Dr Thomas Raymen

Dr Thomas Raymen

Lecturer in Criminology

Plymouth School of Law (Faculty of Business)


Thomas Raymen is a lecturer in criminology at Plymouth University since October 2015. Since 2016, he has been the MSc Criminology programme lead. 



Thomas Raymen is a criminologist with a particular interest in social harm, moral philosophy and harmful forms of commodified leisure. He received his PhD in Sociology and Social Policy from Durham University in 2017. His work has explored the interpersonal, social and environmental harms that emanate from the relationship between commodified leisure, consumer capitalism, and liberal individualist moral philosophy. In addition to a number of peer-reviewed journal articles, these themes are addressed in two forthcoming authored books Parkour, Deviance and Leisure in the Late-Capitalist City (Emerald Publishers)and Deviant Leisure and Social Harm (Policy Press, 2019), co-authored with Dr Oliver Smith. Presently, he is concerned with exploring how the moral and political philosophies of liberalism prevent the development of an adequate and transformative theory of social harm and social renewal, and developing a new theory of social harm rooted in a post-liberal ethics.   

In 2014, during his PhD, he co-founded the deviant leisure research network with Dr Oliver Smith to offer a critical interrogation of the normalisation of harm in consumer capitalism and commodified leisure. His work regularly appears in internationally renowned peer-review journals such as The British Journal of Criminology; Theoretical Criminology; Crime, Media, Culture; and the Journal of Consumer Culture among others. 


PhD Sociology and Social Policy - Durham University - 2017 
MA Social Research Methods (Social Policy) - Durham University - 2013
BSc Applied Criminology with Legal Studies - Canterbury Christ Church University - 2012 

Professional membership

Thomas is a member of the British Society of Criminology and the European Society of Criminology. He serves on the steering group for the BSC Critical Criminology Committee. Additionally, he is a co-founder of the Deviant Leisure Research Network and a member of the emerging Extreme Anthropology Research Network. 

Teaching interests

Thomas teaches on a variety of modules across the undergraduate and postgraduate taught programmes. In 1st Year he teaches on the team-taught introductory module CCJS1109 Crime in Context. In 2nd year he teaches on the core module CCJS2115 Crime, Theory, Culture, and the elective module CCJS2124 Inside-Out: Crime and Justice in the 21st Century. He is also the programme lead for the MSc Criminology, teaching on CRIM714 Criminology Theory and CRIM739, Crime, Culture and Global Society. 

Research interests

Thomas has a wide and varied range of cross-disciplinary interests which span the fields of criminology, leisure studies, moral and political philosophy, cultural geography and urban studies. The vast majority of Thomas' research focuses on a criminological exploration of the deviant leisure perspective. Namely, the normalised harms that emerge from commodified leisure in consumer capitalism. In particular, existing research has focused on urban lifestyle sports, gambling, and various forms of interpersonal and environmental violence in commodified leisure. At present, Thomas' research has moved toward moral philosophy in order to develop a fully adequate theory of social harm.

Research degrees awarded to supervised students

Thomas is currently supervising three PhD students in the department of criminology and criminal justice studies:

Ms Suzanne Baggs - Gender, Socialised Gambling, and Digital Culture

Mr Alex Beaumont - Religion and Desistance in UK Prisons

Mrs Grace Gallagher - Childhood, Sport and Well-Being in Neoliberal Capitalism

Thomas is happy to supervise and invite a broad range of proposals on issues of consumerism and crime; commodified leisure and harm; social harm, ethics and philosophy; or projects intending to utilise ultra-realist criminological theory.  


Raymen, T. (2018) Parkour, Deviance and Leisure in the Late-Capitalist City: An Ethnography. Emerald

Smith, O. and Raymen, T. (2019) Deviant Leisure and Social Harm. Policy Press

Edited Collections

Raymen, T. and Smith, O. (forthcoming) Deviant Leisure: Exploring the Boundaries of Leisure and Harm. Palgrave

Journal Articles

Raymen, T. (forthcoming) 'Social Harm, Ethics and the Barrier of Liberalism: Why Zemiology Needs a Theory of the Good'. Justice, Power and Resistance. Special Issue on Zemiology

Raymen, T. and Smith, O. (2017) 'Lifestyle Gambling, Indebtedness and Anxiety: This is the Ladbrokes Life'. Journal of Consumer Culture. 

Raymen, T. (2017) 'Living in the End Times Through Popular Culture: An ultra-realist analysis of The Walking Dead as popular criminology'. Crime, Media Culture. doi: 10.1177/1741659017721277

Smith, O. and Raymen, T. (2016) 'Deviant Leisure: A Criminological Perspective'. Theoretical Criminology. doi. 10.1177/1362480616660188

Raymen, T. (2016) 'Designing-in Crime by Designing-Out the Social? Situational Crime Prevention and the Intensification of Harmful Subjectivities'. British Journal of Criminology. 56(3): 497-514. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azv069 

Raymen, T. and Smith, O. (2016) 'What's deviance got to do with it? Black Friday Sales, Violence and Hyper-Conformity'. British Journal of Criminology. 56(2) 389-405. doi: https://doi.org/bjc/azv051 

Smith, O. and Raymen, T. (2015) 'Shopping with Violence: Black Friday Sales in the British Context'. Journal of Consumer Culture. doi. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469540515611204 

Book Chapters

Raymen, T. (2019) ‘Slavery and Dark Tourism: A Deviant LeisurePerspective’. In T. Linnemann, T. Kindynis, and M. Fiddler (Eds) Ghost Criminology. New York UniversityPress.

Raymen, T. (2018) ‘Lifestyle Gambling and Accelerated Culture’ in T.Raymen and O. Smith (Eds) DeviantLeisure: Perspectives on Consumerism and Harm in the 21st Century.London. Palgrave.

Raymen, T. (2018) ‘The Paradox of Parkour’ in T. Raymen and O. Smith(Eds) Deviant Leisure: Perspectives onConsumerism and Harm in the 21st Century. London. Palgrave.

Raymen, T. and Smith,O. (2018) ‘Killing Paradise: Tourism, Leisure and Environmental Harm’ in S.Halland J. Armitage (Eds) Luxury and Crime.Routledge

Reports & invited lectures

Raymen, T. (2018) 'Social Harm and Moral Philosophy: Big Questions for 21st Century Criminology'. Keynote Presentation. British Society of Criminology Postgraduate Conference

Raymen, T. (2017) 'Criminology's Moral Crisis in an Era of Liberalism'. British Society of Criminology Conference. Sheffield Hallam University. July 2016

Raymen, T. (2017) 'Lifestyle Gambling and Harm in Accelerated Culture'. British Society of Criminology Conference. Sheffield Hallam University. July 2016

Raymen, T. (2016) 'Theorising Harm for Deviant Leisure'. American Society of Criminology Conference. New Orleans, LA, USA

Raymen, T. (2016) 'Lifestyle Gambling Indebtedness and Harm: A Deviant Leisure Perspective'. American Society of Criminology Conference. New Orleans, LA, USA

Raymen, T. (2015) 'Deviant Leisure: A Criminological Perspective'. European Society of Criminology Conference. Porto. 

Raymen, T.  and Smith, O. (2015). 'Shopping with Violence: Black Friday and Deviant Leisure'. American Society of Criminology Conference. Washington DC. November, 2015. 

Raymen, T. (2016) 'Ethnographer for a Day? Time-Bound Violence and Ethnographic Research'. Crime and Control Ethnography Symposium. University of Birmingham.

Raymen, T. (2014) 'Re-thinking Parkour as Resistance'. National Deviancy Conference. Teesside University. June, 2014. 

Raymen, T. (2014) 'Parkour and the Production of Space'. Sports, Politics, and Public Policy PSA Conference. Durham University. April, 2014.