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Dr Steven Samuel

Lecturer in Psychology

School of Psychology (Faculty of Health)



PhD Psychology (Essex) 2015

Postdoctoral Researcher (Stockholm University) 2015

Postdoctoral Researcher (University of Cambridge) 2016-2018

Postdoctoral Researcher (University of Essex) 2018-2021

Lecturer (University of Plymouth) 2021-


PhD Psychology (Essex) 2015

Professional membership

Member of the Experimental Psychology Society

Member of the British Psychological Society

Member of the Psychonomic Society



Research interests

Theory of Mind

Cognitive representation

Bilingualism & Cognition

Grants & contracts

Experimental Psychology Society, £4,670. The Role of Simulation in Perspective Taking, September 2021-August 2022

Grindley Grant, £2,000. Supervisee Kreso Durdevic. 2017

Seedcorn Fund, University of Essex, £500. Visual Perspective Taking, July-Sept. 2015

Seedcorn Fund, University of Essex, £625. Perceptual Differences Between Monolinguals and Bilinguals, July-Sept. 2015



Key publications

Key publications are highlighted

Samuel S, Hagspiel K, Eacott MJ & Cole GG (2021) 'Visual perspective-taking and image-like representations: We don't see it' Cognition 210, 104607-104607 , DOI
Samuel S, Cole GG & Eacott MJ (2020) 'Two independent sources of difficulty in perspective-taking/theory of mind tasks' Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 27, (6) 1341-1347 , DOI
Cole GG, Millett AC, Samuel S & Eacott MJ (2020) 'Perspective-Taking: In Search of a Theory' Vision 4, (2) 30-30 , DOI
Samuel S, Frohnwieser A, Lurz R & Clayton NS (2020) 'Reduced egocentric bias when perspective-taking compared with working from rules' Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 73, (9) 1368-1381 , DOI
Samuel S, Legg EW, Manchester C, Lurz R & Clayton NS (2019) 'Where was I? Taking alternative visual perspectives can make us (briefly) misplace our own' Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 73, (3) 468-477 , DOI
Samuel S, Cole G & Eacott MJ (2019) 'Grammatical gender and linguistic relativity: A systematic review' Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 26, (6) 1767-1786 , DOI
Bylund E, Gygax P, Samuel S & Athanasopoulos P (2019) 'Back to the future? The role of temporal focus for mapping time onto space' Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 73, (2) 174-182 , DOI
Samuel S, Roehr-Brackin K, Jelbert S & Clayton NS (2019) 'Flexible egocentricity: Asymmetric switch costs on a perspective-taking task' Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 45, (2) 213-218 , DOI
Samuel S, Durdevic K, Legg EW, Lurz R & Clayton NS (2019) 'Is Language Required to Represent Others’ Mental States? Evidence From Beliefs and Other Representations' Cognitive Science 43, (1) e12710-e12710 , DOI
Samuel S, Legg EW, Lurz R & Clayton NS (2018) 'The unreliability of egocentric bias across self–other and memory–belief distinctions in the Sandbox Task' Royal Society Open Science 5, (11) 181355-181355 , DOI
Samuel S, Roehr-Brackin K, Pak H & Kim H (2018) 'Cultural Effects Rather Than a Bilingual Advantage in Cognition: A Review and an Empirical Study' Cognitive Science 42, (7) 2313-2341 , DOI
Samuel S, Bylund E, Cooper R & Athanasopoulos P (2018) 'Illuminating ATOM: Taking time across the colour category border' Acta Psychologica 185, 116-124 , DOI
Samuel S, Legg EW, Lurz R & Clayton NS (2018) 'Egocentric bias across mental and non-mental representations in the Sandbox Task' Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 71, (11) 2395-2410 , DOI
Samuel S & Clayton N (2018) 'Morgan's canon is not evidence' Behavioral and Brain Sciences 41, , DOI
Legg EW, Olivier L, Samuel S, Lurz R & Clayton NS (2017) 'Error rate on the director's task is influenced by the need to take another's perspective but not the type of perspective' Royal Society Open Science 4, (8) 170284-170284 , DOI
Samuel S, Roehr-Brackin K & Roberson D (2015) '‘She says, he says’: Does the sex of an instructor interact with the grammatical gender of targets in a perspective-taking task?' International Journal of Bilingualism 20, (1) 40-61 , DOI
Athanasopoulos P, Samuel S & Bylund E (2017) 'The psychological reality of spatio-temporal metaphors' Studies in Figurative Thought and Language John Benjamins
Samuel S (2016) 'Do bilinguals inhibit one language to speak another?' Bilingual Landscape of the Contemporary World



Open Science Framework: