Professor Nicki Whitehouse

Professor Nicki Whitehouse

Professor of Human-Environment Systems

School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences (Faculty of Science and Engineering)



I am a palaeoecologist with a broad inter-disciplinary interest in human-environment interactions,mostly over the Holocene, working at the interface between archaeology, geography and biology. My primary expertise lies in theanalysis of Quaternary landscapes and ecosystems using sub-fossil insects (beetles) and a range of proxy data (especially pollen, plant macrofossils), archaeological and C14 data, using a range of scientific techniques. I work both at the site level, investigating the physical and environmental context of archaeological sites using a range of techniques to extract and analyse proxy data from soils andsediments, though to the landscape and regional scale, using ‘big data’ approaches to synthesize diverse lines of evidence. The geographic focus of my research is primarily on the North Atlantic region, in Ireland and Britain and their Atlantic fringe context, although I also work in other parts of the world, especially elsewhere in Europe. My research has been funded by NERC, AHRC, ERC, HLF, Heritage Council, British Academy, Royal Society.

I am especially interested in the physical and ecological development of the Holocene landscape and the processes that drive change (biotic,abiotic), the emergence of the cultural landscape and the transition to agriculture, complexity and beyond. I have strong skills in drawing diverselines of evidence together to understand how communities and societies become resilient to change over space and time. In recent years, I have been especially interested in understanding the ecological, economic and social aspects of the transition to agriculture in Ireland during the Neolithic andearly Bronze age and how these compare with Britain and elsewhere across theNorth Atlantic seaboard. I also work on later periods, focusing on the later prehistoric and historic period via the AHRC funded ‘Crannogs project’ leading to an interest of the un-intended ecological and human consequences of Empire. Another area of expertise is in biological systems: how biodiversity changes over the Holocene and what this tells us about the kinds of human-nature interactions; assessing the impacts and consequences of biodiversity loss (e.g. extinctions) due to human impacts and climate change, effects on ecosystem functioning and processes and how theseaffect human societies and their choices. Although much of my work has focused on the Holocene, in recent years I have been working on earlier periods of the Pleistocene to compare with our ‘Anthropocene’ world.


BA Archaeology (University of Newcastle upon Tyne, 1988);

MSc Environmental Archaeology and Palaeoeconomy (University of Sheffield, 1993);
PhD University of Sheffield (2000);
Postgraduate Certificate in Higher Education (PGCHET) (2001);

Professional membership

Fellow of the Royal Entomological Society (FRES);

Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries (FSA);
Association for Environmental Archaeologists (AEA);
Quaternary Research Association (QRA);
European Association for Archaeologists (EAA);

Roles on external bodies

NERC Radiocarbon Steering Committee 
AHRC Peer Review College Member (2010-date)
President for INQUA Humans and Biosphere Commission HABCOMM (2011-2019) (International Union for Quaternary Research)
PAGES Land6K global land use co-ordinator
Editorial Board: Quaternary International (2011-date)
Editorial Board: Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports (2015-date)
Editorial Board: Alpine and Mediterranean Quaternary (AMQ) (2017-date)
Committee Member, Association for Environmental Archaeology (2013-2017)



Teaching interests

I mostly teach in areas associated with palaeoecology, long-term ecology, environmental change, environmental archaeology and Quaternary Science. My particular area of expertise is in Quaternary entomology (fossil beetles). I am happy to supervise dissertation students in any of these research areas.

I am currently module convener for three undergraduate and MSc/MRes modules:


GGP3201: Long-term ecology and conservation


SCI5201& SCI5301: MRes & MSc dissertations for Environmental and Marine ScienceMasters students


I also contribute teaching on the following modules:


Tutorials & key skills in Geography (GGX101)


Fieldwork skills in SW England: Bath (GGX102)


Introducing Physical Geography (GGP101)


Quaternary environments and archaeology (GGP200)


Fieldwork in Geography (Brittany) (GGX2020)


Dissertation in Geography (GGX307)



Research interests

I have a broad interest in human-environment relationships with a particular focus at the interface between the physical sciences and humanities. 

My primary expertiselies in the analysis of sub-fossil insects (beetles) although I work with a range of proxy data and scientific techniques to further our understanding of the inter-relationships between archaeology, environmental and climatic change, changing biodiversity as a consequence of climate change and human impact, the development of the cultural landscape and in particular the transition to agriculture. I also work on issues of climate change and landscape and ecological change over the Quaternary period, comparing previous interglacials with the present one, from an ecological perspective.

Research degrees awarded to supervised students

Fran Rowney (Plymouth University): Refining the climatic, landscape, and ecological context of early human occupation in the early Middle Pleistocene (funded by Plymouth University studentship)(with R. Fyfe, Plymouth, D. Schreve, Royal Holloway), October 2013-Sept 2017.

Georgina Milne (QUB): Environmental niche evolution and ancestral niche reconstruction , University Strategic Studentship (DEL-funded) joint with Dr Alison Cameron, Biology. QUB, October 2012-Oct 2015.

Geoff Hill (QUB) : Can we determine open-ness inthe palaeoecological record? Interpreting Holocene landscapes using modern analogues (October 2011-Oct 2014). DEL-funded, supervised with Dr Helen Roe, QUB.

Completed PhD’s:

Dr Stephen Clarke (QUB) Irish Court Tombs: Structure,Morphology and Landscape Setting’

Dr Jenny Watson (QUB), “Quantifying climate change across northern Europe during the Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition (10-15ka BP) using two insect proxies” (with Steve Brooks, Natural History Museum, London; DEL funded) 

Dr Lauren Mansell (QUB) Floodplain-mire interactions and palaeoecology: implications for wetland ontogeny and Holocene climate change”.(with Dr Helen Roe, QUB and Dr Ben Gearey, UCC; DEL funded) 

Dr Simon Morton (QUB), “Rates of spread of populations of plants and animals in response to climate change” (with Prof Keith Bennett QUB, APG studentship to Prof Bennett). 

Grants & contracts

Funded Research Projects:

Reconstructing the ‘Wildscape’; Thorne and Hatfield Moors Hidden Landscapes (Wildscape HHLP)

5 year project (October 2016 –Sept 2021) HLF funded project (£130,000). PI: N.Whitehouse, Co-I’s: B.G. Gearey, H. Chapman. The project is concerned with revealing the past hidden ‘wildscape’ landscape (archaeological, geoarchaeological, palaeoecological) in the Humberhead Levels. Building upon existing scientific knowledge and new community projects, the work is intended to provide an improved sense of ‘place’ and understanding of archaeological narratives to local communities aswell as long-term ecological insights into land management of wetland areas undergoing restoration and to create policy briefings that take into consideration the long durée character of cultural landscapes and ultimately their resilience to future climate change. The work builds upon almost 2 decades of mine and collaborators previous research in this region.

AHRC Celtic Connections and Crannogs: A new Study of Lake Settlements Across the Irish Sea

3 year AHRC funded project (2015-2018) which I am Co-I on explores the role of crannogs,island dwellings that weretypically located in lakes and mires and have a distribution centred around theNorthern Irish Sea (‘Celtic’ distribution across the north of Ireland and Scotland). Many were constructed during the Iron Age, ca. 2500 years ago and usedup until the Medieval Period. The project is concerned with understanding therole of crannogs in societies – were they long-lived, restricted to a short periodof use, permanent (year-round) settlements, seasonally occupied or ‘boltholes’?Were they functional and/or ritual sites or did they have a defensive/protectivefunction for the elite? Questions around the role of crannogs in the spread of Christianity through the Celtic world, isolated from Roman Britain are also of concern. 

Fragility and sustainability in restricted island environments: adaptation, cultural change and collapse in prehistory (FRAGSUS): This 5 year (2013-2018) 2.5m ERC funded project is a collaborative project with QUB (PI), the University of Cambridge, University of Malta andUniversity of Plymouth (Co-I), involving 19 academics and 12 researchers. The project explores the rise and fall of civilisations within an island context (Malta)and focuses on the particular conditions and circumstances that make societies change, adapt and become sustainable. Understanding better those mechanisms of resilience may resonate with issues in our modern world, as well as the world of prehistory. 

Cultivating Societies: Assessing the Evidence for Agriculture in Neolithic Ireland (funded via INSTAR research programme 2008 – 2010, £210,000, Heritage Council, Republic ofIreland – Whitehouse, PI). The project has provided internationally important data for understanding the context of the Neolithic and transition to agriculture across Europe and offers opportunities to expand this approach across to otherareas of the British Isles and into Continental Europe. 



Key publications

Key publications are highlighted

Brown AG, Van Hardenbroek M, Fonville T, Davies K, Mackay H, Murray E, Head K, Barratt P, McCormick F & Ficetola GF (2021) 'Ancient DNA, lipid biomarkers and palaeoecological evidence reveals construction and life on early medieval lake settlements' Scientific Reports 11, (1) , DOI
Brown AG, Rhodes EJ, Davis S, Zhang Y, Pears B, Whitehouse NJ, Bradley C, Bennett J, Schwenninger J-L & Firth A (2021) 'Late Quaternary evolution of a lowland anastomosing river system: Geological-topographic inheritance, non-uniformity and implications for biodiversity and management' Quaternary Science Reviews 260, 106929-106929 , DOI
Morrison KD, Hammer E, Boles O, Madella M, Whitehouse N, Gaillard M-J, Bates J, Vander Linden M, Merlo S & Yao A (2021) 'Mapping past human land use using archaeological data: A new classification for global land use synthesis and data harmonization' PLOS ONE 16, (4) e0246662-e0246662 , DOI
Schafstall N, Whitehouse N, Kuosmanen N, Svobodová-Svitavská H, Saulnier M, Chiverrell RC, Fleischer P, Kuneš P & Clear JL (2020) 'Changes in species composition and diversity of a montane beetle community over the last millennium in the High Tatras, Slovakia: Implications for forest conservation and management' Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 555, 109834-109834 , DOI
Mackay H, Davies KL, Robertson J, Roy L, Bull ID, Whitehouse NJ, Crone A, Cavers G, McCormick F & Brown AG (2020) 'Characterising life in settlements and structures: Incorporating faecal lipid biomarkers within a multiproxy case study of a wetland village' Journal of Archaeological Science 121, 105202-105202 , DOI
Harrison SP, Gaillard M-J, Stocker BD, Vander Linden M, Klein Goldewijk K, Boles O, Braconnot P, Dawson A, Fluet-Chouinard E & Kaplan JO (2020) 'Development and testing scenarios for implementing land use and land cover changes during the Holocene in Earth system model experiments' Geoscientific Model Development 13, (2) 805-824 , DOI
McClatchie M, Schulting R, McLaughlin R, Colledge S, Bogaard A, Barratt P & Whitehouse N (2019) 'Food Production, Processing and Foodways in Neolithic Ireland' Environmental Archaeology 1-13 , DOI Open access
Crone A, Cavers G, Allison E, Davies K, Hamilton D, Henderson A, Mackay H, McLaren D, Robertson J & Roy L (2019) 'Nasty, Brutish and Short? The life cycle of an Iron Age round house at Black Loch of Myrton, SW Scotland' Journal of Wetland Archaeology 18, (1) , DOI Open access
Briant R, Bates M, Boreham S, Cameron N, Coope R, Field MH, Hatch M, Keen DH, Kilfeather AA & Penkman KEH (2018) 'Early Ipswichian (last interglacial) sea level rise in the Channel region: Stone Point Site of Special Scientific Interest, Hampshire, England' Proceedings of the Geologists' Association Open access
Whitehouse N, Madella M & Antolín F (2018) 'European land-use at 6000 BP: from on-site data to the large-scale view' Past Global Change Magazine 26, (2) 90-90 , DOI
Morrison KD, Hammer E, Popova L, Madella M, Whitehouse NJ & Gaillard M-J (2018) 'Global-scale comparisons of human land use: developing shared terminology for land-use practices of significance for global change' Past Global Changes Publisher Site
Gaillard M-J, Morrison KD, Madella M & Whitehouse N (2018) 'Past land-use and land-cover change: the challenge of quantification at the subcontinental to global scales' Past Global Change Magazine 26, (1) 3-3 , DOI
Whitehouse NJ, Bunting MJ, McClatchie M, Barratt P, McLaughlin R, Schulting R & Bogaard A (2018) 'Prehistoric land-cover and land-use history in Ireland at 6000 BP' Past Global Change Magazine 26, (1) 24-25 , DOI
Jeffers E, Whitehouse NJ, Lister A, Plunkett G, Barratt P, Smyth E, Lamb P, Dee M, Brooks S & Willis K (2018) 'Plant controls on Late Quaternary whole ecosystem structure and function' Ecology Letters , DOI Open access
Langford H, Boreham S, Briant RM, Coope GR, Horne DG, Penkman KEH, Schreve DC, Whitehouse NJ & Whittaker JE (2017) 'Evidence for the early onset of the Ipswichian thermal optimum: palaeoecology of Last Interglacial deposits at Whittlesey, eastern England' Journal of the Geological Society , DOI Open access
Schulting R, Sheridan A, McClatchie A, McLaughlin R, Barratt P & Whitehouse N (2017) 'Radiocarbon dating of a multi-phase passage tomb on Baltinglass Hill, Co. Wicklow' Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society Open access
Wohlfarth B, MUSCHITIELLO F, Greenwood S, Andersson A, Kylander M, SMITTENBERG R, STEINTHORSDOTTIR M, Watson J & Whitehouse N (2016) 'Hässeldala – a key site for Last Termination climate events in northern Europe' Boreas Open access
McLaughlin TR, Whitehouse NJ, Schulting RJ, McClatchie M, Barratt P & Bogaard A (2016) 'The Changing Face of Neolithic and Bronze Age Ireland: A Big Data Approach to the Settlement and Burial Records' Journal of World Prehistory 29, (2) 117-153 , DOI Open access
McClatchie M, Bogaard A, Colledge S, Whitehouse NJ, Schulting R & Barratt P (2016) 'The introduction of agriculture into Ireland: a review of the plant macro-remains evidence' Antiquity 90, (350) 302-318 , DOI Open access
McClatchie M, Bogaard A, Colledge S, Whitehouse NJ, Schulting RJ, Barratt P & McLaughlin TR (2016) 'Farming and foraging in Neolithic Ireland: an archaeobotanical perspective' ANTIQUITY 90, (350) 302-318 Author Site
Lancelotti C, Zurro D, Whitehouse NJ, Madella M, Kramer K, García-Granero JJ & Greaves R (2016) 'Resilience of small-scale societies’ livelihoods: a framework for studying the transition from food gathering to food production' Ecology and Society 21(4): 8, , DOI Open access
Muschitiello F, Pausata FSR, Watson J, Smittenberg R, Abubakr AM, Brooks SJ, Whitehouse NJ, Karlatou-Charalampopoulou A & Wolfarth B (2015) 'Fennoscandian freshwater control on Greenland hydroclimate shifts at the onset of the Younger Dryas' Nature Communications 6, (0) 0-0 , DOI Open access
McClatchie M, Bogaard A, Colledge S, Whitehouse NJ, Schulting RJ, Barratt P & McLaughlin TR (2014) 'Neolithic farming in north-western Europe: archaeobotanical evidence from Ireland' Journal of Archaeological Science: 51, 206-215 , DOI
Whitehouse NJ, Schulting RJ, McClatchie M, Barratt P, McLaughlin TR, Bogaard A, Colledge S, Marchant R, Gaffrey J & Bunting MJ (2014) 'Neolithic agriculture on the European western frontier: the boom and bust of early farming in Ireland' Journal of Archaelogical Science 51, 181-205 , DOI
Elias S & Whitehouse NJ (2014) 'G. Russell Coope: papers honouring his life and career' Quaternary International , DOI
Mansell, L, Whitehouse NJ, Gearey B, Barratt P & Roe H (2014) 'Holocene Floodplain Palaeoecology of the Humberhead Levels; implications for regional wetland development' Quaternary International (in press) , DOI
Langford HE, Boreham S, Briant BM, Coope GR, Horne DJ, Schreve DC, Whittaker JE & Whitehouse NJ (2014) 'Middle to Late Pleistocene palaeoecological reconstructions and palaeotemperature estimates for cold/cool stage deposits at Whittlesey, eastern England' Quaternary International in press 2014, , DOI
Smith DN, Nayyar K, Schreve D, Thomas R & Whitehouse NJ (2014) 'Can dung beetles from the palaeoecological and archaeological record indicate herd concentration and the identity of herbivores?' Quaternary International , DOI
Grant MG, Stevens CJ, Whitehouse NJ, Norcott D, Macphail RI, Langdon C, Cameron N, Barnett C, Langdon PG & Crowder J (2014) 'A palaeoenvironmental context for Terminal Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic activity in the Colne Valley: offsite records contemporary with occupation at Three Ways Wharf, Uxbridge' Environmental Archaeology 19, (2) 131-152 , DOI
Seddon A, Mackay A, Baker A, Birks HJB, Bremen E, Buck C, Ellis EC, Froyd CA, Gill J & Gillson L (2014) 'Looking forward through the past. Identification of fifty priority research questions in palaeoecology' Journal of Ecology 102, (1) , DOI Open access
Whitehouse NJ, McClatchie M, Barratt P, Schulting RJ, McLaughlin TR & Bogaard A (2010) 'INSTAR – Cultivating Societies' Archaeology Ireland 24, (2) 16-19
Watson J, Brooks S, Whitehouse NJ, Reimer PJ, Birks HJB & Turney CSM (2010) 'Chironomid-inferred Late-Glacial Summer Air Temperatures From Lough Nadourcan, Co. Donegal, Ireland' Journal of Quaternary Science 25, (8) 1200-1210 , DOI
Whitehouse NJ & Smith D (2010) 'How fragmented was the British Holocene wildwood? Perspectives on the “Vera” grazing debate from the fossil beetle record' Quaternary Science Reviews 29, (3-4) 539-553 , DOI
Smith DN, Whitehouse NJ, Bunting MJ, Chapman & H. (2010) 'Can we characterise ‘open-ness’ in the Holocene palaeoecological record? Modern analogue studies from Dunham Massey deer park and Epping Forest, England' The Holocene 12, (2) 215-229 , DOI
Plunkett G, Whitehouse NJ, Hall VA, Charman D, Blaauw M & Kelly E (2009) 'A multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental investigation of the find spot of an Iron Age bog body from Old Croghan, Co. Offaly, Ireland' Journal of Archaeological Science 36, 265-277
Whitehouse NJ, Langdon PG, Bustin R & Galsworthy S (2008) 'Fossil insects and ecosystem dynamics in wetlands: implications for biodiversity and conservation' Biodiversity and Conservation 17, (9) 2055-2078 , DOI
Plunkett G, Carroll F, Hartwell B, Whitehouse NJ & Reimer P (2008) 'Vegetation history at the multi-period prehistoric complex at Ballynahatty, Co. Down, Northern Ireland' Journal of Archaeological Science 35, (1) 181-190
O'Neill J, Plunkett G & Whitehouse NJ (2007) 'Archaeological and palaeoecological investigations of a Middle Bronze Age settlement at Ballyarnet Lake, Co. Derry' Ulster Journal of Archaeology 66, 39-49
Whitehouse NJ (2006) 'The Holocene British and Irish ancient woodland fossil beetle fauna: implications for woodland history, biodiversity and faunal colonisation' Quaternary Science Reviews 25, 1755-1789
Turney CSM, van den Burg K, Wastegård S, Davies SM, Whitehouse NJ, Pilcher JR & Callaghan C (2006) 'North European last glacial-interglacial transitions (LGIT; 15-9 ka) tephrochronology: extended limits and new events' Journal of Quaternary Science 21, (4) 335-345
Smith DN & Whitehouse NJ (2005) 'Beetle faunas, woodland history and palaeoenvironment' Landscape Archaeology and Ecology 5, 82-85
Whitehouse NJ (2004) 'Mire ontogeny, environmental and climate change inferred from fossil beetle successions from Hatfield Moors, eastern England' The Holocene 14, 79-93
Whitehouse NJ & Smith DN (2004) '“Islands” in Holocene forests: implications for forest openness, landscape clearance and “culture-steppe” species' Environmental Archaeology 9, (2) 203-212
Whitehouse NJ, Murphy EM & Plunkett G (2004) 'Human Exploitation and Biota of Islands' Environmental Archaeology 9, (2) 113-115 , DOI
Whitehouse NJ & Smith DN (2004) ''Islands' in Holocene Forests: Implications for Forest Openness, Landscape Clearance and 'Culture-Steppe' Species' Environmental Archaeology 9, (2) 199-208 , DOI
Plunkett G, Whitehouse NJ, Hall VA, Brown DM & Baillie M (2004) 'Diatomite formation marked by Hekla 4 tephra in NE Ireland lake catchment' Journal of Quaternary Science 19, (1) 3-7
Plunkett GM, Whitehouse NJ, Hall VA, Brown DM & Baillie MGL (2004) 'A precisely-dated lake-level rise marked by diatomite formation in northeastern Ireland' Journal of Quaternary Science 19, (1) 3-7 , DOI
Whitehouse NJ (2004) 'Mire ontogeny, environmental and climatic change inferred from fossil beetle successions from Hatfield Moors, eastern England' HOLOCENE 14, (1) 79-93 Author Site , DOI
Boswijk G & Whitehouse NJ (2002) 'Pinus and Prostomis: a dendrochronological and palaeoentomological study of a study of a mid-Holocene woodland in Eastern England' The Holocene 12, (5) 585-596
Whitehouse NJ (2000) 'Forest fires and insects: palaeoentomological research from a sub-fossil burnt forest' Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 164, 231-246
Whitehouse NJ & Kirleis W (2014) 'The world reshaped: practices and impacts of early agrarian societies' Journal of Archaeological Science: , DOI
Editorial comments
Bogaard A & Whitehouse NJ (2010) 'Early agriculture in uncertain climates: themes and approaches' Environmental Archaeology 15, (2)
Bunting MJ & Whitehouse NJ (2008) 'Adding time to the conservation toolkit: palaeoecology and long term wetland function dynamics' Biodiversity and Conservation 17, (9)
Whitehouse N; Roe H; McCarron S; Knight J (2008) North of Ireland; field guide.
Murphy E; Whitehouse NJ (2007) Environmental Archaeology in Ireland.
Whitehouse NJ (2018) 'Investigations of fossil beetles remains from the Derragh Mesolithic platform, Co. Longford, Ireland' in McGlynn G; Stuijts I; Stefanini B The Quaternary of the Irish Midlands IQUA 170-175
Whitehouse NJ (2015) 'Coleoptera analysis' in Kelly EP; Mulhall I Bog Bodies Research Project. National; Museum of Oreland
Plunkett G, Hall VA, Whitehouse NJ, Charman D & Blaaw M (2015) 'Overview and conclusion of palaeoenvironmental research' in Kelly EP; Mulhall I Bog Bodies Research Project Dublin National Museum of Ireland
Whitehouse NJ, Gearey B, Chapman H, Marshall P & Whitehouse N (2013) 'Modelling, dating and contexualising palaeoenvironmental records' in Chapman H; Gearey B Modelling archaeology and palaeoenvironments in wetlands: the hidden landscape archaeology of Hatfield and Thorne Moors, eastern England Oxbow Oxbow Press 77-98
Chapman H, Gearey B, Whitehouse NJ & Marshall P (2013) 'Archaeological investigations of a late Neolithic site on Hatfield Moors,' in Chapman H; Gearey B Modelling archaeology and palaeoenvironments in wetlands: the hidden landscape archaeology of Hatfield and Thorne Moors, eastern England. Oxford Oxbow Press 119-130
Whitehouse NJ (2010) 'Conservation Lessons from the Holocene Record in “Natural” and “Cultural” landscapes' in Hall M Restoration and History; the search for a usable environmental past. Routledge, Taylor & Francis 87-97
Kenward H & Whitehouse NJ (2010) '21. Insects' in O'Connor T; Sykes N Extinctions and Immigrations: a social history of British fauna Oxford Windgather Press 181-189
McClatchie M, Whitehouse NJ, Schulting RJ, Bogaard A & Barratt P (2009) 'Cultivating societies: new insights into agriculture in Neolithic Ireland' in Danaher E; Eogan J; Stanley M Dining and Dwelling. Dublin National Roads Authority 1-8
Whitehouse NJ (2007) 'Fossil insect remains in environmental investigations' in Murphy E; Whitehouse NJ Environmental Archaeology in Ireland Oxford Oxbow Books 136-163
Smith DN & Whitehouse NJ (2005) 'Not seeing the woods for the trees; a palaeoentomological perspective on woodland decline' in Brickley M; Smith D “The fertile ground”; Papers in Honour of Susan Limbrey. Oxford Oxbow Books 136-161
Conference Papers
Whitehouse NJ, Dinnin MH & Lindsay RA (1998) 'Conflicts between palaeoecology, archaeology and nature conservation: the Humberhead Peatlands SSSI' 70-78



Heritage Council, INSTAR Programme, Cultivating Societies Project Pages:

ERC funded FRAGSUS Project Pages:

Editorial Board of Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports