and larger (>150 μm) planktonic foraminiferal faunas from the Pleistocene of ODP Site 1073 (Leg 174A), New Jersey margin, NW Atlantic Ocean' Journal of Micropalaeontology 21, 137-147
Smart CW (1998) 'Diversity patterns of Miocene benthic foraminifera in the Somali Basin, northwestern Indian Ocean' MICROPALEONTOLOGY 44, (3) 256-264 , DOI
Smart CW & Gooday AJ (1997) 'Recent benthic foraminifera in the Abyssal northeast Atlantic Ocean: Relation to phytodetrital inputs' JOURNAL OF FORAMINIFERAL RESEARCH 27, (2) 85-92 , DOI
Smart CW, Murray JW & Thomas E (1996) 'New observations on Seabrookia rugosa Watanabe, 1989 (foraminifera)' Journal of Foraminiferal Research 26, 24-26
Smart CW & Ramsay ATS (1995) 'Benthic foraminiferal evidence for the existence of an early Miocene oxygen-depleted oceanic water mass?' Journal of the Geological Society, London 152, 735-738
Smart CW & Murray JW (1995) 'Miocene deep-sea benthic foraminifera from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans: diversity patterns and palaeoceanography' Revista Española de Paleontología No. Homenaje al Dr. Guillermo Colom, 59-68
Smart CW, King SC, Gooday AJ, Murray JW & Thomas E (1994) 'A benthic foraminiferal proxy of pulsed organic matter paleofluxes' Marine Micropaleontology 23, 89-99
Smart CW & Murray JW (1994) 'An early Miocene Atlantic-wide foraminiferal/palaeoceanographic event' Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 108, 139-148
Murray JW & Smart CW (1994) 'Distribution of smaller benthic foraminifera in the Chagos Archipelago, Indian Ocean' Journal of Micropalaeontology 13, 47-53
Smart CW (2008) 'Abyssal NE Atlantic benthic foraminifera during the last 15 kyr: Relation to variations in seasonality of productivity' MARINE MICROPALEONTOLOGY 69, (2) 193-209 , DOI
Hart MB, Kaminski MA & Smart CW (2000) Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Agglutinated Foraminifera. 7 Grzybowski Foundation Special Publication
Smart CW & Thomas E (2018) 'Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Oligocene Streptochilus' in Wade BS; Olsson RK; Pearson PN; Huber BT; Berggren WA Atlas of Oligocene Planktonic Foraminifera Cushman Foundation of Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication, No. 46 495-510 Open access
Wall-Palmer D, Smart CW & Hart MB (2015) 'Data report: the Late Quaternary fossil record of holoplanktonic gastropods at IODP Sites U1395 and U1394' in Le Friant A; Ishizuka O; Stroncik NA Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, 340 , DOI Open access
Hart MB, Searle SR, Feist SE, Leighton AD, Price GD, Smart CW & Twitchett RJ (2011) 'The distribution of benthic foraminifera across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary in Texas (Brazos River) and Denmark (Stevns Klint)' in Keller G; Adatte T End-Cretaceous mass extinction and the Chicxulub impact in Texas USA SEPM 179-196
Messenger RW, Hart MB, Smart CW, Leng MJ, Lock EJ & Howard AK (2010) 'Pteropod faunas as indicators of Late Pleistocene climate change in the Caribbean Sea' in Whittaker JE; Hart MB Micropalaeontology, Sedimentary Environments and Stratigraphy: A Tribute to Dennis Curry (1912-2001) 17-28 , DOI
Smart CW (2002) 'Environmental applications of deep-sea benthic foraminifera' in Haslett SK Quaternary Environmental Micropalaeontology Arnold 14-58
Ramsay ATS, Smart CW & Zachos JC (1998) 'A model of early to middle Miocene deep ocean circulation for the Atlantic and Indian oceans' in Cramp A; MacLeod CJ; Lee SV; Jones EJW Geological evolution of ocean basins: results from the Ocean Drilling Program 55-70
Conference Papers
Border M, Hart MB, Powe N & Smart CW (2016) '7th international conference on UNESCO Global Geoparks, 2016: The rock connects us' 72-78
Hart MB, Molina GS, Smart CW & Widdicombe CE (2016) 'The western channel observatory: Benthic foraminifera in the plankton following storms' 39-45
Hart M, Leighton A, Yancey T, Hampton M, Liu C, Miller B, Smart C & Twitchett R (2014) 'Cretaceous–Palaeogene Boundary Events in Texas: New Sections, Revised Micropalaeontological Interpretations, and Clarification of the Stratigraphy' Springer International Publishing 37-41 , DOI
Hart MB, Hudson W, Smart CW & Tyszka J (2011) 'Jurassic planktic foraminifera and palaeoceanographic change in southern Poland and adjacent areas of Europe' 90-91
Gooday AJ & Smart CW (2000) 'Wall structure and test morphology in three large deep-sea agglutinated foraminifera, Rhabdammina parabyssorum Stschedrina 1952, R. abyssorum Sars 1869 and Astrorhiza granulosa (Brady 1879) (Foraminiferida, Textulariina)' in Hart MB; Kaminski MA; Smart CW Grzybowski Foundation 105-115
Smart CW (1992) 'Early to middle Miocene benthic foraminiferal faunas from DSDP Sites 518 and 529, South Atlantic: preliminary investigations' in Takayanagi Y; Saito T Benthos '90 Sendai, Japan 9-/-0/19900-/-1/1990Japan Tokai University Press, Japan 245-248


Conferences organised

2015 – The Micropalaeontological Society Foraminifera and Calcareous Nannofossil Groups, Spring Meeting June 2015, Plymouth University, UK (14-18 June 2015) – joint organiser.

2011 – 55th Palaeontological Association Annual Meeting, Plymouth University, UK (17-20 December 2011) – Organising Committee.

1997 – International Workshop on Agglutinated Foraminifera V (IWAF V), University of Plymouth, UK (6-11 September 1997) – Organising Committee.