Dr Mohammad Rafiq
Profiles

Dr Mohammad Rafiq

School of Marine Science and Engineering (Faculty of Science and Engineering)

Role

 

Associate Professor (Senior Lecturer) in Civil & Structural Engineering

BEng/MEng Civli and Civil&Coastal Engineering Programmes

Qualifications

BSc Civil Engineering (First class), Kabul University, Afghanistan, 1973.

MSc Structural Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, U.K., 1984.

Ph.D. in Structural Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, U.K. 1988.

Certificate of Accreditation as a Teacher in Higher Education, Staff and Educational Development Association (SEDA), England (A recognised national organisation in England), 1993.

Certificate in Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, University of Plymouth, England, 1993.

Professional membership

CEng, MIstructE,  FHEA

Roles on external bodies

  1.  Chair of the Award Committee and member of the Scientific Committee of the  European Group for Intelligent Computing in Engineering (EG-ICE).
  2.   Member of the Institution of Structural Engineers Applications and Professional Review Panel
  3.  Member of the Editorial Board of the International Journal of Advanced Engineering Informatics
  4.  Member of the Editorial Board of the International Journal of Advances in Engineering Software  
  5.  Member of the Institution of Structural Engineers computing and education study groups.
  6. Member of the Technical Committee/Editorial board of a number international conference
  7.  Reviewer for a number of international Journal including  a number of ELSEVIER journal, ASCE journals, ICE journals Masonry International Journal etc.
  8. Co-Editor of the Special Issue of ELSEVIER Journal of Journal of Advanced Engineering Informatics.
  9. Co-Editor of the Special Issue of  journal of Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing (AI EDAM)
  10. PhD Examiner, Plymouth University, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK. UBC Canada, Eindhoven University of Technology the Netherlands

Teaching interests

Structural Analysis & Advanced Structural Analysis MEng, BEng and MSc (Civil, Civil and Structural Engineering).

Engineering Analysis, MEng and BEng.

Advanced Information Technology, MEng and MSc.

Research interests

Applications of adaptive and evolutionary search and optimisation techniques and neural computing in structural engineering.

The main focus of this research is on modelling design activities at the conceptual stage of the design process. The aim is to develop decision support tools to aid the designer in the decision making process and to promote collaborative design between various parties involved in the design and construction process.

Another area of interest is innovative and effective exploration and visualisation search and solution spaces using evolutionary computing. One PhD has been successfully completed in this area.

Masonry structures / Structural Design

This research has focused to develop new methodologies and techniques, using conventional and AI techniques for better understanding of the behaviour of masonry structures. Two PhDs have been completed and another PhD just started.

Evaluation of the effects of shock, vibration and blast loading and waves on structures and health monitoring of structures using conventional and neural computing methods.

Energy Visualisation for Carbon Reduction: Developing informative smart tools for reducing CO2 and household energy consumption.

Research degrees awarded to supervised students

  1.  Martin Borthwick (PhD 2010) Application of Fractional Calculus to Rainfall-Streamflow Modelling
  2.  Chengfei Sui (PhD 2007) Improving the Prediction of the Behaviour of Masonry Wall Panels using Model Updating and Artificial Intelligence Techniques
  3. Ian Packham (PhD, 2004), Interactive visualisation for decision support using evolutionary computing
  4. Colin Southcombe (PhD, 2003), Reinforced brickwork beams using Quetta bond
  5. Guang Chun Zhou (PhD, 2002), Application of stiffness/strength correctors and cellular automata in predicting response of laterally loaded masonry walls
  6. Jim David Mathews (PhD, 2000), Optimisation and decision support during the conceptual stage of building design: new techniques based on the genetic algorithm
  7. Vekeria, H. D., (1999), Reducing the computational effort associated with evolutionary optimisation in single component design, PhD thesis, University of Plymouth, UK.

Yaqub Rafiq Publication list

Yaqub Rafiq Publication list

1.       YaqubRafiq, Jilian Tilbury, Julie Goodhew, Shen Wei, and Pieter De Wilde, (July2016). “An Informative Tool for Saving Household Energy Consumption”,Proceedings of the ICCCBE2016, July 2016, Osaka Japan.

2.       AlisonRaby, Geoffrey N. Bullock,  Davide Banfi,  Yaqub Rafiq,  Federico Cali, (March 2016). “Wave loading onrock lighthouses”,  Maritime Engineering.

3.       RudiStouffs · Yaqub Rafiq (Nov 2015), “Generative and evolutionary design exploration”,Artificial intelligence for engineering design analysis and manufacturing.

4.       ShenWei,  Julie Goodhew, Yaqub Rafiq, SabinePahl, Pieter de Wilde (2015). “Energy Efficiency Educator – early stages of aninteractive tool to help reduce heating energy demand in residential buildings”,Conference: ECEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency, At Club Belambra LesCriques, Presqu’île de Giens, Toulon/Hyères, France.

5.       GeorgSuter, Pieter de Wilde, Yaqub Rafiq (2014). “Advanced computational assistancefor planning, designing, constructing, and managing the built environment”Advanced EngineeringInformatics 28(4)·

6.       RafiqM. Y, and Al-Farttoosi M.  (2014). “Usingmodel updating to predict the response of reinforced concrete elements”,submitted to the Elsevier Journal of Advances in Engineering Software. (Underreview).

7.       YaqubRafiq, Shen Wei, Robert Guest, Robert Stone and Pieter de Wilde (2014),“Applying Artificial Neural Networks to Promote Behaviour Change for SavingResidential Energy”, Proc. Of the 11th Int. Conf. on Informatics in Control,Automation and Robotics - ICINCO 2014, 1-4 Sep. 2014 Vienna Austria.

8.       HaijiangLI, Pieter de Wilde and Yaqub Rafiq (2014). “Towards new Generation Smart BuiltEnvironment” Proceedings of the 21st International eg-ice Workshop: IntelligentComputing in Engineering 2014, July 16-18, Cardiff, The United Kingdom, Edited(Haijiang Li, Yaqub Rafiq, Pieter De Wilde) ISBN

9.       Rafiq,Y. and Al-Farttoosi, M. (2014). “Predicting the Behaviour of ReinforcedConcrete Elements Strengthened with CFRP Using Model Updating Techniques”.Computing in Civil and Building Engineering (2014), Orlando Florida: pp.1270-1277. doi: 10.1061/9780784413616.158

10.    Al-Farttoosi,M., Rafiq, Y., Summerscales, J. and Williams, C. (2014). “Dynamic ImpactBehaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beams Externally Strengthened with CarbonFibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP)”, proceedings of the Structural Faults+Repair2014, the Imperial collage University of London.

11.    Al-FarttoosiM., Rafiq M. Y., Summerscales J. and Williams C. (2014). “Using Model UpdatingTechniques to assess bond-slip effects on the behaviour of reinforced concretebeams externally strengthened with CFRP”, Proceedings of the 21st Internationaleg-ice Workshop: Intelligent Computing in Engineering 2014, July 16-18,Cardiff, The UK, Edited (Haijiang Li, Yaqub Rafiq, Pieter De Wilde)

12.    ShenWei, Yaqub Rafiq, Pieter de Wilde (2014). “Using Artificial Neural Network(ANN) to Reduce Residential Energy Demand by Changing Occupant Behaviour”,European Group for Intelligent Computing in Engineering (EG-ICE) 21 Int.workshop, Cardiff University, UK.

13.    YaqubRafiq, Shen Wei, Pieter de Wilde (2014). “Applying Artificial Neural Networksto Promote Behaviour Change for Saving Residential Energy”, 11th Int. Conf. onInformatics in Control, Automation and Robotics (2014), Vienna TechnicalUniversity, Vienna, Austria.

14.    Zhou,G., Zhang, M., Zhang, Y., and Rafiq, Y. (2013). “Linear Cellular AutomationMethod for Predicting Dynamic Instability Mode of Single-Layer Shell”. ASCEJournal of Computing in Civil Engineering (2013): pp. 725-732. doi:10.1061/9780784413029.091

15.    Al-FarttoosiM. and Rafiq M. Y. (2013). “Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of FlexuralBehaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beams Externally Strengthened with CFRP”, Proc.ofAdvanced Composites in Construction ACIC2013 Conf. Whysall J.,and Taylor, E.(Edt),10 - 12 September, Queen's University Belfast, pp 200-213.

16.    Rafiq,Y. and Al-Farttoosi, M. (2013). “Using Model Updating to Predict the Failure ofReinforced Concrete Elements”. ASCE Conference on Computing in CivilEngineering-2013: pp. 459-467.doi: 10.1061/9780784413029.058 (Winner of thebest paper prize).

17.    Rafiq,M. and Rustell, M. (2013). "Building Information Modelling Steered byEvolutionary Computing." J. Comput. Civ. Eng.,10.1061/(ASCE)CP.1943-5487.0000295 (Feb. 2, 2013).

18.    GeorgSuter, Pieter de Wilde, Yaqub Rafiq (2013) “Proceedings of the 20th Workshop of the European Group for IntelligentComputing in Engineering”, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria,1-3 July 2013, (USB) ISBN: 978-3-200-03145-6.

19.    Rafiq,Y. (2012) “A Practical Approach to Optimum Biaxial Column Design and DetailingUsing Evolutionary Computing”. Structures Congress 2012: pp. 2073-2083. doi:10.1061/9780784412367.182

20.     Frempong-Mensah B., Rafiq Y., De WildeP.(2012). “The Potential of BIM to address some of the Inefficienciesassociated with Current Structural Engineering Design Processes - ACase-Study”, EG-ICE 2012 Int. Workshop. Borrmann A., Geyer P.,  de Wilde P. & Rafiq Y. (Edt) Munich 2012.

21.    BorrmannA., Geyer P., de Wilde P. and Rafiq, Y. (eds), (2012). “Proceedings ofIntelligent Computing in Engineering 2012 Conference”, Herrsching, Germany,July 4-6 2012. Munich: Technische Universität München (USB) ISBN978-3-00-038455-4

22.    Rafiq,Y. (2012). “A Practical Approach to Optimum Biaxial Column Design and DetailingUsing Evolutionary Computing”. ASCE Structures Congress 2012: pp. 2073-2083. doi:10.1061/9780784412367.182.

23.    deWilde P, Rafiq Y., Pan W, Tian W.(2011). “Intelligent support for the optimalconfiguration of high performance homes”, Plea 2011 - Architecture andSustainable Development, Conference Proceedings Of the 27Th InternationalConference On Passive And Low Energy Architecture, p. 139-144.

24.    Rafiq,Y. (2011). “Visualisation—A Conceptual Design Aid”. ASCE Structures Congress2011, pp. 2370-2381. doi: 10.1061/41171(401)206

25.    Rafiq,M. Y., and Rustell M., (2011), “Building Information Modelling Driven by theEvolutionary Computing”, EG-ICE 2011 Int. Workshop. Hartmann, T., de Wilde P.& Rafiq Y. (Edt), University of Twente, the Netherlands.

26.    Hartmann,T., P.de Wilde and Y. Rafiq (eds), 2011. Proceedings of Intelligent Computingin Engineering 2011 Conference, Enschede, the Netherlands, July 6-8 2011.Enschede: University of Twente (USB) ISBN 978-90-365-3216-7

27.    HaijiangLi, Pieter de Wilde, Yaqub Rafiq (2011). “A methodology for buildingperformance simulation using high power computing”. EG-ICE 2011, Conference onIntelligent Computing in Engineering.

28.    BorthwickM. F., Rafiq M. Y. and Williams A. G. (2010). “A novel application of a fractional order lag and route modelto rainfall-stream flow modelling”, proceedings of the British HydrologicalSociety Third International Symposium, July, Newcastle University, Newcastleupon Tyne, United Kingdom.

29.    deWilde, P. and Rafiq, Y.,(2010). “Intelligent computing for the design of highperformance buildings”. In Computing in Civil and Building Engineering,Proceedings of the International Conference, ICCCBE2010, W. TIZANI (Editor), 30June-2 July, Nottingham, UK, Nottingham University Press, Paper 182, p. 363,
ISBN 978-1-907284-60-1

30.    RafiqM. Y and Sui, C. (2010). “Interactive visualisation: A support for systemidentification”, Journal of Advanced Engineering Informatics, Vol 24(3), pp355-366, ISSN: 1474-0346. , doi:10.1016/j.aei.2010.02.003

31.    ZhouG.,  Pan D., Xu X. and Rafiq M. Y. (2010)“Innovative ANN Technique for Predicting Failure/Cracking Load of Masonry WallPanel under Lateral Load”, ASCE Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, Vol24(4), pp 377-387, DOI: 10.1061/_ASCE_CP.1943-5487.0000040

32.    Sui,C., Rafiq, M. Y., and Zhou, G. (2010), “Regressions to smooth the empiricalload-deflection relationship of the laterally loaded masonry wall panels”,Masonry International, Vol. 22, No 3. pp 59-70, ISSN 0950-2289

  1. Zhang, Y,  Zhou, G. C., Yi, X., and Rafiq, M. Y. (2010). "Techniques for Predicting Cracking Pattern of Masonry Wallet Using Artificial Neural Networks and Cellular Automata." Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 24(2), 161-172. doi:10.1061/(ASCE), ISSN 0887-3801,  http://link.aip.org/link/?QCP/24/161/1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CP.1943-5487.0000021,

34.    DeWilde, P., and Rafiq, M. Y., (2010).  “Intelligent computing for the design of highperformance computing”, Proc. of  ICCCBEand EG-ICE Joint conference, Tizani (edt), July, CD-ROM, Paper 82, pp 363, Nottingham,UK,

35.    Rafiq,M. Y., (2010), “A radical rethink in educating engineering students”, Proc. ofASCE 2010 Structures Congress, CD-ROM, May, Orlando, Florida. doi:10.1061/41131(370)32

36.    Pieterde Wilde · Yaqub Rafiq · Ian Packham (2009). “A study of thermal storage inbuildings using interactive visualisation”,  EG-ICE 2009, Conference on Intelligent Computing inEngineering, At Berlin, Germany.

37.    Sui,C. and Rafiq, M. Y., (2009), “Laterally loaded masonry wall panels: A review ofempirical methods”, Masonry International, Journal of the International MasonrySociety, 22(1), pp 11-16, ISSN 0950-2289.

38.    Sui,C. and Rafiq, M. Y., (2009), “Laterally loaded masonry wall panels: A review ofnumerical methods”, Masonry International, Journal of the International MasonrySociety, 22(2), pp 47-52, ISSN 0950-2289.

39.    Rafiq,Y. and Sui, C., (2009), “Interactive Visualisation – a Support for ModelUpdating”, Proc. of the 2009 ASCE International Workshop on Computing in CivilEngineering, Carlos H and O’Brien, W. J. (edited), June, Austin, Texas.  PP 452-461, ISBN 987-0-7844-1052-3.

40.    Rafiq,Y., P. de Wilde and M. Borthwick (eds), 2008. Proceedings of IntelligentComputing in Engineering 2008 Conference, Plymouth, UK, July 2-4 2008.Plymouth: University of Plymouth (CD-ROM) ISBN 978-1-84102-191-1

41.    Rafiq,M. Y and. Sui, C. (2008), “Laterally loaded masonry wall panels: a review (1)Empirical Methods”, accepted by the Journal of Masonry International. ISSN0950-2289

42.    Rafiq,M. Y and. Sui, C. (2008), “Laterally loaded masonry wall panels: a review (2)Numerical Methods”, accepted by the Journal of Masonry International, ISSN0950-2289.

43.    Rafiq,M. Y.,  Sui, C. & Zhou,  G (2008), “Using Cellular Automata inPredicting the Behaviour of Masonry Wall panels”  Proceeding of the 12th Int. Conf. onComputing in Civil and Building Engineering (ICCCBE2008),  Conference in Inf. Tech. in Construction 2008,16-18 October, Beijing, China. ISBN 978-7-98474-173-8

44.    Rafiq,M. Y.,  Beck, M. & Hughes, N. (2008),“Interactive visualisation as a powerful decision support tool for conceptualdesign”, Proceeding of the 25th CBI W78 Int. conf. on information technology‘improving the management of construction projects through IT adoption’, Eedt(Rischmoller, R) 15-15 July, Santiago Chile, pp 156-165. ISBN 978-956-319-361-9

45.  Rafiq,M. Y. & Beck, M. (2008), “A scenario based exploration ofmulti-disciplinary solution space using a visualisation tool”, Proceeding ofthe Intelligent Computing in Engineering Conf. edt (Rafiq, Borthwick & deWilde), Plymouth UK, 2-4 July, pp 46-56. ISBN 978-1-84102-191-1 www.eg-ice.org/Workshops/ICE08/default.htm

46.     Sui,C., Rafiq, M. Y. & Zhou, G. (2008), “Preliminary Study of the Effects ofBoundary Parameters on the Analytical Results of the Laterally Loaded MasonryWall Panels”, Proceeding of the Intelligent Computing in Engineering Conf. edt(Rafiq, Borthwick & de Wilde), Plymouth UK, 2-4 July, July. pp 199-211. ISBN 978-1-84102-191-1. www.eg-ice.org/Workshops/ICE08/default.htm

47.     DeWilde, P., Beck, M. & Rafiq, M. Y. (2008), “Visualisation of the Impact ofClimate Change on the Cooling Requirements of Domestic Buildings in the UnitedKingdom, Proceeding of the Intelligent Computing in Engineering Conf. edt (Rafiq,Borthwick & de Wilde), Plymouth UK, 2-4 July, July. pp 410-422. ISBN 978-1-84102-191-1. www.eg-ice.org/Workshops/ICE08/default.htm

48.     Pan,D, G. Zhou & Rafiq, M. Y.  (2008),“An Artificial Neural Network Model for Predicting Failure Load of Masonry WallPanel under Lateral Load”, Proceeding of the Intelligent Computing inEngineering Conf. edt (Rafiq, Borthwick & de Wilde), Plymouth UK, 2-4 July,July. pp 451-459. ISBN 978-1-84102-191-1. www.eg-ice.org/Workshops/ICE08/default.htm

49.     Zhang,Y. Xiong, Y, Zhou, G & Rafiq, M. Y. (2008), “Cellular Automata Model forPredicting the Cracking Pattern of Vertically Loaded Masonry Wallet”, Proceedingof the Intelligent Computing in Engineering Conf. edt (Rafiq, Borthwick &de Wilde), Plymouth UK, 2-4 July, July. pp 508-517. ISBN 978-1-84102-191-1. www.eg-ice.org/Workshops/ICE08/default.htm

50.    DeWilde, P. Rafiq, M. Y., and Beck, M. (2008). “Uncertainties in predicting theimpact of climate change on thermal performance of domestic buildings in theUK”, Journal of Building Services Engineering Research & Technology, 29(1),pp7-26.  ISSN 0143-6244.

51.    Borthwick,M.F., Packham, I.S.J., and Rafiq, M.Y. (2008). “Interactive visualization forevolutionary optimisation of conceptual rainfall-streamflow models”. ASCEJournal of Computing in Civil Engineering. 22(1): 40-49.,ISSN 0887-3801.

52.    Rafiq,Y., Easterbrook, J, & Ricketts, C. (2007), “A radical rethink in educatingengineering students in the 21st century”, accepted for presentation in TheThird International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics andComputation, 10-12 September 2007 (SEMC 2007), Cape Town, South Africa,September.

53.    Rafiq,M. Y., Beck, M. & De Wilde, P. (2007), “Interactive Visualisation as a toolfor interpreting building thermal simulation results”, Proc. of the 24th W78conference, 14th Int. EG-ICE Workshop and 5th ITC@EDU Workshop, Maribor, Slovenia,June, 637-642, ISBN 978-961-248-033-2

54.    RafiqM. Y., Sui, C., Easterbrook, D. J. & Bugmann, G. (2007), “Generality ofusing Correctors to Predict the Behaviour of Masonry Wall Panels”, Proc. of the24th W78 conference, 14th Int. EG-ICE Workshop and 5th ITC@EDU workshop, Maribor,Slovenia, June, 669-674, ISBN 978-961-248-033-2

55.    DeWilde, P., Y. Rafiq, M. Beck, (2006). “Uncertainties in Predicting the Impactof Climate Change on Thermal Performance of Domestic Buildings in the UK.”.  In: Lebrun, ed. System Simulation in Buildings2006, Seventh International Conference, Liège, Belgium, December 11-13 2006(CD-ROM)

56.    Rafiq,Y., Easterbrook, J, & Ricketts, C. (2006), “Interactive use of computers topromote a deeper learning of structural behaviour”, Proc. of the 5rd GlobalCongress on engineering Education, Pudlowski, Z. J. (Edt), pp 121-124, NewYork, July, ISBN 0732622956.

57.    ChengfeiSui, M. Y. Rafiq , D. Easterbrook, G. Bugmann, G. Zhou, (2006), “More accurateprediction of the behaviour of masonry panel subjected to lateral loads”, Proc.of the 7th Int. Masonry Conference, London, British Masonry Society, Paper 19(CD-ROM), October, ISSN 0950 9615.

58.    ChengfeiSui, M. Y. Rafiq, D. Easterbrook, G. Bugmann, G. Zhou, (2006) “Using TimoshenkoFormula to Modify the Experimental Error of Masonry Panels”, Proc. of the 7thInt. Masonry Conference, London, British Masonry Society, Paper 47 (CD-ROM),October, ISSN 0950 9615.

59.    ChengfeiSui, M. Y. Rafiq , D. Easterbrook, G. Bugmann, G. Zhou, (2006), “Aninvestigation into numerical model updating of masonry panels subjected tolateral load”, Proc. of the 7th Int. Masonry Conference, London, BritishMasonry Society, Paper 33 (CD-ROM), October, ISSN 0950 9615.

60.    ChengfeiSui, M. Y. Rafiq, D. Easterbrook, G. Bugmann, G. Zhou, (2006), “Uniquenessstudy of updating the FEA model of laterally loaded masonry panel by geneticalgorithm”, Proc. of the 7th Int. Masonry Conference, London, British MasonrySociety, Paper 36 (CD-ROM), October, ISSN 0950 9615.

61.    YaqubRafiq, Chengfei Sui, Dave Easterbrook and Guido Bugmann, (2006). “Prediction ofthe behaviour of masonry wall panels using Evolutionary Computation andCellular Automata”, Proc. of the 13th International Workshop of the EuropeanGroup for Intelligent Computing in Engineering, Monte Verita, AsconaSwitzerland, Springer under Intelligent computing in engineering andArchitecture “Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 4200”, Smith, I. F. C.(Edt), ISBN -10 3-540-46246-5, pp. 534-544.

62.    Rafiq,M. Y., Beck, M. and Packham, I. (2006). “Interactive Visualisation Systems forConceptual Building Design: A Practical Approach”, Proc. of the InternationalConference on Advances in Engineering Structures, Mechanics and Construction,University of Waterloo, Canada, May 14-17, Springer, Panda, M, Xie, W and Xu, L(Edt), pp 595-606. ISBN-10 1-4020-4890-4(HB) and ISBN-13 978-1-4020-4890-6(HB).

63.    Zhou,G. C., Rafiq, M. Y. Bugmann, G., and Easterbrook, D. J., (2006). “CellularAutomat Model for Predicting Failure Pattern of Laterally Loaded Masonry WallPanels”, ASCE Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, Vol 20(6), pp400-409,ISSN 0887-3801

64.    Rafiq,M. Y., Packham, I. S. J., Easterbrook, D. J, and Denham, S. L. (2006).“Visualising Search and Solution Spaces in the Optimum Design of BiaxialColumns”, ASCE Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering.  Vol20(2), pp 88-98, ISSN 0887-3801

65.    Rafiq,M.Y., Sui, C., Zhou, G. C., Easterbrook, D. J. and Bugmann, G., (2005). “UsingArtificial Intelligence Techniques to Predict the Behaviour of Masonry Panels”, Proceedings of TheEighth International Conference on the Application of Artificial Intelligenceto Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, 30 August to 2 September,Rome, CD-ROM Paper 21, ISBN 1-905088-04-3

66.    Rafiq,M. Y., Ekwe, A. S., Beck, M. A., and Wigginton, M., (2005), “OptimisingIntelligent Façades using a Genetic Algorithm”, Proceedings of an internationalconference incorporating COST 13 glass and facades, University of Bath, UK,April, pp 139-148. ISBN 187 4003 35 1.

67.  Rafiq,Y., Beck, M., Packham, I and Denham S., (2005) “Evolutionary Computation andVisualisation as Decision Support tools for Conceptual BuildingDesign.”(Invited paper) In Topping, B. H. V (Ed) Innovation In Civil andStructural Engineering Computing, chapter 3, pp 49-74, Saxe-CoburgPublications. ISBN 1-874672-24-http://www.saxe-coburg.co.uk/pubs/descrip/sl2005.htm

68.    Rafiq, M. Y., and Easterbrook, D.J., (2005). “Using the Computer to Develop A Better Understanding in TeachingStructural Engineering Behaviour to Undergraduates”, ASCE Journal of Computing inCivil Engineering, Vol. 19(1), pp. 34-44,ISSN 0887-3801

69.  Packham,I.S.J., Rafiq, M.Y., Borthwick, M.F. and Denham, S.L. (2005). “InteractiveVisualisation for Decision Support and Evaluation of Robustness – In Theory andIn Practice”, Journal of Advanced Engineering Informatics, Vol. 19(4), Pages263–280. ISSN: 1474-0346. http://authors.elsevier.com/sd/article/S1474034605000613

70.    YaqubRafiq,  Ian Packham, and  Martin Beck (2005). “Importance ofVisualization in Decision Making Process in Engineering Design”. Proceedings ofthe 2005 ASCE International Conference on Computing in Civil Engineering, Cancun,Mexico : pp. 1-12. doi: 10.1061/40794(179)63

71.    Kizhisseri,A. S., Simmonds, D., Rafiq, M. Y., & Borthwick, M. (2005). “An EvolutionaryComputation Approach to Sediment Transport Modelling”, 5th ASCE InternationalCoastal Dynamics Conference, Agustin Sanchez-Arcilla (Edt), April 4–8,Barcelona, Spain doi: 10.1061/40855(214)81.

72.    PackhamI.S.J., Borthwick M.F.,  Rafiq M.Y. andDenham S.L. (2004). “Improved Understanding of Rainfall Runoff Modelling usingInteractive Visualisation and Evolutionary Computing”, Nextgeneration-intelligent systems in engineering, Proc. 11 EG-ICE Workshop,Weimar, Germany, pp 96-99, ISBN 3-18-319904-1.

73.    PackhamI.S.J., Rafiq M.Y., Borthwick M.F. and Denham S.L. (2004). “InteractiveVisualisation for Decision Support and Evaluation of Robustness usingEvolutionary Computing”, Next generation-intelligent systems in engineering,Proc. 11 EG-ICE Workshop, Weimar, Germany, pp 86-95, ISBN 3-18-319904-1.

74.    RafiqM.Y., and Riley M.J. (2003). “Rethinking IT for Rethinking Construction”,towards a vision for information technology in civil engineering, Proceeding ofthe fourth joint international symposium on information technology in civilengineering (TCCP & EG-ICE) , Nashville, ISBN 0-7844-0704-5.

75.    Zhou,G.C.,  Rafiq M. Y.  Easterbrook, D. J., and Bugmann, G.(2003).  “Application of cellularautomata in modelling laterally loaded masonry panel boundary effects”, MasonryInternational. Vol 16 No 3, pp 104-114. ISSN 0950-2289.

76.    RafiqM. Y.,  Zhou,G. C.,  and Easterbrook, D. J.,  (2003). “Analysis of brick wall panels subjected to lateral loading usingcorrectors”, Masonry International. Vol 16, No. 2, pp 75-82. ISSN 0950-2289.

77.    RafiqM. Y., Mathews J. D. and Bullock G. N, (2003). “Conceptual Building Design – AnEvolutionary approach”, ASCE Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, Vol 17,No. 3, pp. 150-158, ISSN 0887-3801.

78.    Zhou,G.C.,  Rafiq M. Y. and Easterbrook, D.J.,  (2002). “Application of cellularautomata in predicting in analysing laterally loaded wall panels”. Proc of the6th International Masonry Conference UK, pp 569 – 572, ISSN 0950-9615.

79.    Zhou,G.C.,  Rafiq M. Y. and Easterbrook, D. J.,(2002).  “Application of correctors inanalysis of brickwork wall panels subjected to lateral loading”.  Proc of the 6th International MasonryConference UK, pp 565 – 568, ISSN 0950-9615.

80.    Rafiq,M. Y., and Easterbrook, D. J., (2002). “Efficient Exploration of the DesignSearch Space Using Clustered Genetic Algorithms”, in Schnellenbach-Held, M.& Denk, H (eds), Advances in Intelligent Computing in Engineering, 176-183,ISBN 3-18-318004-9.

81.    RafiqM. Y., Mathews J. D. And Jgodzinski P. (2001), “Interactive Role of the HumanComputer Interaction in Design”, Proc. of the 8th Workshop of the EuropeanGroup of the Structural Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence,Loughborough, UK , pp 31-42, ISBN1-897911-24-6.

82.    Rafiq,M. Y., and Easterbrook, D., J., (2001). "Intelligent use of Computers toPromote a Deeper Learning of the Structural Behaviour", Proceeding of theInt. Conf. On Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation (SEMC 2001),Cape Town, South Africa, April, pp 1505-1511, ISBN 0-08-043948-9.

83.    Rafiq,M. Y., Bugmann, G., and Easterbrook, D. J., (2001). “Efficient Neural NetworkDesign for Engineering Applications”, Computers and Structures, Vol. 79/17, pp1541-1552, September. ISSN 0045-7949.

84.    Easterbrook,D. J., and Rafiq, M. Y., Williams, C., (2000). "The impact of computers on teaching methods in structuralEngineering", Proceedings of the Civil and Structural EngineeringEducation in the 21st Century, Southampton, April.

85.    Rafiq,M. Y., (2000).  "Importance ofPareto Optimum Solutions in Making Informed Decisions in EngineeringDesign", Proc. Of the 8th International Computing in Civil and Building Engineering,ICCCB-VIII, Stanford University, p1325-1333 August. ISBN 0-7844-0513-1.

86.    Rafiq,M. Y., Bugmann, G., and Easterbrook, D. J., (2000). “Artificial Neural Networksto Aid Conceptual Design”, Journal of The Structural Engineer, IStructE, Volume78, No. 3, February, pp 25-32. ISSN 0039-2553.

87.    Rafiq,M. Y., (2000). "A Design Support Tool for Optimum Building ConceptGeneration Using a structured Genetic Algorithm", International Journal ofComputer-Integrated Design and Construction, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp 92-102, May.ISSN 1466-5115.

88.    Easterbrook,D. J., and Rafiq, M. Y., (1999). “The Use of Computers in Teaching ‘Real World’Structural Engineering”, Civil-Comp99, The 7th International Conference onCivil and Structural Engineering, Oxford, ED B. H. V., Topping and B. KumarCivil Comp Press Edinburgh, pp 9-13, September. ISBN 0-948749-60-1.

89.    Rafiq,M. Y., Bugmann, G., and Easterbrook, D. J., (1999).  “Guidelines for Designing Neural Networks forCivil Engineering Applications”, Civil-Comp99, The 5th International Conferenceon the Applications of AI to Civil and Structural Engineering, Oxford, ED BKumar and B. H. V., Topping, Civil Comp Press Edinburgh, pp 109-115, September.ISBN 0-948749-64-4.

90.    Rafiq,M. Y., Bugmann, G., and Easterbrook, D. J., (1999).  “Building Concept Generation Using GeneticAlgorithms Integrated with Neural Networks”, Proc. of 6th Workshop of theEuropean Group of the Structural Engineering Applications of ArtificialIntelligence, Poland, pp 165-173, September. ISBN 83-204-2484-4.

91.    Williams,C. and Rafiq, M. Y., (1999). “Human structures interaction: the development ofan analytical model of the human body”, International Conference on Vibration,Noise and Structural Dynamics, April.       

92.    Rafiq,M. Y. and Williams, C., (1998). “An investigation into the integration ofneural networks with the structured genetic algorithm to aid conceptualdesign”, Int. Workshop on Artificial Intelligence in Structural Engineering,Ascona, Switzerland, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 1454, edited byIan Smith, Springer publications, pp 295-307. ISBN 3-540-64806-2.

93.    Rafiq,M. Y., Bugmann, G., and Easterbrook, D. J., (1998). “Artificial Neural Networksfor Modelling Some of the Activities of the Conceptual Stage of the DesignProcess”, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Convection and ComputingCongress, pp 631-643, Boston. ISBN 0-7844-0381-3.

94.    Fullerton,H., G., and Rafiq, M. Y., (1998). "Lessons from coming of age in peerassessment and group work", Staff and Educational Development Association(SEDA), SEDA paper 102, edited by Sally Brown, pp 67-78. ISBN 0946815 99 2.

95.    Rafiq,M. Y., and Southcombe, C. (1998). "Genetic algorithms in optimal designand detailing of reinforced concrete biaxial columns supported by a declarativeapproach for capacity checking", International Journal of Computers andStructures, 69, pp 443-457. ISSN 0045-7949

96.    Rafiq,M. Y., and Easterbrook, D. J., (1998). "Towards a more economic and betterunderstanding of the design of reinforced concrete sections using a differentinteractive approach to structural design software", International Journalof Computers and Structures, 68, pp 295-301. ISSN 0045-7949.

97.    Rafiq,M. Y. and Mathews, J. D., (1998). "An Integrated Approach to theStructural Design of Buildings Using a Structured Genetic Algorithm",Journal of Integrated Design and Process Science, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp 20-31,Sept. ISSN 1092-0617

98.    Rafiq,M. Y., (1997). " Optimum Building Concept Generation and Integration ofDesign Process Using a Structured Genetic Algorithm", Proceeding of theWorld-wide ECCE Symposium, in the Practice of Building and Civil Engineering,Lahti, Finland, pp 117-121, September. ISBN 951-758-378-8.

99.    Mathews,J. D., and Rafiq, M. Y. (1996). "Integration and Optimisation inConceptual Building Design Using Genetic Algorithms", Knowledge BasedSystems in Structural Engineering- Current Developments and Future Trends,Institution of Structural Engineers, ED Anumba, C. J., pp 63-73, September.

100.Mathews,J. D., Rafiq, M. Y., Bullock, G. N. B., (1996). " A Prototype for aConceptual Structural Building Design System Using Genetic Algorithms",Adaptive Computing in Engineering Design and Control, 96, Proceedings of the2nd Int. Conf., Plymouth Engineering Design Centre, University of Plymouth. EDParmee, I. pp 287-290, 1996. ISBN 0-905227-61-1.

101.Rafiq,M. Y. and Mathews, J. D., (1996). "An Integrated approach to StructuralDesign of Buildings Using Genetic Algorithms", 2nd Int. Conf. onIntegrated Design and Process Technology, Texas, USA, IDPT-Vol. 3, ED Esat, I.I, et al. pp 84-90. ISSN 1090-9389.

102.Rafiq,M. Y., (1996). "Estimating Structural components Resistance to BlastLoading using Laboratory Static Tests", 4th Int. Conf. on Structures UnderShock and Impact, SUSI 96, Structures Under Shock and Impact IV, ED N Jones et al,Computational Mechanics Publications, pp 39-48, ISBN 1-85312-400-1.

103.Rafiq,M. Y., and Fullerton, H., G., (1996). "Peer Assessment of Group Projectsin Civil Engineering", Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education,Vol. 21, No. 1, pp 69-81.

104.Mathews,J. D., Rafiq, M. Y., and Parmee, I., (1995). "Adaptive search to assist inthe conceptual design of concrete buildings", Civil-Comp95, SixthInternational Conference on Civil and Structural Engineering Computing,Cambridge, ED B. H. V., Topping, Civil Comp Press Edinburgh, pp 179-187,August. ISBN0-948749-36-9

105.Rafiq,M. Y., (1995). "Genetic Algorithms in Optimum Design, Capacity Check andDetailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns", Opti 95, Forth InternationalConference Computing Aided Optimum Design of Structures, Miami, Florida, USA,pp 161-169, September. ISBN 1-85312-325-0.

106.Rafiq,M. Y., and Easterbrook, D. J., (1995). "A new approach to Design andChecking of Reinforced Concrete Columns", Civil-Comp95, SixthInternational Conference on Civil and Structural Engineering Computing,Cambridge, ED B. H. V., Topping, Civil Comp Press Edinburgh, pp 83-89.

107.Mathews,J. D., and Rafiq, M. Y., (1994). "Adaptive Search for Decision Support inthe Preliminary Design of Structural Systems", Proceedings of the FirstInternational Conference on Adaptive Computing in Engineering Design andControl, PEDC.

108.MacLeod,I. A., Ades, N., Rafiq, M. Y. and Kor, F. H., (1993). "The Use ofNumerical Rule Processors in Engineering Calculation", Fifth InternationalASCE Conference on Computing in Civil Engineering and Building, Anaheim,California, USA, June, pp 1600-1607.

109.MacLeod,I. A., Ades, N., and Rafiq, M. Y., (1991). "A Knowledge Based Approach tothe Processing of Structural calculations". Institution of StructuralInformal Study Group Computing in Structural Engineering, August , Bookletpublished January 1994.

110.MacLeod,I. A., M. Murray, I. Webster, and  Rafiq,M.Y., (1990). "Foundation Monitoring for the Cardoness Bridge", inStructures Today and Beyond 2000, Glasgow, UK, pp 14-16.

111.MacLeod,I. A., Rafiq, M. Y., (1988). "Integrated computer aided structural designof buildings", The Structural Engineer, Vol. 66, No. 20, Oct. pp 325-330.ISSN 0039-2553.

112.Rafiq,M., and MacLeod, I. A., (1988). "Automatic structural component definitionfrom a spatial geometry model", Engineering Structures, Vol. 10, No. 1,January, pp 37-40. ISSN: 0141-0296.

113.Rafiq, M. Y., and I. A. McLeod. (1987),"Logic Programming for Technical Design." Workshop on AI in CivilEngineering, Edinburgh, November.