Dr Stephen Brown

Dr Stephen Brown

Associate Professor in Psychology

School of Psychology (Faculty of Health)



Associate Professor in Clinical Psychology, School of Psychology, University of Plymouth (2022-)

Senior Lecturer in Psychology (Clinical), School of Psychological Sciences, University of Liverpool UK (2009-2019)

Reader, Department of Psychology, University of Derby, UK (2007-2009).

Senior Lecturer, Department of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, UK (2001-2007).

Lecturer, Department of Psychology, Monash University, Australia (1995-2000)

Professional membership

Practicing (Health) Psychologist with the Health Care Professions Council, UK.



Research interests

I conduct research in the public understanding of risk and decision-making around risk. Two foci are on tensions between decision-makers’ goals to manage risk and to manage anxiety, and the heuristics they use for decision-making. Research at a basic level tests the hypothesis that risk perception is a motivated process, and at an applied level addresses risk perception and decision-making in various health promotion areas and patient-practitioner decision-making in cancer care. I develop innovative teaching courses, anchored in theoretically-based teaching strategies, that simulate the professional challenges that students will face upon graduation.

Research degrees awarded to supervised students

Dr. Belinda Bradley (PhD, UCLan); Dr. Nikola Bridges (PhD, UCLan); Dr. Susan Cooper (PhD, UCLan); Dr. Triecia Gibney (DPsych, Monash); Dr. Alexander Montasem (PhD, Liverpool); Dr. Hannah Fielden (DClinPsych, Liverpool); Dr. Rachel Morton (DClinPsych, Liverpool); Dr Emma Forde (DClinPsych, Liverpool); Dr Gemma Cherry (DClinPsych, Liverpool); Dr. Arheiam Arheiam (PhD, Liverpool); Dr. Emma Shaw-Núnez (DClinPsych, Liverpool); Dr Juliet Bell (PhD, Liverpool); Dr Maria Hughes (DClinPsych, Liverpool); Dr Sarah Allen (PhD, Liverpool).

Grants & contracts

1. S.L. Brown, & P. Salmon. 2017-2019. Specialist Psychological Support for Patients with Intraocular Cancer. Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen Hospitals Foundation NHS Trust. F-366773028. GBP£325,320.

2. S.L. Brown, P.Salmon, L.D. Hope-Stone. 2017-2018. Patient decision-making for prognostic testing in uveal melanoma. Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals NHS Trust. GBP£34,376

3. Harris, R.V., Hulme, C., Brown, S.L. Burnside, G., Ternet, L. Lowers, V., Laverty, L. 2017-2020. InteRventions to rEduce inequaliTies in the Uptake of Routine deNtal care (RETURN). NIHR Health Services and Delivery Research Programme RP-PG-0616-20004, GBP£2,365,757

4. S.L. Brown, P. Saini, M. Chandrashekar 2015-2016. A systematic review on social, cultural and individual influences on the beliefs, attitudes and behaviours of South Asian women regarding asymptomatic screening for female cancers. NIHR CLAHRC North West Coast. GBP£50,809

5. S.L. Brown, R. Shaw & P. Salmon. 2013-2016, Understanding and Reducing Patient Presentation Delay in Oral Cancer. Doctoral Studentship. Aintree Head and Neck Cancer Patients’ Research Forum, GBP £55,000

6. S.L. Brown, P. Qualter, S. Coyne, B. Young. 2013-2017. Development of Alcohol-Related Aggression Scripts and Alcohol-Related Aggression in Alcohol-Naive Adolescents. Economic and Social Research Council, ES/K011537/1, GBP£338,118

7. S.L. Brown, Thorley, C., Boyland, E. & Smith, R. 2014. Does body weight predict memorability of and appetitive response to television food advertisements? Undergraduate Research Assistantship, British Psychological Society. GBP£1,600

8. Harris, R.V., Steele, J., Vernazza, C., Atkins, B., Morgan, E., Burnside, G., Ternet, L. & Brown, S.L. 2014-2017. The value and cost of different forms of information on oral health status and risk given to patients following a check-up in dental practice. NIHR Health Services and Delivery Research Programme GBP£427,142

9. S.L. Brown, P. Salmon, D.D. Whiting, H.C. Beesley, C. Holcombe 2014-2015. Patient and surgeon decision-making in risk-reducing mastectomy: an ethical and empirical analysis. Economic and Social Research Council, ES/J008184/1, GBP£212,991

10. Harris, R.V., Perkins, E., Holt, G. & Brown, S.L., 2010-2013, Contracting with General Dental Services. National institute for Health Research, GBP £473,552.

11. S.L. Brown, A.M. Morley & P.J. Taylor, 2009-2011, ‘Fuzzy representations of risk in alcohol users.’ Leverhulme Trust, GBP £51,948.

12. S.L. Brown, P. Qualter & S.M. Coyne, 2008-2009, “Script representations of alcohol-related aggression in underage drinkers”. Alcohol Education and Research Council, GBP £4,990.

13. S.M. Coyne, S.L. Brown & P. Qualter, 2008-2009, “Script representations of alcohol-related aggression in underage drinkers”. Brigham Young University, Utah, USA, US $3,582.

14. D. Heim & S.L. Brown, 2006-2009, “Evaluation of the effects of anti-smoking legislation in England”. Cancer Research Council, GBP £81,000.

15. S.L. Brown and M. Richardson, 2007-2008, “Eye movements and attention to detail in health and safety warnings.” University of Derby RIC Award, GBP £4,000.

16. S.L. Brown 2001, ‘Review of literature pertaining to the road safety effects of roadside advertising materials’. TransportSA, AUD $3,000.

17. S.L. Brown 2000, “The Role of Defensive Motivation in Optimism Bias”. ARC Small Grant, AUD $2,735.

18. S.L. Brown 1998, “Effects on recidivism of a relicensing program for drink drivers in Victoria, Australia”. VicRoads, AUD $5,500.

19. S.L. Brown and T.J. Triggs, 1997-1998, “Social Influence and Risk-Taking in Young Drivers”. NRMA Inc., AUD $13,310.

20. S.L. Brown 1997, “Review of Psychosocial Influences on Speeding and Drink Driving Behaviour”. TransportSA, AUD $3,000.

21. S.L. Brown and E. Gullone, 1996, "Relationships between Cognitive and Emotional Variables in the Prediction of Adolescent Risk-Taking Behaviours". ARC Small Grant, AUD $5,000.

22. S.L. Brown 1995-1996, “Targeting high risk drivers”. TransportSA, AUD $160,000 (estimate).



Key publications

Key publications are highlighted

Brown SL, Fisher PL, Morgan A, Davies C, Olabi Y, Hope-Stone L, Heimann H, Hussain R & Cherry MG (2022) '‘I Don't Like Uncertainty, I Like to Know’: How and why uveal melanoma patients consent to life expectancy prognostication' Health Expectations , DOI Open access
Brown SL, Fisher P, Hope-Stone L, Damato B, Heimann H, Hussain R & Cherry MG (2021) 'Fear of cancer recurrence and adverse cancer treatment outcomes: predicting 2- to 5-year fear of recurrence from post-treatment symptoms and functional problems in uveal melanoma survivors' Journal of Cancer Survivorship , DOI Open access
Brown SL, Fisher PL, Hope-Stone L, Heimann H, Hussain R & Cherry MG (2021) 'Prediction of all-cause mortality from 24 month trajectories in patient-reported psychological, clinical and quality of life outcomes in uveal melanoma patients' Journal of Behavioral Medicine 45, (1) 115-123 , DOI
Brown SL, Fisher P, Hope-Stone L, Damato B, Heimann H, Hussain R & Cherry MG (2021) 'Is accurate routine cancer prognostication psychologically harmful? 5-year outcomes of life expectancy prognostication in uveal melanoma survivors' Journal of Cancer Survivorship , DOI Open access
Hughes M, Brown SL, Campbell S, Dandy S & Cherry MG (2021) 'Self-Compassion and Anxiety and Depression in Chronic Physical Illness Populations: a Systematic Review' Mindfulness , DOI
Allen S, Rogers SN, Brown S & Harris RV (2020) 'What are the underlying reasons behind socioeconomic differences in doctor‐patient communication in head and neck oncology review clinics?' Health Expectations 24, (1) 140-151 , DOI
Brown SL, Fisher PL, Hope-Stone L, Hussain RN, Heimann H, Damato B & Cherry MG (2020) 'Predictors of long‐term anxiety and depression in uveal melanoma survivors: A cross‐lagged five‐year analysis' Psycho-Oncology 29, (11) 1864-1873 , DOI
Sherratt FC, Brown SL, Haylock BJ, Francis P, Hickey H, Gamble C, Jenkinson MD & Young B (2020) 'Challenges Conveying Clinical Equipoise and Exploring Patient Treatment Preferences in an Oncology Trial Comparing Active Monitoring with Radiotherapy (ROAM/EORTC 1308)' The Oncologist 25, (4) e691-e700 , DOI
Harris R, Lowers V, Laverty L, Vernazza C, Burnside G, Brown S & Ternent L (2020) 'Comparing how patients value and respond to information on risk given in three different forms during dental check-ups: the PREFER randomised controlled trial' Trials 21, (1) , DOI
Harris R, Vernazza C, Laverty L, Lowers V, Burnside G, Brown S, Higham S & Ternent L (2020) 'Presenting patients with information on their oral health risk: the PREFER three-arm RCT and ethnography' Health Services and Delivery Research 8, (3) 1-126 , DOI
Brown SL, Hughes M, Campbell S & Cherry MG (2019) 'Could worry and rumination mediate relationships between self‐compassion and psychological distress in breast cancer survivors?' Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy 27, (1) 1-10 , DOI
Brown SL, Beesley H, Holcombe C, Saini P & Salmon P (2019) 'Warranting the decision-maker, not the decision: How healthcare practitioners evaluate the legitimacy of patients’ unprompted requests for risk-reducing mastectomy' Patient Education and Counseling 102, (8) 1446-1451 , DOI
Hope-Stone L, Brown SL, Heimann H & Damato B (2019) 'Comparison between patient-reported outcomes after enucleation and proton beam radiotherapy for uveal melanomas: a 2-year cohort study' Eye 33, (9) 1478-1484 , DOI
Brown SL, Chen X, Coakley RG, Hlabangana N, Oakley E & Trenholme S (2019) 'Does other‐affirmation increase self‐directed exposure to and persuasiveness of a threatening anti‐alcohol message?' British Journal of Health Psychology , DOI
Damato B, Hope-Stone L, Cooper B, Brown S, Heimann H & Dunn L (2019) 'Patient-Reported Outcomes and Quality of Life after Treatment for Choroidal Melanoma' Ocular Oncology and Pathology 5, (6) 402-411 , DOI
Brown SL & Salmon P (2018) 'Reconciling the theory and reality of shared decision‐making: A “matching” approach to practitioner leadership' Health Expectations 22, (3) 275-283 , DOI
Brown SL, Bell J & Shaw RJ (2018) 'Cognitive and emotional processes influencing patient presentation or non-presentation of oral Cancer symptoms to healthcare professionals' Journal of Psychosomatic Research 114, 1-7 , DOI
Damato B, Hope-Stone L, Cooper B, Brown SL, Salmon P, Heimann H & Dunn LB (2018) 'Patient-reported Outcomes and Quality of Life After Treatment of Choroidal Melanoma: A Comparison of Enucleation Versus Radiotherapy in 1596 Patients' American Journal of Ophthalmology 193, 230-251 , DOI
Harris R, Vernazza C, Laverty L, Lowers V, Brown S, Burnside G, Ternent L, Higham S & Steele J (2018) 'Presenting information on dental risk: PREFER study protocol for a randomised controlled trial involving patients receiving a dental check-up' Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications 11, 1-9 , DOI
Cherry MG, Taylor PJ, Brown SL & Sellwood W (2018) 'Attachment, mentalisation and expressed emotion in carers of people with long-term mental health difficulties' BMC Psychiatry 18, (1) , DOI
Allen S, Harris R, Brown SL, Humphris G, Zhou Y & Rogers SN (2018) 'High levels of socioeconomic deprivation do not inhibit patients’ communication of concerns in head and neck cancer review clinics' British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 56, (6) 536-539 , DOI
Anderson de Cuevas RM, Saini P, Roberts D, Beaver K, Chandrashekar M, Jain A, Kotas E, Tahir N, Ahmed S & Brown SL (2018) 'A systematic review of barriers and enablers to South Asian women’s attendance for asymptomatic screening of breast and cervical cancers in emigrant countries' BMJ Open 8, (7) e020892-e020892 , DOI
Brown SL, Hope-Stone L, Heimann H, Damato B & Salmon P (2018) 'Predictors of anxiety and depression 2 years following treatment in uveal melanoma survivors' Psycho-Oncology 27, (7) 1727-1734 , DOI
Whitaker L, Brown SL, Young B, Fereday R, Coyne SM & Qualter P (2018) 'Pervasive, hard-wired and male: Qualitative study of how UK adolescents view alcohol-related aggression' PLOS ONE 13, (2) e0191269-e0191269 , DOI
Brown SL, Whiting D, Fielden HG, Saini P, Beesley H, Holcombe C, Holcombe S, Greenhalgh L, Fairburn L & Salmon P (2017) 'Qualitative analysis of how patients decide that they want risk-reducing mastectomy, and the implications for surgeons in responding to emotionally-motivated patient requests' PLOS ONE 12, (5) e0178392-e0178392 , DOI
Cherry MG, Taylor PJ, Brown SL, Rigby JW & Sellwood W (2017) 'Guilt, shame and expressed emotion in carers of people with long-term mental health difficulties: A systematic review' Psychiatry Research 249, 139-151 , DOI
Fielden HG, Brown SL, Saini P, Beesley H & Salmon P (2017) 'How do women at increased breast cancer risk perceive and decide between risks of cancer and risk-reducing treatments? A synthesis of qualitative research' Psycho-Oncology 26, (9) 1254-1262 , DOI
Arheiam A, Brown SL, Burnside G, Higham SM, Albadri S & Harris RV (2016) 'The use of diet diaries in general dental practice in England' COMMUNITY DENTAL HEALTH 33, (4) 267-273 Author Site , DOI
Arheiam A, Albadri S, Brown S, Burnside G, Higham S & Harris R (2016) 'Are diet diaries of value in recording dietary intake of sugars? A retrospective analysis of completion rates and information quality' British Dental Journal 221, (9) 571-576 , DOI
Hope-Stone L, Brown SL, Heimann H, Damato B & Salmon P (2016) 'Two-year patient-reported outcomes following treatment of uveal melanoma' Eye 30, (12) 1598-1605 , DOI
Arheiam A, Brown SL, Higham SM, Albadri S & Harris RV (2016) 'The information filter: how dentists use diet diary information to give patients clear and simple advice' Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 44, (6) 592-601 , DOI
Allen S, Lowe D, Harris RV, Brown S & Rogers SN (2016) 'Is social inequality related to different patient concerns in routine oral cancer follow-up clinics?' European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 274, (1) 451-459 , DOI
Hope-Stone L, Brown SL, Heimann H, Damato B & Salmon P (2015) 'Phantom Eye Syndrome' Ophthalmology 122, (8) 1585-1590 , DOI
Hope-Stone L, Brown SL, Heimann H, Damato B & Salmon P (2015) 'How do patients with uveal melanoma experience and manage uncertainty? A qualitative study' Psycho-Oncology 24, (11) 1485-1491 , DOI
Harris R, Brown S, Holt R & Perkins E (2014) 'Do institutional logics predict interpretation of contract rules at the dental chair-side?' Social Science & Medicine 122, 81-89 , DOI
Brown SL & West C (2014) 'Sequencing the threat and recommendation components of persuasive messages differentially improves the effectiveness of high- and low-distressing imagery in an anti-alcohol message in students' British Journal of Health Psychology 20, (2) 324-340 , DOI
Qualter P, Brown SL, Rotenberg KJ, Vanhalst J, Harris RA, Goossens L, Bangee M & Munn P (2013) 'Trajectories of loneliness during childhood and adolescence: Predictors and health outcomes' Journal of Adolescence 36, (6) 1283-1293 , DOI
Montasem A, Brown SL & Harris R (2013) 'Subjective well-being in dentists: the role of intrinsic aspirations' Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 42, (3) 279-288 , DOI
Brown SL & Whiting D (2013) 'The ethics of distress: Toward a framework for determining the ethical acceptability of distressing health promotion advertising' International Journal of Psychology 49, (2) 89-97 , DOI
Brown SL, Gibney TM & Tarling R (2013) 'Busy lifestyles and mammography screening: Time pressure and women’s reattendance likelihood' Psychology & Health 28, (8) 928-938 , DOI
Brown SL, Nowlan L, Taylor PJ & Morley AM (2013) 'Fuzzy risk perception: Correlates of “fuzzy” and specific measures of outcome likelihood in young drinkers' Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 19, (2) 120-129 , DOI
Montasem A, Brown SL & Harris R (2013) 'Do core self-evaluations and trait emotional intelligence predict subjective well-being in dental students?' Journal of Applied Social Psychology 43, (5) 1097-1103 , DOI
Beesley H, Holcombe C, Brown SL & Salmon P (2013) 'Risk, worry and cosmesis in decision-making for contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy: Analysis of 60 consecutive cases in a specialist breast unit' The Breast 22, (2) 179-184 , DOI
Brown SL & Gould RV (2012) 'A prospective study of relationships between propositions about risk and driver speeding' Accident Analysis & Prevention 46, 1-7 , DOI
WAGNER SA & BROWN SL (2012) 'Associations Between Hypochondriacal Symptoms and Illness Appraisals, and Their Moderation by Self-Focused Attention' Journal of Applied Social Psychology 42, (1) 195-212 , DOI
Brown SL, Lipka S, Coyne SM, Qualter P, Barlow A & Taylor P (2011) 'Implicit alcohol-aggression scripts and alcohol-related aggression on a laboratory task in 11- to 14-year-old adolescents' Aggressive Behavior 37, (5) 430-439 , DOI
Brown SL & Richardson M (2011) 'The Effect of Distressing Imagery on Attention to and Persuasiveness of an Antialcohol Message' Health Education & Behavior 39, (1) 8-17 , DOI
Bradley BF, Bridges NJ, Starkey NJ, Brown SL & Lea RW (2011) 'Anxiolytic and anxiogenic drug effects on male and female gerbils in the black-white box' Behavioural Brain Research 216, (1) 285-292 , DOI
Brown SL, Coyne SM, Barlow A & Qualter P (2010) 'Alcohol-related image priming and aggression in adolescents aged 11–14' Addictive Behaviors 35, (8) 791-794 , DOI
Gould RV, Brown SL & Bramwell R (2010) 'Psychological adjustment to gynaecological cancer: Patients’ illness representations, coping strategies and mood disturbance' Psychology & Health 25, (5) 633-646 , DOI
Brown SL (2010) 'Changes in Risk Perceptions Prospectively Predict Changes in Self-Reported Speeding' Risk Analysis 30, (7) 1092-1098 , DOI
Richardson M, Jones G, Croker S & Brown S (2010) 'Identifying the task characteristics that predict children's construction task performance' Applied Cognitive Psychology 25, (3) 377-385 , DOI
Brown SL & Owen N (2010) 'Self-help smoking cessation materials' Australian Journal of Public Health 16, (2) 188-191 , DOI
Qualter P, Brown SL, Munn P & Rotenberg KJ (2009) 'Childhood loneliness as a predictor of adolescent depressive symptoms: an 8-year longitudinal study' European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 19, (6) 493-501 , DOI
Brown S & Locker E (2009) 'Defensive responses to an emotive anti-alcohol message' Psychology & Health 24, (5) 517-528 , DOI
Bradley BF, Brown SL, Chu S & Lea RW (2009) 'Effects of orally administered lavender essential oil on responses to anxiety-provoking film clips' Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental 24, (4) 319-330 , DOI
Qualter P, Quinton SJ, Wagner H & Brown S (2009) 'Loneliness, Interpersonal Distrust, and Alexithymia in University Students' Journal of Applied Social Psychology 39, (6) 1461-1479 , DOI
Knowles SF, Coyne SM & Brown SL (2008) 'Sex differences in aggressive incidents towards staff in secure services' Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology 19, (4) 620-631 , DOI
Shorter L, Brown SL, Quinton SJ & Hinton L (2008) 'Relationships Between Body-Shape Discrepancies With Favored Celebrities and Disordered Eating in Young Women' Journal of Applied Social Psychology 38, (5) 1364-1377 , DOI
Navis C, Brown SL & Heim D (2008) 'Predictors of injurious assault committed during or after drinking alcohol: a case–control study of young offenders' Aggressive Behavior 34, (2) 167-174 , DOI
Bradley BF, Starkey NJ, Brown SL & Lea RW (2007) 'The effects of prolonged rose odor inhalation in two animal models of anxiety' Physiology & Behavior 92, (5) 931-938 , DOI
Brown SL & Morley AM (2007) 'Risk perception, fuzzy representations and comparative optimism' British Journal of Psychology 98, (4) 575-587 , DOI
Bradley BF, Starkey NJ, Brown SL & Lea RW (2007) 'Anxiolytic effects of Lavandula angustifolia odour on the Mongolian gerbil elevated plus maze' Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111, (3) 517-525 , DOI
Brown SL & Smith EZ (2007) 'The inhibitory effect of a distressing anti-smoking message on risk perceptions in smokers' Psychology & Health 22, (3) 255-268 , DOI
Ireland JL, Brown SL & Ballarini S (2006) 'Maladaptive personality traits, coping styles and psychological distress: A study of adult male prisoners' Personality and Individual Differences 41, (3) 561-573 , DOI
BROWN S & IRELAND C (2006) 'Coping style and distress in newly incarcerated male adolescents' Journal of Adolescent Health 38, (6) 656-661 , DOI
Grande MRL, Murphy BM, Higgins RO, Worcester MUC, Parkinson A, Brown SL, Elliott PC & Goble AJ (2006) 'Physical activity and negative emotional response after percutaneous coronary intervention' European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation 13, (2) 254-260 , DOI
Brown SL (2005) 'Relationships between risk-taking behaviour and subsequent risk perceptions' British Journal of Psychology 96, (2) 155-164 , DOI
Bedi G & Brown SL (2005) 'Optimism, coping style and emotional well-being in cardiac patients' British Journal of Health Psychology 10, (1) 57-70 , DOI
Brown SL, Rodda S & Phillips JG (2004) 'Differences between problem and nonproblem gamblers in subjective arousal and affective valence amongst electronic gaming machine players' Addictive Behaviors 29, (9) 1863-1867 , DOI
Rodda S, Brown SL & Phillips JG (2004) 'The Relationship Between Anxiety, Smoking, and Gambling in Electronic Gaming Machine Players' Journal of Gambling Studies 20, (1) 71-81 , DOI
Brown SL & Imber A (2003) 'The Effect of Reducing Opportunities for Downward Comparison on Comparative Optimism' Journal of Applied Social Psychology 33, (5) 1058-1068 , DOI
Brown SL & Cotton A (2003) 'Risk-mitigating beliefs, risk estimates, and self-reported speeding in a sample of Australian drivers' Journal of Safety Research 34, (2) 183-188 , DOI
Brown SL (2002) 'The relative effectiveness of self-reported deterrents to speeding' Road and Transport Research 11, (1) 43-51
Brown SL (2001) 'Emotive health advertising and message resistance' Australian Psychologist 36, (3) 193-199 , DOI
Sage CE, Southcott A-M & Brown SL (2001) 'The Health Belief Model and Compliance with CPAP Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnoea' Behaviour Change 18, (3) 177-185 , DOI
Brown SL & Bedi G (2001) 'The relationship between coping style and affect in recovering cardiac patients' Current Research in Social Psychology 6, (11) 1-13
Brown SL (1998) 'Associations Between Peer Drink Driving, Peer Attitudes Toward Drink Driving, and Personal Drink Driving1,2' Journal of Applied Social Psychology 28, (5) 423-436 , DOI
Brown SL (1995) 'Effect on vehicle speeds of signs warning of police enforcement in rural areas of South Australia' Road and Transport Research 4, (1) 86-90
Brown SL, Hunt G & Owen N (1992) 'The Effect of Adding Telephone Contact to Self-Instructional Smoking-Cessation Materials' Behaviour Change 9, (4) 216-222 , DOI
Owen N & Brown SL (1991) 'Smokers unlikely to quit' Journal of Behavioral Medicine 14, (6) 627-636 , DOI
Brown SL & Owen N (1990) 'Population versus Clinical Perspectives on Smoking Behaviour' Behaviour Change 7, (3) 120-125 , DOI