Dr Andrew Foey
Associate Professor of Immunology
School of Biomedical Sciences (Faculty of Health)
- Mucosal immunity
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Crohn's disease
- Chronic periodontitis
- Macrophage cells
Email firstname.lastname@example.org to enquire.
Member of Biomedical Research Governance Sub-committee (CRTB, SoBHCS, PUPSMD) (2013-2016)
School Admissions Tutor (2014-2016 - 3 recruitment cycles)
2018 Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy (SFHEA PR144988 - 03/05/18)
2007 Fellow of the Higher Education Academy (FHEA No.32432).
2006 PG Cert. Learning & Teaching in Higher Education. University of Plymouth.
1996 PhD "Modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by intracellular cations." University of Bath.
1989 B.Sc. (Hons.) Applied Biological Sciences. Bristol Polytechnic.
1986 HND Applied Biology. Bristol Polytechnic.
Cytokine Immunopathology in inflammatory conditions, monocyte /macrophage biology, probiotics as immunomodulators, cell-to-cell interactions, cell signalling, apoptosis and cell cytometry.
Lecturer in Immunology, School of Biological & Biomedical Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK. Sept. 2005 - July 2017.
MRC Career Development Fellowship in Nutritional Immunology, MRC Human Nutrition Research Unit, Cambridge, UK. May 2004 – July 2005.
Senior Research Fellow, Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Imperial College, London, UK. July 1996 – December 2003.
Post Doctoral Research Scientist, Bath Institute for Rheumatic Diseases, Bath, UK. October 1995 – June 1996.
Research Assistant and SERC CASE PhD Studentship, Bath Institute for Rheumatic Diseases, Bath, UK. January 1992 – September 1995.
Research Scientist Industrial Placement, Boots Pharmaceuticals, Nottingham, UK. July 1994 – December 1994.
Research Assistant, MRC Tuberculosis and Related Infections Unit, RPMS Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK. September 1989 – December 1991.
Research Assistant, Nuffield Department of Surgery, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK. June 1991 – December 1991.
Research Assistant, CDE Porton Down, Salisbury, UK. July 1987 – September 1988.
British Society for Immunology
BHCS1006 Infection & Immunity
DIET210/BIOL2420 Nutritional Immunology & Biomedicine
Also teach on modules:
BHCS1001 Biomedical Investigation & Experimentation
BHCS2018 Systems Physiology: Function & Dysfunction
BHCS3011 Clinical Immunology & Biochemical Screening
Honours & Masters degree Research Project Supervision:
BHCS3001 Personal Research Project
BIOM5006 Masters Research Project
SSU provision for PCMD Medical students:
BS020 The immune system: it really is a case of "we are what we eat."
BS013 Cellular & molecular mechanisms underlying inflammatory immunopathologies.
Plenary teaching to Peninsula School of Dentistry, Dental Practicioners
MSc Periodontology Periodontal Microbiology & Immunology Feb 2019
Staff serving as external examiners
Nottingham Trent University 2014-2018. Biomedical Sciences Undergraduate Programmes.
Macrophages are fundamental cells to innate immune mechanisms. They exist in two main subsets which are determined by the tissue environment; where both differentiation and activation signals play a role in determining subset effector functionality. M1-like macrophages are pro-inflammatory and display anti-tumour effects whereas the M2-like macrophage subset is anti-inflammatory, regulatory and pro-tumoural. It is unclear whether these two subsets represent distinct canonical forms of macrophage subset or whether there is a sliding scale of effector function between these two extremes. If the latter scenario exists, it is likely that the macrophages display a level of plasticity, hence macrophage function can be manipulated/controlled. The regulation of macrophage function represents a realistic cell-based therapeutic regimen and would be of benefit in the treatment of many diseases where the immunopathological mechanisms are predominated by dysfunctional macrophages.
The focus of this research has centred on the role of mucosal macrophages in driving homeostatic healthy immune function and immunopathological mechanisms upon disruption of mucosal tolerance. The disease states currently under investigation include oral pathologies (chronic periodontitis, oral squamous cell carcinoma) and gastro-intestinal tract pathologies (Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis). Harnessing of both microbial (commensal and pathological) and dietary effects will allow for the regulation of macrophage function and may ameliorate the symptoms of such pro-inflammatory and suppressive disease states.
Current avenues of research endeavour include:
1) Immunomodulatory role of probiotics – centred around the modulation of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine production by specific macrophage subsets and upon contact-mediated interaction with gut epithelial cells.
2) Mechanisms of endotoxin tolerance mediated by oral pathogens and the relative subset sensitivities to tolerance-induction.
3) Application of oral pathogens and their PAMPs in immune-deviation in pro-inflammatory and suppressive immunopathologies.
4) Negative regulation and manipulation of macrophage plasticity in Crohn’s disease.
5) Immune cell cross-talk mechanisms involved in perpetuation of mucosal pathologies.
6) Role of oligosaccharides/b-glucans as modulators of macrophage-mediated immunity.
7) Dietary microparticles: immune activators or tolerance inducers?
Potential New Positions:
Self-funded PhD and ResM applicants are encouraged to apply. If you are interested in my areas of research, please e-mail me.
Research degrees awarded to supervised students
Dr Alexander Strachan, 2020. University of Plymouth. Tolerogenic mechanisms associated with chronic Porphyromonas gingivalis infection: good for whom, host or pathogen? Co-supervised with Dr Zveta Zaric and Dr Vehid Salih (UoP).
Dr Barbara Durante, 2019. University of Plymouth. The effect of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as modulators of macrophage-driven innate immunity. Co-supervised with Prof. Mathew Upton (UoP).
Dr Khalid Al-Shagdhali, 2018. University of Plymouth. Regulation of macrophage subsets in homeostatic and inflammatory mucosal environments. Co-supervised with Dr Jane Beal (UoP).
Dr Abbas Al-Shabany, 2016. University of Plymouth. Pharmacological modulation of NAD alters TNFa responses in macrophage subsets. Co-supervised with Dr Richard Billington, DoS (UoP).
Dr Neama Habil, 2013. University of Plymouth. Probiotic modulation of mucosal immune responses in an in vitro co-culture model. Co-supervised with Dr Jane Beal (UoP).
Dr Holger Kuhlwein, 2013. University of Plymouth. Effect of dietary b-glucan supplementation on growth, intestinal functionality and disease progression in selected cyprinids (Cyprinus carpio and Danio rerio). Co-supervised with Prof. Simon Davies, DoS (UoP).
Dr Angela Cooper, 2013. University of Plymouth. Long-chain fatty acids and endoplasmic reticulum stress in pancreatic beta cells: the role of protein kinase R (PKR). Co-supervised with Dr John Moody, DoS (UoP) and Prof. Noel Morgan (University of Exeter).
Dr Matthew Owen, 2011. University of Plymouth. The effect of dietary inclusion of category 3 animal by-product meals on rainbow trout (O. mykiss Walbaum) mineralised tissues and immune function. Co-supervised with Prof. Simon Davies, DoS (UoP) and Dr Simon Fox (UoP).
Dr Sally Owen, 2005. Imperial College London. The role of cytokine-stimulated T cells in mediating inflammatory cytokine responses in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Co-supervised with Prof. Fionula Brennan, DoS (ICL).
Helene Stern, 2020. University of Plymouth. Investigating the role of Signal Regulatory Protein a in regulating macrophage subset activity in homeostasis and inflammation. Co-supervised with Dr Kris Jeremy (UoP).
MSc Project Supervision
James Nwaduba, 2019. University of Plymouth. Polarisation of M1 and M2 macrophages and presence of gingival fibroblasts and oral keratinocytes regulate overall macrophage TNFa production in vitro. Co-supervised with Dr Vehid Salih (UoP).
James Butler, 2018. University of Plymouth. Live and heat-killed probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota modulation of macrophage immune defences: stimulation versus suppression. Co-supervised with Dr Jane Beal.
Olivia Waring, 2016. University of Plymouth. Proteomic profiling of LPS-stimulated M1 and M2 macrophage responses. Co-supervised with Dr Kris Jeremy (UoP) and Dr Vikram Sharma (UoP).
Grants & contracts
Northcott Devon Medical Foundation Grant: 2019-2020 (£9,985). “Understanding the role of CD47 in colorectal cancer and the use of CD47 monoclonal antibodies for potential cancer immunotherapy.” (Principle Applicant: Dr. Tracey Madgett, Co-applicants: Dr. Kris Jeremy and Dr. Andrew Foey).
PostGraduate Scholarship: PhD Studentship Grant: 2015-2018 (£70,000). “The effect of AMPs as modulators of macrophage-driven innate immunity.” (Principle Applicant: Dr. Andrew Foey, Co-applicant: Dr. Mathew Upton).
Iraqi Embassy PhD Studentship Grant: 2014-2017 (£70,000). “Modulation of macrophage and epithelial cell immune defences by probiotic bacteria: immune stimulation versus suppression.” (Principle Applicant: Dr. Andrew Foey, Co-applicant: Dr. Jane Beal).
Peninsula School of Medicine & Dentistry PhD Studentship Grant: 2014-2017 (£70,000). “Tolerogenic mechanisms associated with chronic Porphyromonas gingivalis infection: good for whom, host or pathogen?.” (Principle Applicant: Dr. Sveta Zaric, Co-applicant: Dr. Andrew Foey and Prof. Simon Jackson).
Saudi Embassy PhD Studentship Grant: 2013-2015 (£70,000). “Regulation of macrophage subsets in homeostatic and inflammatory mucosal environments.” (Principle Applicant: Dr. Andrew Foey, Co-applicant: Dr. Jane Beal, Dr. Chris Hayward).
Iraqi Embassy PhD Studentship Grant: 2011-2014 (£70,000). “NAD levels modulate macrophage subset immune responses.” (Principle Applicant: Dr. Richard Billington, Co-applicant: Dr. Andrew Foey).
University of Basrah Personal Post-Doctoral Training Sabbatical: Sept/Oct. 2011 (£3,000). “PAMPs and PRRs drive mucosal immune responses: tolerance, activation or pathology?” (Principle Applicant: Dr. Andrew Foey, Co-applicants: Prof. Awatif Al-Muhsin, Prof. Ihsan Al-Saimary).
Peninsula Dental School PhD Studentship Grant: 2009-2012 (£77,666). “Neoplastic cell, macrophage & T cell interaction involvement in oral squamous cell carcinoma.” (Principle Applicant: Dr. Andrew Foey, Co-applicant: Prof. StJohn Crean).
Iraqi Embassy PhD Studentship Grant: 2009-2012 (£69,490). “Probiotic modulation of mucosal immune responses in an in vitro co-culture model.” (Principle Applicant: Dr. Andrew Foey, Co-applicant: Dr. Jane Beal).
PostGraduate Scholarship: PhD Studentship Grant: 2008-2011 (£72,620). “Modulation of the inflammatory response to pathogenic oral bacteria by the oral mucosal immune system.” (Principle Applicant: Dr. Andrew Foey, Co-applicant: Prof. StJohn Crean).
Iraqi Embassy & HEIF3 Research Studentship with DDRC Grant: 2008-2011 (£60,000). “Mechanism by which HBO therapy may resolve the inflammation in chronic wounds.” (Principle Applicant: Dr. John Moody, Co-applicant: Dr. Andrew Foey).
Seale Hayne Educational Trust. 2007 for 1 year. (£5,900). “In vitro modelling of the gut immune system.” (Principle Applicant: Dr. Andrew Foey).
University of Plymouth, Vice Chancellor’s Research & Innovation Fellowship. 2007 for 1 year. (£6,000). “Macrophage bacterial sensing in the gut: NOD-ing off is good for you!” (Principle Applicant: Dr. Andrew Foey).
Wellcome Trust Project Grant: for 3 years + 6 month extension. 1999 to 2003 (£159,821). “T cell regulation of macrophage IL-10: cognate ligand-receptor interactions and resulting signalling pathways.” (Principle Applicant: Dr. Andrew Foey, Co-applicant: Prof. Fionula Brennan).
Key publications are highlightedJournals
Rawling, M.D., Leclercq, E., Foey, A.D., Merrifield, D.L. and Castex, M. (2021): A novel dietary multi-strain yeast fraction modulates intestinal toll-like receptor signalling and mucosal responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). PLoS ONE (accepted 21/12/20).
Hradicka, P., Beal, J., Kassayova, M., Foey, A. and Demeckova, V. (2020): A novel lactic acid bacteria mixture: macrophage-targeted prophylactic intervention in colorectal cancer management. Microorganisms 8:387.
McIlwain, C., Strachan, A., Harrington, Z., Jerreat, M., Belfield, L., Sandor, V., Foey, A. and Zaric, S. (2020): Comparative analysis of total salivary lipopolysaccharide chemical and biological properties with periodontal status. Archives of Oral Biology 110:e104633.
Al-Shagdhali, K., Durante, B., Hayward, C., Beal, J. and Foey, A. (2019): Macrophage subsets exhibit distinct E. coli-LPS tolerisable cytokines associated with the negative regulators, IRAK-M and Tollip. PLoS ONE 14(5):e0214681.
Strachan, A., Harrington, Z., McIlwaine, C., Jerreat, M., Kilar, A., Belfield, L., Jackson, S., Foey, A. and Zaric, S. (2018): Subgingival lipid A profile and endotoxin activity in periodontal health and disease. Clinical Oral Investigations 23(9):3527-3534.
Foey, A.D. (2018): Probiotics: microbial experts in immunomodulation of mucosal macrophage-driven responses. Immunotherapy: Open Access 4: e108.
Llewellyn, A. and Foey, A. (2017): Probiotic modulation of innate cell pathogen sensing and signaling events. Nutrients 9:1156. [Citations: 2, JIF 3.270, doi:10.3390/nu9101156].
Foey, A.D., Habil, N., Al-Shaghdali, K. and Crean, S.J. (2017): Porphyromonas gingivalis-stimulated macrophage subsets exhibit differential induction and responsiveness to interleukin-10. Archives of Oral Biology 73:282-288. [Citations: 5, JIF: 1.733, Doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2016.10.029].
Al-Shabany, A.J., Moody, A.J., Foey, A.D. and Billington, R.A. (2016): Intracellular NAD+ levels are associated with LPS-induced TNF release in pro-inflammatory macrophages. Bioscience Reports 36(1):e00301. [Citations:12, JIF: 2.637].
Foey, A.D. (2015): Macrophages: Tissue-resident determinants of immunomodulation. Immunotherapy: Open Access 1: 1-3.
Standen, B., Peggs, D., Rawling, M., Foey, A., Davis, S., Santos, G. and Merrifield, D. (2016): Dietary administration of a commercial mixed-species probiotic improves growth performance and modulates the intestinal immunity of tilapia, Oreochronis niloticus. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 49:427-435. [Citations: 18, JIF: 2.67, Doi:10.1016/j.fsi.2015.11.037].
Foey, A.D. (2015): Macrophage polarisation: a collaboration of differentiation, activation and pre-programming? Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology. 6:293. [Citations:7, JIF: 3.146, Doi:10.4172/2155-9899.1000293].
Habil, N., Abate Woldie, W., Beal, J. and Foey, A.D. (2014): Heat killed probiotic bacteria differentially regulate colonic epithelial cell production of human beta-defensin-2: dependence on inflammatory cytokines. Beneficial Microbes 5(4):483-495. [Citations: 19, JIF: 3.301, Doi:10.3920/BM2013.0061].
Reports & invited lectures
"Macrophages: masters of homeostasis pathology in Crohn's Disease." Gastroenterology Forum, 10th July 2018, Gastroenterology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth, UK.
"Oral LPS: Macrophage subsets are differentially sensitive to endotoxin tolerance." BSODR Annual Meeting, 6th-8th September 2017, Plymouth, UK.
"Macrophages: immune activation vs immune suppression in response to P.gingivalis." Annual Research Conference, Centre for Biomedical Research, Plymouth, 3rd September 2015.
"Epithelial cell production of beta-defensin-2: the inter-relationship between probiotic bacteria and inflammatory cytokines." International Probiotic Conference, Budapest, 25th June 2015.
"Mmmmmm! Lumenal tasting and antigen presentation." Immunology Master Class Workshop. International Probiotic Conference, Budapest, 22nd June 2015.
"Mucosal Immunology - from outside to inside." Immunology Master Class Workshop. International Probiotic Conference, Budapest, 22nd June 2015.
"Modulation of macrophage-epithelial cell co-cultures by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota: effect on inflammatory cytokines, barrier integrity and bacterial sensing." International Probiotic Conference, Budapest, 26th June 2014.
"Macrophages: the Jekyll and Hyde of inflammation." PUPSMD School Seminar Series, Plymouth, 5th February 2014.
"Probiotic modulation of macrophage responses: relevance to mucosal immunity." Keynote Speaker at Probiotic and prebiotic immunomodulation in medical, vetinary and aquaculture sciences: the future. NEMO Conference, Keele University, Keele, 10th September 2012.
"Differential suppression of macrophage subsets by Porphyromonas gingivalis." International Association of Dental Research, Annual Meeting, Barcelona, 14th July 2010.
"Oral mucosal immune dysfunction in RAS and OSCC: the macrophages are key!" Orthognathic Surgery, South West Regional Study Day, Lyngford House, Taunton, Somerset, 14th December 2009.
"Macrophage effector phenotypes: the cellular switch in inflammatory fate!" Faculty of Science Seminar Series, University of the West of England, Bristol, 25th March 2009.
"Macrophage effector phenotypes: priming, activation & apoptosis - the fine balance between tolerance & inflammatory immunopathology." POSReF, Institute of Biomedical & Clinical Science, University of Exeter, Ashburton, 25th June 2008.
"Nutritional modulation of innate immunity: macrophage effector functions - the switch between tolerance an immunopathology." Food Biosciences Research Seminar, University of Reading, 10th October 2007.
“Endogenous calcium microparticles: Immunomodulators of innate immunity.” Endogenous microparticles: Form and function, Cambridge , 14th March 2005 .
“Distinct macrophage populations display differential effector responses upon TLR ligation.” British Society for Immunology Annual Meeting, Harrogate, 7th December 2004.
“Pro-inflammatory macrophages: partial differentiation or preferential pathway?” International Cytokine Society Annual Meeting, Trinity College, Dublin, 22nd September 2003.
“T cell/macrophage contact and macrophage differentiation regulate cytokine expression in chronic inflammation.” Rheumatology Seminar Series, School of Clinical Medical Sciences, University of Newcastle, 7th July 2003.
“Cytokine regulation in chronic inflammation: role of T cell/macrophage contact-dependent interactions and mechanism of macrophage differentiation.” Infection and Immunity Seminar Series, Institute of Child Health, UCL, London, 10th June 2003.
"Macrophage differentiation and cytokine regulation." Joint presentation with Prof. Fionula Brennan. Cytokines and Vascular Biology Meeting, Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, London, 9th December 2002.
“ Cytokine regulation in RA synovial tissue: role of T cell/macrophage contact-dependent interactions.” Prof. Siamon Gordon Laboratory, Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, 1st November 2002.
“ Cytokine-stimulated T cells induce IL-10 production by M-CSF-primed monocytes in a PI3K-dependent manner similar to that of RA-SMCs.” 3rd International IL-10 Workshop on IL-10, Berlin, 4th-7th April 2001.
“CD40 ligation induces macrophage IL-10 production.” Cell Contact Interactions in Rheumatology meeting, Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, London, 1st-2nd June 2000.
“The cognate interaction of CD40L with CD40 on macrophages mediates interleukin-10 expression: Cytokine profile is determined by differentiation status.” 2nd International IL-10 Workshop, Milan, Italy, 27th-29th May 1999.
“Role played by cognate interaction between T cells and macrophages in the production of macrophage IL-10.” The Anthony Nolan Research Institute, Royal Free Hospital, London, March 1999.
"Control of expression of monocyte Interleukin-10: Role of the MAP-kinases and cognate cellular interactions." Royal National Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases and the University of Bath, Bath, March 1998.
“Role of p38 and p42/44 MAP kinase pathways in the regulation of LPS-induced IL-10 by peripheral blood monocytes.” 1st International IL-10 Workshop. Strathclyde University, Glasgow, 10th-13th September, 1997.
"Cation control of cytokine expression and effects on Fas-mediated apoptosis within the rheumatoid synovium." Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Leicester University, June 1996.
"Regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by an impairment in function of the sodium pump in cells of the rheumatoid synovial lining layer." British Society for Rheumatology, Brighton, May 1996.
Other academic activities
Commisioned to write a book on "Nutritional Immunology." To be published in 2015. Wiley - Blackwell publishing, UK.
MPhil - PhD Conversion Internal examiner:
Oct 2015 "Evaluation of phytoestrogens on PC3 and MCF-7 cell viability and motility." Safaa Salman Mezban
School of Biomedical & Healthcare Sciences, University of Plymouth.
Oct 2016 "Innate immune responses in a new model of alveolar macrophages to infection with influenza virus." Conor Wood. School of Biomedical & Healthcare Sciences, University of Plymouth.
MPhil - PhD Conversion External examiner:
June 2009 "Structural and functional studies of the peroxiredoxin-sulfiredoxin enzyme system: do inhibitors of this system induce apoptosis in inflammatory cells?" Katarine Szabo
Inflammation & Musculoskeletal Diseases Research Group, University of Exeter.
Sept. 2009 "The effects of hyperbaric oxygen on the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in chronic wound bacteria." Lindsey Glew. School of Biological Sciences and The Hyperbaric Medical Centre, University of Plymouth.
Jan. 2014 "PAMP-induce signalling in mammalian trigeminal neurons: consequences for oral infection and mechanisms of chronic orofacial pain." Martin Helley
Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Plymouth.
PhD External examiner:
Nov. 2012 "Influence of ageing on immune responses to selected probiotics." Jialu You
Food & Nutritional Sciences, University of Reading.
PhD Internal examiner:
Feb. 2018 "The effects of phytoestrogens on preferential metastasis to bone." Safaa Mezban.
Sept. 2015 "The biology of mantle cell lymphoma: exploring the gender difference in mantle cell lymphoma." Dr Nimish Shah. PUPSMD, Derriford Hospital.
Journals: Past & Present: Biochemical Pharmacology
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Journal of Gene Medicine
Journal of Gene Medicine
Genes and Immunity
Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
European Journal of Immunology
Journal of Rheumatology/Rheumatology
Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Infection & Immunity
Clinical & Vaccine Immunology
Granting Agencies: Review applications to the Hong Kong Research Grants Council Universities Grants Committee, Biology and Medicine Panel; MRC and BBSRC. Research project reviewer for Asthma UK.
Current Editor: Editorial Board Member (elected Sept. 2013) for ISRN Immunology, Hindawi Publishing Corporation.
Editorial Board Member (elected Aug. 2015) Journal - Immunotherapy: Open Access.
University of Plymouth On-line training:
- Recruitment & Selection. Certificate 04/10/10.
- Health & Safety E-learning. Certificate 13/05/12.
- Diversity in the workplace. Certificate 06/01/15.
- Unconscious Bias. Certificate January 2017.
University of Plymouth Training Courses:
- Supervising Postgraduate Research Students. Prof Mick Fuller 14/06/06.
- Role of the Internal Examiner. Prof Mick Fuller 2012.
- Safe Handling of Cryogenic Liquids. JHW Associates Health & Safety Consultancy & Training 12/07/06.
MRC Career Development Fellowship training:
- Supervising PhD students. Cambridge 26/05/04.
- Writing Project Proposals. Dr Philip Hills, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge 09/06/04.
- Career Development Fellowship Induction. Patrick Moriarty, Cambridge 26/10/04.