Dr Jillian Pooler
Senior Research Fellow
Peninsula Medical School (Faculty of Health: Medicine, Dentistry and Human Sciences)
Jill has enjoyed a varied and interesting career which spans over 40 years working in health, higher education and research. She qualified as a State Registered Nurse and Adult Intensive Care Nurse at Wythenshawe Hospital (North West Lung Centre) Manchester (1981/82); a Midwife and Specialist Neonatal Intensive Care Nurse, Plymouth (1985/86) and Health Visitor and Family Therapist, Plymouth (1992/1994). In 1994 Jill formed part of a team to establish Neonatal Outreach a service in south Devon and north Cornwall, designed to support early discharge of premature babies from Neonatal Intensive Care. During this time, she developed an interest in the impact of the new service on hospital readmission rates. This lead to an MSc completed in 1997: a quantitative retrospective cohort study on the use of secondary care by babies discharged from neonatal intensive care and followed-up at home by a neonatal outreach service.
In 1998 she formed part of a team which established NHS Direct in the West Country, where nurses were providing health information and advice to callers, over the phone, using computer decision support software. It was from there that she developed an interest in how we as clinicians go about providing health care in an increasingly technologically mediated environment. This lead to the topic of her PhD: a conversation analytic examination of the interplay between technology and talk in calls to NHS Direct (2010)
In 2005 Jill moved into higher education becoming a lecturer in public health and primary care, undertaking a postgraduate certificate in educating adults (2005-2008) in Plymouth, UK.
Jill's post-doctoral research began in primary care in the UK; moving into global health research. Utilizing her combined skills, and expertise, of lung disease, midwifery, primary care and public health, education and research, Jill went on to conduct research with teams in Crete, Vietnam, Kyrgyzstan, Uganda, Nepal, Pakistan and Bangladesh (2014-18)
Senior Research Fellow, H2020 Grant, Fresh Air, Peninsula School of Medicine and Dentistry, Sept 2015-Sept 2018
Senior Research Fellow MRC/DfID/Wellcome Global Health Trials Development Grant, March 2015-Feb 2016
TB and Tobacco Research Consultant,Global Challenge Research, University of Leeds, March 2018
Associate Lecturer in Postgraduate Education, Peninsula School of Medicine and Dentistry, Aug 2015-Sept 2018
Lecturer in Postgraduate Education, Peninsula School of Medicine and Dentistry, March 2014-July 2015
Associate Research Fellow Primary Care, Exeter University, ESTEEM Sub-study: Question design in Nurse and GP-Led Telephone Triage for Same-Day Appointment Requests: A Comparative Investigation (May 2012-Dec 2013)
Disability Analyst. Physioworld, Plymouth. Sept 2013 to Dec 2013
Associate Research Fellow in Qualitative Methodologies, Peninsula School of Medicine and Dentistry, Plymouth. Nov 2012-July 2014.
Associate Research Fellow, Primary Care. University of Exeter Medical School.May 2012-Sept 2013.
Associate Research Fellow in Qualitative Methodologies, Peninsula School of Medicine and Dentistry, Plymouth. June 2012-Sept 2012.
Associate Research Fellow, Improving Access to Psychological Therapies, Institute of Health Service Research, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, Plymouth. September 2011-May 2012.
Health Visitor Parent Supporter- Netmums www.netmums.co.uk July 2009 to date
Lecturer in Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Health, Education and Society, Plymouth University. July 2005 to Dec 2008
Public Health Nurse working with Asylum Seekers and Refugees within a small local Charity 'Students and RefugeesTogether' (START) in Plymouth. Jan to Aug 2005.
Health Visitor and various management secondments-Plymouth tPCT periodically between 1992 -2010.
Team Leader/Research Practitioner/Audit Coordinator NHS Direct, West Country, Nurse 1998-2001.
Neonatal (Intensive Care)Outreach Sister, Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust 1994-1995
Staff Nurse, District Nursing, Plymouth Community Trust, 1991
Midwife, Torbay Hospital 1989-1990
Midwife, Freedom Fields Hospital, Plymouth on an off between 1983 and 1989
Staff Nurse, Neonatal Intensive care, PAMW, Treliske Hospital, Truro, 1983
Staff Nurse, Adult Intensive Care, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester 1982-1983
Staff Nurse, Elderly Rehabilitation, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester, 1981
English National Board Oct 1992 Registered Health Visitor.
English National Board 1990997/8 Teaching and Assessing in Clinical Practice.
English National Board 1986405-Special and Intensive Nursing Care-Neonates.
English National Board 1985 Registered Midwife.
Joint Board of Clinical Nursing Studies 1982 100-General Intensive Nursing Care- Adults.
General Nursing Council for England and Wales Mar 1981 State Registered Nurse.
Loughborough University 2010 PhD Social Sciences-Conversation Analysis
Plymouth University 2008 Post Graduate Cert. in Learning and Teaching in Higher Education
University of York 2003 and 2005 The Social Organisation of Conversation.
University of Southampton 2000 PG Cert. Research in Health Care (Qualitative Methods).
University of Exeter 1997 MSc in Health Care-Professional Issues.
University of Plymouth 1994 Diploma in Professional Studies-Family Therapy.
University of Plymouth 1992 Diploma in Professional Studies-Nursing.
Open University 1990 Certificate in Managing Health Services.
Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC)
Fellow of the Higher Education Academy (FHEA)
Qualitative research methodologies
Research project design
Global public health
Masters and PhD supervision
Health Professional-patient/client interaction across disciplines and health care settings.
Jill's PhD was a conversation analytic investigation of the social organisation of talk in telephone and computer-mediated calls to NHS Direct, a telephone health helpline in England. The results draw attention to the complexities of telephone and computer-mediated help in which nurses and callers must design their talk to take account of the CAS (Clinical Assessment System) as a 'third party'. Analysis reveals that nurses typically orient to the CAS output as potentially troublesome. First nurses regularly deviate from and modify CAS prompted questions which works to 'cushion' the system and build rapport between the nurse and the caller. Second nurses regularly simultaneously produce and labour to deny hearably candidate diagnoses. Third callers regularly respond to the CAS produced disposition as dispreferred. In conclusion, this research has revealed how nurses and callers employ a range of interactional practices which work to skilfully tailor and fashion 'embodied help' from an otherwise disembodied CAS technical system. Thus, we can observe nurses and callers artfully displaying through talk the ordinary practical methods for accomplishing telephone and computer-mediated help in this setting.
You can download the thesis here: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/dspace-jspui/handle/2134/6095
Conversation Analytic data sessions on Wednesday mornings 10.15am-12pm in the Portland Square Building at the University of Plymouth.
Co investigator and qualitative researcher on Autistica 2 yr study: A multi-centred, randomised, controlled feasibility study comparing the SAFE intervention with treatment as usual for families of children with autism spectrum disorder : Systemic Autism Family Enrichment (SAFE)
Co Applicant ESRC Grant application (2008). Project: Older People in Rural Areas: An Interdisciplinary Exploration of Their Connectivity in Civil Society. WP6: Connecting Stakeholders in Rural Ageing(£50k)Collaborators: R. Jones, F. Reid, G. Giarchi, I. Maramba, Jill Pooler(Plymouth), S. Evans (UWE)
Lead Researcher (Nov 2006-June 2007) University of Plymouth and Plymouth Teaching Primary Care Trust Public Health Development Unit (PHDU),. A study commissioned by the PHDU on behalf of the Health Theme Group of the Local Strategic Partnership, to scope the sustainability of fixed term funded projects within the city that target public health and health inequalities (£1000)
Research Assistant (2002)-University of Southampton. Part of a research team conducting a national evaluation of the 18-month Diploma and 3-year Degree pathway Midwifery Training. Conducted focus groups with Midwifery Students and Assessors of Practice for Student Midwives and Teachers.
Research Fellow (2000)-University of Southampton. A study commissioned by the West and Test Primary Care Group (PCG) to review the practice nursing resource within the PCG in order to inform workforce planning as it moved towards Primary Care Trust status. This was a combined study using qualitative and quantitative methods methods and involved a time and motion study, individual interviews and questionnaire.
MSc (1997)-University of Exeter. A quantitative retrospective cohort study on the use of secondary care by babies discharged from neonatal intensive care and followed-up at home by a neonatal outreach service.
Research degrees awarded to supervised students
NIHR C-DRF student: A feasibility study to investigate the effects of a functional standing frame programme in people with severe sub-acute stroke on function, quality of life and neuromuscular impairment; and a systematic review on non-pharmacological interventions for orthostatic hypotension.
Masters supervision (Dec 2015): Using patients as educators: A qualitative study to explore the issues surrounding using feedback from patients on the communication skills of undergraduate dental students.
Grants & contracts
Plymouth University, Institute of Health Sciences Pump Priming Funding. To explore the perceptions of older residents living in Park Homes in relation to their health, well being and social needs. £2466 from July 2017.
Horizon 2020: the Free Respiratory Evaluation and Smoke-exposure reduction by primary Health cAre Integrated gRoups (FRESH AIR)study. Implementation science ( led by Leiden University, Netherlands) to addresses the urgent need to prevent, diagnose and treat non- communicable lung diseases in low and middle income countries (LMICs) and other low-resource settings wherethe greatest burden of disease occurs. Co-investigator. 3 million Euros over 3 years from 1.10.15. Total budget of £210,000 for Plymouth University
Autistica: SAFE: an early intervention for families of children with autism and Asperger Syndrome. Co investigator. £85,547.16 over 2 years from July 2017.
Astrazeneca: Development and validation of scales to assessthe burden of severe asthma and its treatment with oral corticosteroids. Co-investigator.£20,000 over 6 months from June 2016.
Joint Global Health Trial from MRC/Wellcome/DFID: A developmentstudy to examine feasibility and acceptability of pulmonary rehabilitation inUganda for adults with chronic respiratory disease. This has led to the designof a rehabilitation programme for patients with post-TB lung damage and COPD inKampala, which has provided resources for others to use when establishing pulmonary rehabilitation. Results show high levels of recruitment, retention,and clinically important improvements in health outcomes. The programme is soon to be adopted as a clinical service. Co-investigator. £136,000 over 1 year from March 2015.
Plymouth Teaching Primary Care Trust Public HealthDevelopment Unit:'Reducing Health Inequalities in Plymouth'. £1000. Nov 2006-June 2007. Jill Pooler, Professor Catherine Hennessy, Margaret Wade. Principal investigator.
University of Southampton PhD Studentship (2000). £45,000
NHS Executive Research Placement Scheme Award (2000).£11,650. University of Southampton.
Key publications are highlightedJournals
McEwen, A., Pooler J., Lionis, C., Papadakis, S., Tsiligianni, I., Anastasaki, M., Pham Le An, Nguyen Nhu Vinh, Pham Duong Uyen Binh, Nhat Quynh, Hong Le, Sooronbaev, T.,Tabyshova, A., Beyshenbekova, A., Marazhapov, N., and Sheraliev, U. (2019) Adapting Very Brief Advice (VBA) on smoking for use in low-resource settings: experience from the FRESH AIR project. Cambridge Core in the Journal of Smoking Cessation, pp 190-194. Volume 14 / Issue 3 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jsc.2019.4.
Nantanda,R., Buteme, S.M., van Kampen, S., Cartwright, L., Pooler. J., Barton,A. Callaghan, L., Mirembe, J., Ndeezi, G., Tumwine, J. K., Kirenga, B., and Jones, R. (2019) Feasibility and acceptability of a midwife-led health education strategy to reduce exposure to biomass smoke among pregnant women in Uganda, A FRESH AIR project. Global Public Health. 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2019.1642931
Anastasaki, M., Trigoni, M., Pantouvaki, A., Trouli, M., Mavrogianni, M., Chavannes, N., Pooler, J., van Kampen, S., Jones, R., Lionis, C., Tsiligianni, I. Establishing a Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programme in Primary Care in Greece: a FRESH AIR implementation study. Accepted Chronic Respiratory Disease 2019
Logan, A., Marsden, J., Freeman, J., Vickery, J., Kent, B., Pooler, J., Creanor, S., Barton, A., Enki, D. (2018) Standing Practice In Rehabilitation Early after Stroke (SPIRES): a functional standing frame programme (prolonged standing and repeated sit to stand) to improve function, quality of life and reduce neuromuscular impairment in people with severe sub-acute stroke: a protocol for a feasibility randomised controlled trial. Pilot and Feasibility Studies. volume 4, Article number: 66 https://doi.org/10.1186/s40814-018-0254-z
Logan, A., Freeman, J.,Marsden, J., Pooler, J., Kent, B., Gunn, H., T., Cork, E.,Billings, S. The effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions to treat orthostatic hypotension in elderly people and people with a neurological condition: a systematic review. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports. In revision June 2019
Jones, R., Muyinda, H., Nyakoojo,G., Kirenga, B., Katagira, W., Pooler, J. (2018). Does pulmonary rehabilitation alter patients' experiences of living with chronic respiratory disease? A qualitative study. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Vol 2018:13. pp 2375-2385. https://doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S165623
Hyland,M. E., Lanario,J.W., Pooler, J., Masoli, M., Jone, R.C.(2018) How patient participation was used to develop a questionnaire that isfit for purpose in assessing quality of life in severe asthma. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 16:24 DOI10.1186/s12955-018-0851-9018-0851-9
Jones,R.W., Barton, A., Pooler, J., Katagira, W., Worodria,W., Okwerea, A., Kasiita, R., Hyland, M.E., Enki, D., Kirenga, B.J. (2017) A pre-post intervention study of pulmonary rehabilitation for adults with post tuberculosis lung disease in Uganda. International Journal of COPD. 11 December 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 3533—3539. https://doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S146659 .
Logan,A., Marsden, J., Freeman, J., Vickery, J., Kent, B., Pooler, J., Creanor S., Barton, A., Enki, D., (2017). A randomised controlled feasibility trial to investigate the effects of a functional standing frame programme versus usual physiotherapy in people with severe sub-acute stroke. Pilot and Feasibility Studies. 4.66. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40814-018-0254-z
Coelho, J. Pooler, and H. Lloyd. ”Using patients as educators for communication skills; Exploring dental students’’ and patients’views. European Journal of Dental Education.2017;00:1-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/eje.12282
Marshall, D., Quinn, C.,Child, |S., Shenton, D., Pooler, J., Forber, S., Byng, R.(2015) What IAPT services can learn from non-attenders. Journal of Mental Health. Published Online 03 Dec 2015. DOI: 10.3109/09638237.2015.1101057
Murdoch, J., Barnes, R., Pooler,J., Lattimer, V., Fletcher, E., Campbell, J. (2014) The impact of using computer decision-support software in primary care nurse-led telephone triage: Interactional dilemmas and conversational consequences. Social Science& Medicine. 126. 36.47. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.12.013
Ali, K., Tredwin, C., Kay, E.,Slade, A., Pooler, J. (2014) Preparedness of Dental Graduates For Foundation Training - A Qualitative Study. British Dental Journal. 217(3)145-149. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2014.648
Pooler, J.(2014) Plain Language Summary of Mapping of Multiple criteria for priority setting of health interventions: an aid for decision makers. Cochrane Agenda and Priority Setting Methods Group.http://capsmg.cochrane.org/blog/mapping-multiple-criteria-priority-setting-health-interventions-aid-decision-makers 05June 2014.
Pooler, J. (2014) Plain Language Summary of Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis for Health Technology Assessment. Cochrane Agenda and Priority Setting Methods Group. http://capsmg.cochrane.org/blog/multiple-criteria-decision-analysis-health-technology-assessment 05 June 2014
Zahra, D., Qureshi,A., Henley, W., Taylor, R., Quinn, C., Pooler, J., Hardy,G., Newbold, L. Byng, R., (2014). The Work and Social Adjustment Scale:Reliability, Sensitivity, and Value. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice. 18(2) 131-138 (doi:10.3109/13651501.2014.894072)
Murdoch, J., Barnes, R., Pooler, J., Lattimer, V.,Fletcher, E., Campbell, J.A. (2014). Question design in Nurse and GP-Led Telephone Triage for Same-Day Appointment Requests: A Comparative Investigation. BMJ Open. 4:e004515 doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004515.
Pooler, J.,Nasser, M. (2013) Plain Language Summary of Research Priority Setting Methods.Dialogue Model: A Model for Patient Participation in Research Priority Setting. Cochrane Agenda and Priority Setting Methods Group. http://capsmg.cochrane.org/blog/diaglogue-model-model-patient-participation-research-priority-setting 2nd July 2013.
Pooler, J. (2013). Plain Language Summary of Research Priority Setting Methods. Setting Priorities in Global Child Health Research Investments: Guidelines for Implementation of CHNRI Method. Cochrane Agenda and Priority Setting Methods Group.http://capsmg.cochrane.org/blog/child-health-and-nutrition-research-initiative-chnri-approach-research-priority-setting 22nd April 2014
Pooler, J.(2013). Challenges in conducting priority setting exercises for Cochrane entities. Cochrane Methods. Cochrane DB Syst Rev 2013 Suppl 1:36-38
Pooler, J.(2013). Approaches to Qualitative Research in Dentistry. Journal of Dental, Oral and Craniofacial Epidemiology. Vol 1 (1) 17-25.http://www.sharmilachatterjee.com/ojs2.3.8/index.php/JDOCE/article/view/41
Pooler, J. (2010). "Technology and Talk in calls to NHS Direct" Unpublished PhD Thesis-Social Sciences,Loughborough University. https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/dspace-jspui/handle/2134/6095
Pooler, J. (2010). Managing the Diagnostic Space: Interactional dilemmas in calls to NHS Direct in Ethnographies of Diagnostic Work, Buscher, M., Goodwin,D., Mesman, J. Basingstoke. Palgrave Macmillan.
Pooler, J. (2008). Book Review. Beeken, J. Townsend, S. (2009). Your Yoga Birthguide. London. Polair Publishing.
Pooler, J. (2006). Book Review'Wager, E (2005) Getting Research Published: An A-Z of publication strategy.'Radcliffe Publishing. Oxon. ISBN 1857756878. Wessex Research Network (WReN) Newsletter.
Locke, J. (2002). Book Review 'Gillies, A (2002). Using Research in Primary Care: A Workbook for Health Professionals.' Radcliffe Medical Press.ISBN 1 85775 936 2. Wessex Research Network (WReN) Newsletter.
Latter, S, Lattimer, V., Locke, J., Reading, S., Westwood, G.(2001). West and Test Primary Care Group Practice Nurse Review. Commissioned by West and Test Primary Care Group. School of Nursing and Midwifery,University of Southampton.
Locke, J. (2000). NHS Direct - Child Protection 'A Guide forGood Practice' Undertaken on behalf of the DoH NHS Direct Central Project Team.
Locke, J. and Lambell, P. (1999). Quality and NHS Direct - Research and Audit Strategy and Programme. NHS Direct- West Country.
Locke, J. (1998). Managers Handbook. Drafted for Plymouth Community Trust.
Locke, J. Integrated Primary Care: A Strategy for Health Visiting in one GP Practice. (1996). Plymouth Community Trust.
Pooler, J (1997) “Neonatal Outreach: A retrospective cohort study on the use of secondary care by babies discharged from neonatal intensive care and followed-up at home by a neonatal outreach service"Unpublished Masters Thesis.
Other academic activities
Lay interviewer panellist for medical student applicants (previously University of Exeter Medical School 2013) at Plymouth Medical and Dental Schools 2015
Peer Reviewer for the Cochrane Collaboration Consumers and Communication Group. 2013 to date
Reviewer for Community Practitioner. Nov 2011-to date
Chair of University of Plymouth, Faculty of Health and Social Work, Students Ethics Committee (2007-2008)
External reviewer for the ESRC UK, Research Grants Board.Project: The social well being of older people: collaborating in conversation(2007).
External reviewer for West Midlands Regional Office Research and Development Directorate NHS Executive, NHS Direct Skill Mix Project (1999). Tender proposals for study into a Review of Skill Mix Requirements for Nurse - Led NHS Direct Telephone Advice Line.
IPCRG Conference (2018) Porto, Portugal. Adapting and implementing very brief advice onsmoking to save lives in low and middle-income countries - FRESH AIR. 31 May 2 June
PATS and SATS Congress (2018) Durban. Very brief advice on smoking saves lives, but does it work in low and middle-income countries? 12-15 April
International Primary Care Research Group (IPCRG) Sri Lanka (2017). 30 Seconds to Save a Life. 3-5 August.
International Primary Care Research Group (IPCRG) Sri Lanka (2017). Qualitative evaluation of a pulmonary rehabilitation programme in Greece: results from the FRESH AIR project. 3-5 August.
European Respiratory Society (ERS) London(2016). A qualitative study on the development of a Pulmonary Rehabilitation for patients with chronic lung disease in Kampala, Uganda. 3-7 Sept.
IUALD (2016). A development study of pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with chronic lung disease in Uganda. Liverpool 26-29 Oct.
Plymouth University PUPSMD.Global Health Respiratory Research Group (2016). Plymouth 22 July.
Pan African Thoracic Society Congress (PATS)Nairobi,Kenya (2016). Qualitative findings on the implementation of pulmonary rehabilitation in Kampala. 9-12 April.
European Forum for Primary Care (EFPC) (2013). Communicative Practices in Nurse and GP-Led Telephone Triage A Comparative Investigation. Murdoch, J., Barnes, R, Pooler, J. Istanbul. 9-10 Sept.
Conversation Analysis and Clinical Encounters (CACE) (2013). When Two Worlds Collide: Technology and Talk in Calls to NHS Direct. University of York. UK.4-7 July.
Conversation Analysis and Clinical Encounters (CACE) (2013). Comparing Nurse-Led and GP-Led Telephone Triage for Patients Requesting Same Day Consultations in Primary Care. University of York.UK 4-7 July.
International Communication Association (ICA) (2013). Communicative Practices in Nurse and GP Led Telephone Triage: A Comparative Investigation. Murdoch,J., Barnes, R, Pooler, J. London. UK. 20th June.
The South West Society for Academic Primary Care (SWSAPC) (2013). Communicative Practices in Nurse and GP Led Telephone Triage: A Comparative Investigation. Murdoch, J., Barnes, R, Pooler, J. Southampton. UK. 7-8 March.
The South West Society for Academic Primary Care (SWSAPC) (2012). Technology and Talk in Calls to NHS Direct: The Elephant in the Room. A Conversation Analytic Study. Torquay. 1-2 March.
World Psychiatric Association Thematic Conference; Mental Health and Family Working Together. (2012)The Work and Social Adjustment Scale: Reliability, Sensitivity, and its value as a Patient Reported Outcome Measure. Zahra, D., Qureshi, A., Pooler, J.,Henley, W., Taylor, R., & Byng, R. Grenada, Spain. 8-11 February.
Conversation Analysis and Clinical Encounters (2007). Managing the Diagnostic Space in call to NHS Direct. University of Exeter, UK. 16-18 July.
Ethnographies of Diagnostic Work (2007): Managing the diagnostic space: Interactional dilemmas in calls to a telephone health help line. Lancaster University. UK. 16-18 April.
International Conference on Conversation Analysis (ICCA) (2006) Conference Paper ‘Dilemmas of diagnosis in calls to a telephone health help line in the UK. ‘Helsinki, Finland. 10-14 May.
International Institute for Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis (IIEMCA) (2005) Conference Paper 'Dilemmas of diagnosis in calls to a telephone health help line' Boston Massachusetts, USA. 6-9 Aug.
School of Nursing and Midwifery (SoNaM) (2002) Jubilee Conference Poster presentation'Nurse-caller interaction during calls to a telephone health help line 'University of Southampton. UK. .
Faculty of Medicine Health& Biol. Sciences (2002) Conference Poster presentation 'Nurse-callerinteraction during calls to a telephone health help line' University ofSouthampton. UK
European Association of Communication in Health Care (EACH) (2002) Bi-Annual Conference Poster presentation 'Nurse-caller interaction during calls to a telephone health help line'.
Wessex Research Network (WReN) (2002) Annual Conference-ViPer Presentation 'Nurse caller interaction during calls to a telephone health help line'. Southampton. UK.
Southampton and Hampshire Practice Nurse Conference (2001) ‘Practice Nursing: What about the Future?’. Southampton. UK.
Presentations to the National Audit Steering Group; Clinical Governance Committee and South West Audit Network (SWANs) 'The NHS Direct West Country-Audit Programme and Strategy 1999.' 01.08.99/18.11.99/16.01.00. UK.