Dr Aude Gébelin

Dr Aude Gébelin

Lecturer in Tectonics

School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences (Faculty of Science and Engineering)


Lecturer in Tectonics and Structural Geology

Stage 2 Earth Sciences Tutor

International Exchange Coordinator



2018               Habilitation à diriger des recherches (HDR) - University of Rennes 1, France, Geology

2015               Postgraduate Certificate in Higher Education (PGCAP), 2015 - University of Plymouth, UK

2004               Ph.D. - University of Montpellier, France, Geology

1999               Master of Science - University of Montpellier, France, Geology

1997               Bachelor of Science - University of Montpellier, France, Geology


09/2014-present  Lecturer in Tectonics & StructuralGeology, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK

12/2010-08/2014 Researcher in Geochemistry, Biodiversität und Klima Forschungszentrum,Frankfurt/Main, Germany

06/2010-12/2010 maternity leave and part time work due to childcare

08/2008-11/2010 Researcher in Earth-surface processes, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Hannover,Germany

09/2007-08/2008 Visiting Assistant Professor, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA

03/2006-08/2007 Geologist, Areva NC, Paris, France; deployed to Niger (Uranium Exploration)

06/2005-02/2006 Post-doctoral Research Fellow and instructor, University of Waterloo, Ontario,CA

2002-2004           Teaching Assistant, University ofMontpellier II, France

2000-2004           Graduate Student Intern, FrenchGeological Survey – BRGM, France

Professional membership

American Geophysical Union
European Geoscience Union
Geological Society of America

Mineralogical Society of America
Société Géologique de France 

Teaching interests

My teaching interest is in the broad field of Tectonics, Structural Geology and Metamorphic Geology. 
Observations at scales from tens of kilometers down to a few millimeters and the use of complementary field methods define the core of my teaching. I prioritize the comprehension of geologic phenomena over their systematic description. I also try to introduce the principles of scientific reasoning using real geologic problems and their solution through the use of multiple methods.

I am currently teaching on the following modules:

  • GEOL 1005 Geological Maps and Structural Geology (Module leader)
  • GEOL 2002 Structures, Magmas and Volcanoes
  • GEOL 2003 Geospatial Techniques
  • GEOL 2005 Structural and Metamorphic Geology
    GEOL 3001 Geological Mapping Research Project and Professional Skills
I am also involved in the following fieldtrips, mapping and research projects:
  • Stage 1 - Earth Sciences Field-trip to East Devon and SW England
  • Stage 2 - Mapping training, SE Pyrenees, Spain
  • Stage 3 - Independent mapping/research projects, south of France (Montagne noire)
  • Stage 4 - Research projects (French Massif Central, Himalaya, Northern Andes)

Research interests

- Large scale deformation of continental lithosphere
- Stable isotope paleoaltimetry and paleoclimate reconstructions
- Reconstruction of meteoric fluid compositions by analysis of oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios of waters in large deformation zones of mountain ranges and in kinematically linked syntectonic basins
- Crustal deformation based on rocks that were exhumed in gneiss domes or in metamorphic core complexes involving the study of the role of fluids in detachments that accommodate orogenic collapse

Research degrees awarded to supervised students


Camille Dusséaux (2019). PhD, Plymouth University - "Topographic reconstructions of the Variscan belt of Western Europe through the study of fossil hydrothermal systems"(Supervisor)

Katharina Methner (2016). PhD, Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre – “Recovering Eocene paleotopography andpaleoclimate of the North American Cordillera through integrated stable isotopeand clumped isotope analyses” (Co-Supervisor)


Master (Supervisor or Co-Supervisor)

Timothy Webster (2017/2018). MSc, Plymouth University – “Fluid-rock interaction in thefootwall of the South Tibetan Detachment (Sutlej Valley, NW India)”

James Courtnadge (2015/2016). MSc, Plymouth University - "Fluid-rock interactionand microstructure development of a Variscan detachment zone"

Jamie Lott (2014/2015). MSc, Plymouth University - "Spatial and temporalevolution of localized deformation and fluid-rock interaction experienced bylower plate rocks from a segment of the Kalak Nappe Complex in the ScandinavianCaledonides"

Nathaniel T. Liodas (2012). MSc, Southern Illinois University Carbondale – “Gneiss dome development and transcurrent tectonics in the Archean:example of the Pukaskwa batholith and Hemlo shear zone, Superior Province,Canada”

Katharina Methner (2009). MSc,Leibniz Universität Hannover – “Fluidflow and detachment kinematics of a Cordilleran detachment zone”

Grants & contracts

2018 Programme NEEDS (Nucléaire, énergie,environnements, déchets, société) – La cellule Energie du CNRS –« Modélisation numérique des circulations hydrothermales mobilisatricesd’uranium dans les détachements crustaux » in collaboration with the University of Rennes 1 (~15000€)

2016 Centre for Research in Earth Sciences, Plymouth,PhD Camille Dusséaux (~£50000)

2012-2014 Scientific and Economic Excellence Programof Hesse, Germany (LOEWE) (~60000€)

2009-2011 Leibniz Universität Hannover(Projekförderung für junge Wissenschaftlerinnen), “The topographic and climaticevolution of the western North American Cordillera and its tectonics drivers”(30000€)


Dusséaux,C., Gébelin, A., Boulvais, P., Gardien,V., Grimes, S., Mulch, A. (2019). Meteoric fluid-rock interaction in Variscan shear zones, Terra Nova, 1-7, doi: 10.1111/ter.12392.

Gébelin, A., Jessup, M., Teyssier, C.,Cosca, M.A., Law, R.D., Brunel, M., Mulch, A. (2017). Infiltration of meteoricwater in the South Tibetan Detachment (Mt Everest, Himalaya): When and Why?, Tectonics, 1- 24, doi: 10.1002/2016TC004399

Gébelin, A., Teyssier, C., Heizler,M, Mulch, A. (2015). Meteoric water circulation coupled in a rolling-hingedetachment system (Northern Snake Range core complex, Nevada), Geological Society of America Bulletin,1-13,doi: 10.1130/B31063.

Methner,K., Mulch, A., Teyssier, C., Wells, M., Gottardi, R., Gébelin, A., Chamberlain, P. (2015). Eocene and Miocene extension, meteoric fluidinfiltration and core complex 1 formation in theGreat Basin (Raft River Mountains,Utah), Tectonics, 34, doi:10.1002/2014TC003766.

Ferré, E.C., Gébelin, A., Till, J.L., Sassier, C., Burmeister, K.C. (2014).Deformation and magnetic fabrics in ductile shear zones: A review, Tectonophysics, A special issue in Honorof Graham Borradaile, doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2014.04.008.

Ferré, E.C., Gébelin, A., Conder, J.A., Christensen, N., Wood, J.D., Teyssier,C. (2014). Seismic anisotropy of the Archean lithosphere in the SuperiorProvince inferred from petrofabrics, GeophysicalResearch Letters, doi: 10.1002/2013GL059116.

Gébelin, A., Mulch, A., Teyssier, C., Jessup, M.,Law, R.D., Brunel, M. (2013). The Miocene elevation of Mount Everest, Geology, 41, 799-802, doi:10.1130/G34331.1.

Liodas, N.T., Gébelin, A., Ferré, E.C., Misgna, G.M.(2013). Deformation coupling between the Archean Pukaskwa Intrusive Complex andthe Hemlo shear zone, Superior Province, Canada. Tectonophysics.doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2013.06.022.

Gébelin, A., Mulch, A., Teyssier, C., Chamberlain,C.P. & Heizler, M. (2012). Coupled basin-detachment systems aspaleoaltimetry archives of the western North American Cordillera, Earth and Planetary Science Letters,335-336, 36-47, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2012.04.029.

Gébelin, A., Mulch, A., Teyssier, C., Heizler, M.,Venneman, T. & Seaton, N.C.A. (2011). Oligo-Miocene extensional tectonicsand fluid flow across the Northern Snake Range detachment system, Nevada, Tectonics, 30, TC5010, doi:10.1029/2010TC002797.

Gébelin, A., Roger, F., Brunel,M. (2009).Syntectonic crustal melting and high-grade metamorphism in a transpressional regime, Massif Central, France. Tectonophysics,477,issues 3-4, 229-243, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2009.03.022.

Gébelin, A., Brunel, M., Monié, P., Faure, M.& Arnaud, N. (2007). Transpressional tectonics and Carboniferous magmatism in the Limousin, Massif Central, France: Structural and 40Ar/39Ar investigations. Tectonics, 26,TC2008, doi:10.1029/2005CT001822, 2007.

Gébelin, A., Martelet, Chen, Y., Brunel, M.& Faure, M. (2006). Structure of late Variscan Millevaches leucogranite massif in the French Massif Central: AMS and gravity modeling results. Journal of Structural Geology, 28, 1,148-169.

Gébelin, A., Martelet, G., Brunel, M., Faure, M.& Rossi, P. (2004). Late Hercynian leucogranites modelling as deduced from new gravity data : the example of the Millevaches massif (Massif central,France). Bulletin de la SociétéGéologique de France, 175, 3, 239-248.


Dusséaux,C., Gébelin, A., Boulvais, P.,Gardien, V., Dubois, M., Ruffet, G., Poujol, M., Branquet, Y., Grimes, S.,Mulch, A. (2019). Characterisation of meteoric water infiltration in Variscanshear zones, Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts, August 2019, Barcelona,Spain.

Boulvais,P., Poujol, M., Branquet, Y., Cogné, N., Duretz, T., Ballouard, C., Tartèse,R., Dusséaux, C., Gébelin, A.(2019). The uranium metallogenic system in the South Armorican detachmentzones, Variscan belt, France : geology, tracing (in space and time),numerical modelling. 15th Biennal Meeting SGA 2019, Glasgow, Scotland.

Dusséaux,C., Gébelin, A., Boulvais, P.,Dubois, M., Ruffet, G., Branquet, Y., Poujol, M., Barou, F., Mulch, A. (2018).Upper Carboniferous infiltration of meteoric water in Variscan shear zones. 26ème RST, Lille, France.

Boulvais, P., Branquet, Y., Duretz, T., Poujol, M., Ballouard, C.,Tartèse, R., Cogné, N., Ruffet, G., Dusséaux, C., Gébelin, A. (2018). Mobilisation et dépôts d’uranium dans lesstructures extensives varisques en Bretagne sud : « set-up » dela modélisation numérique Mon-U. Les journées Uranium – RéunionNEEDS-CNRS-Ressources avec le concours d’Orano, du CEA, de GEOPS, del’université Paris-Sud, Paris.

Webster, T.J., Gébelin, A.,Law, R.D., Stahr, D.W., Mulch, A. (2018). Meteoric fluid-rock interaction inthe footwall of the South Tibetan Detachment (Sutlej Valley and Zanskar, NWIndia). Himalaya-Karakorum-Tibetworkshop, September 2018, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Vanderhaeghe, O., Laurent, O., Chelle-Michou, C., Moyen, J.-F., Gébelin, A., Gardien, V., Couzinié, S., Bellanger, M., Villaros, A., Berger,J., Duchene, S. (2018). Flow of partially molten crust controlling contruction,growth and collapse of the Variscan orogenic belt. 26èmeRST, Lille.

Gébelin, A.,Jessup, M., Teyssier, C., Cosca, M.A., Law, R.D., Brunel, M., Mulch, A. (2018).Tectonic implication of 15 Ma meteoric water infiltration in the South TibetanDetachment (Mt Everest, Himalaya). Himalaya-Karakorum-Tibetworkshop, September 2018, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Dusséaux, C., Gébelin, A.,Boulvais, P., Dubois, M., Gardien, V., Grimes, S., Mulch, A. (2018). Meteoricwater-rock interaction in Variscan ductile shear zones. TSG-MSG meeting, January 2018, Plymouth, UnitedKingdom.

Dusséaux, C., Gébelin, A.,Boulvais, P., Dubois, M., Gardien, V., Grimes, S., Mulch, A. (2017). Deeppenetration of meteoric water in Variscan ductile shear zones. Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts, August 2017, Paris,France.

Gébelin, A., Jessup, M.,Teyssier, C., Cosca, M.A., Law, R.D., Brunel, M., Mulch, A. (2017). Mid-Mioceneinfiltration of meteoric water in the South Tibetan Detachment (Mt Everest,Himalaya). Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts, August 2017,Paris, France.

Methner,K., Mulch, A., Teyssier, C., Cosca, M., Gébelin,A., Chamberlain, P. (2017). Fluidflow, detachment kinematics, and cor complex formation in the extensional Basinand Range Province. JpGU-AGU Joint Meeting 2017, Tokio, Japan.

Dusséaux, C., Gébelin, A., Boulvais, P., Gardien, V., Mulch, A., Grimes, S.,Dubois, M. (2016). How high was the Armorican Massif 300 Million years ago?CRES Conference 2016 – Plymouth University.

Boulvais, P., Tartèse, R., Poujol, M., Boiron,M.-C., Ruffet, G., Branquet, Y., Gébelin,A., Dusséaux, C. (2016). Fluids in the South Armorican Shear Zone, France.Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts, June 2016, Yokohama, Japan, pp.283.

Boulvais, P., Tartèse, R., Poujol, M., Boiron, M.-C., Ruffet, G., Branquet,Y., Ballouard, C., Gébelin, A.,Dusséaux, C. (2016). Exhumation des migmatites et infiltration d’ eauxmétéoriques: le domaine hercynien sud-armoricain. Réunion des Sciences de laTerre, Caen, October 2016.

Gébelin, A., Mulch, A., Teyssier, C., Jessup, M.J., Brunel,M., Cosca, M.A., Law, R.D. (2015). Meteoric fluids in the South TibetanDetachment and palaeoaltimetry of Central Himalaya. EGU General Assembly 2015,Geophysical Research Abstracts, EGU2015-2566.

Vanderhaeghe, O., Gardien, V., Moyen, J.-F., Laurent, O., Couzinié, S., Gébelin, A., Villaros, A.,Ohnenstetter,M. (2014). Flow of the partially molten Variscan orogenic crust from synorogenic exhumation of subducted continental crust to gravitational collapsealong a convergent plate boundary marked by slab retreat. Réunion des Sciencesde la Terre, Pau, Keynote 3.8.11.

Gébelin,A., Teyssier, C., Heizler, M., Mulch, A. (2014).Meteoric water circulation and rolling-hinge detachment faulting: Example ofthe Northern Snake Range core complex, Nevada. EGU General Assembly 2014,Geophysical Research Abstracts, EGU2014-3926.

Gébelin,A., Mulch, A., Teyssier, C., Jessup, M., Law, R.D.,Brunel, M., Cosca, M.A. (2013). Miocene paleoaltimetry of the Mt. Everestregion. 28th Himalayan Karakorum tibet workshop & 6thInternational Symposium on Tibetan Plateau 2013, Tübingen/Germany, 22-24 August2013.

Mulch, A, Chamberlain, P.C., Campani, M., Gébelin, A., Mikes, T. (2013). Coupling of tectonics and climate asseen through the topographic history of orogens. EGUGeneral Assembly 2013, Geophysical Research Abstracts, EGU2013-2639.

Gébelin, A., Mulch, A., Teyssier, C., Jessup, M., Law, R.D., Brunel, M. (2012). Stableisotope paleoaltimetry of the Mount Everest region. Abstract EP52B-02 presentedat 2012 Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, Calif., 3-7Dec.

Meyer, J., Teyssier, C., Whitney, D.L., Gébelin, A., Seaton, N., Bagley, B. (2012). Staurolite-basedkinematic vorticity in the Snake Range Detachment shear zone, Nevada.Geological Society of America, Abstract with Programs, Vol. 44, No.7, p. 127.

Gébelin, A., Mulch, A., Teyssier, C.(2011). The stable isotope record in coupled basin-detachment systems as aproxy for paleoclimate and paleoaltimetry reconstructions. Fragile EarthMünchen, paper No.37-10.

Teklehaimanot,L., Ferré, E.C., Gébelin, A.,Teyssier, C., Conder, J.A., Christensen, N.I. (2011). Archean crustalpetrofabrics in the Minnesota River Valley complex, Superior Province, andimplications for seismic anisotropy. GeologicalSociety of America, Minneapolis, Abstract with Programs, Vol. 43, No.5, p.434.

Liodas,N.T., Ferré, E.C., Gébelin, A., Lin,S., Misgna, G. (2011). Petrostructural anisotropy of an Archean gneiss dome:Example of the Pukaskwa batholith, Superior Province, Canada. Geological Society of America, Minneapolis, Abstract withPrograms, Vol. 43, No.5, p.434.

Gébelin, A., Mulch, A., Teyssier, C.,Heizler, M., Vennemann, T., Seaton, N.C.A. (2011). Quartz recrystallization andfluid flow during exhuming footwall rocks of the Northern Snake Rangedetachment, Nevada. EGU General Assembly 2011,Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 13, EGU2011-5814, 2011.

Methner, K., Mulch, A., Gébelin, A., Teyssier, C., Wells, M.and Cosca, M. (2011) Eocene extension and meteoric fluidflow in quartzite mylonite of the Raft River metamorphic core complex (USA). EGU General Assembly 2011, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 13,egu2011-12771-1, 2011.

Siebenaller,L., Quilichini, A., Teyssier, C., Gébelin,A., Vennemann, T., Mulch, A., Pitteloud, Y., Fantasia, A. (2010).Fluid-rock interactions within a quartzite-schist detachment during exhumation:Insights from the Snake Range core complex, NV, USA. Geological Society ofAmerica, Abstract with Programs.

Liodas,N.T., Ferré, E.C., Gébelin, A., Lin,S, Misgna, G.  (2010).Interplay between gneiss dome development and transcurrent tectonics in theArchean: example of the Pukaskwa Batholith and Hemlo Shear Zone,

Superior Province,Canada. AAPG, Laramie, WY.

Gébelin, A.,Mulch, A., Teyssier, C., Heizler, M. (2010). Miocene latitudinal climatic andtopographic variability within the central North American Cordillera. EGUGeneral Assembly 2010, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 12, EGU2010-3108,2010.

Mulch, A., Teyssier, C., Gébelin,A., Chamberlain, C.P., Cosca, M.A. (2009). Tracing meteoric fluid flow inextensional detachment systems. Eos Trans. AGU, 90(52), Fall Meet. Suppl.,Abstract T52B-06.

Mulch, A., Chamberlain, C. Page, Teyssier, C., Cosca, M.A., Gébelin, A., Schoenberg, R. (2009). Thetopographic evolution of the Cenozoic North American plateau and Cordillerarecorded in coupled basin-detachment systems. Geological Society of America,Abstract with Programs, Vol. 41, No.7, p.179.

Gébelin, A.,Mulch, A., Teyssier, C., Heizler, M. (2009). Study of a fossil hydrothermalsystem in the Northern Snake Range using stable isotope, microstructural and 40Ar/39Ardata and its use as a paleoaltimeter. Geological Society of America, Abstractwith Programs, Vol. 41, No.7, p.49.

Gébelin, A.,Mulch, A., Teyssier, C., Chamberlain, C.P. (2008). The stable isotope record inextensional detachments as a proxy for relief development during the demise oforogenic plateaux. Eos Trans. AGU, , Fall Meeting 2008, Abstract T53A-1910.

Gébelin, A.,Roger, F., Brunel, M. (2008). Variscan thermal anomaly highlighted by coevalLimousin magmatism and metamorphism. EuropeanGeoscience Union, Vienna, Austria, Abstract EGU2008-A-10807; TS12-1TU5O-002.

Gébelin, A.,Ferré, E.C., Teyssier, C. (2007). Crustal anisotropy in Archean Minnesota RiverValley Subprovince and its significance, Eos Trans. AGU, 88(52), Fall Meet.Suppl., Abstract T13B-1337.

Ferré, E.C., Gébelin, A., Zechmeister, M.S. and Geissman, J.W.(2007). Can seismic slip directions be retrieved from pseudotachylites? EosTrans. AGU, 88(23), Jt. Assem. Suppl., Abstract T41B-03.

Gébelin, A., Ferré, E.C., Lin,S., and Chatterjee, S. (2007). Relationship between shear zones and plutons inthe Archean: example from the Pukaskwa batholith, Superior Province, Ontario.European Geoscience Union, Vienna, Austria, Geophysical Research, Vol. 9,05135.

Gébelin, A.,Brunel, M., Ferré, E.C. (2005). Himalayan-style escape tectonics vslate-orogenic extension in the Variscan Belt of Western Europe. Eos Trans. AGU,86(48), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract T01.

Ferré, E.C., Gébelin, A.,Teyssier, C. (2005). Crustal anisotropy of the Archean continental lithospherein the Minnesota River Valley Subprovince. Eos Trans. AGU, 86(48), Fall Meet.Suppl., Abstract GP01.

Gébelin, A.,Brunel, M., Faure, M., Arnaud, N., Chen, Y., Martelet, G., Monié, P., &Roger, F. (2004). Deformation and emplacement of late hercynian leucogranitesin the French Massif Central from AMS, gravity and geochronology data. 32ndInternational Geological Congress-IGC, Florence, Italy, hal-00107002.

Gébelin, A.,Brunel, M., Chen, Y., Faure, M. & Martelet, G. (2003). Highlighting thestructure of late Hercynian leucogranites in the French Massif Central: Newgravity, Geochronology and AMS data of the Millevaches massif. EGS - AGU - EGUJoint Assembly, Nice, France, Geophysical Research Abstracts, 5, 05170.

Faure, M., Duguet, E., Cartier, C., Brunel, M. and Gébelin, A. (2002). La tectoniqueeo-hercynienne d'âge Tournaisien vers le NW de la Chaîne Hercynienne française:19ème RST, Nantes, R 178, p. 117.

Reports & invited lectures


2018  University of Portsmouth, UK.  Meteoricfluid-rock-deformation interactions : Tools for paleoaltimetry ?

2015  Aix en Provence. GDR - CNRS sections 18, 19 - ClimatEnvironnement Vie: les apports du pre-quaternaire.  Utilisation desisotopes stables pour les reconstructions paleoaltimetriques.

2015  Université de Lille. DELAM Project. Meteoric fluids inextensional detachments and syntectonic basins: Tools for palaeoaltimetry?

2014  Plymouth University.  Meteoric fluids:a link between deep Earth and surface processes.

2014 UniversitéJean Monnet Saint Etienne. Les fluides météoriques : Lien entre processusde surface et processus profonds.

2013 UQÀM Montréal.Les fluides météoriques : Lien entre processus de surface et processus profonds.

2013 CRPG Nancy.Séminaire externe. Les fluides météoriques dans les détachements et bassinssyntectoniques: Outils pour la paléoaltimétrie?

2013 CEREGE,Aix-en-Provence. Séminaires internes. Les fluides météoriques dans lesdétachements et bassins syntectoniques: Outils pour la paléoaltimétrie?

2013 GET, Toulouse.Séminaires internes. Les fluides météoriques dans les détachements et bassinssyntectoniques: Outils pour la paléoaltimétrie?

2012Université de Montpellier. Séminaire interne Géosciences Montpellier. Lesfluides météoriques : Traceurs des interactions entre processus de surfaceet profonds.

2011Goethe Universität Frankfurt. Meteoric fluids in extensional detachments andsyntectonic basins: Tools for paleoaltimetry?

2009Geological Society of America, Portland. Study of afossil hydrothermal system in the Northern Snake Range using stable isotope,microstructural and 40Ar/39Ar data and its use as apaleoaltimeter.

2008 Université Paris VI, France. Couplage dynamique entretectonique et magmatisme.

2008 University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Relationshipsbetween carboniferous magmatism and ductile shear zones in the Variscan belt ofWestern Europe.

2005 French Geological Survey, Orléans, France.Séminaires du Service Connaissances et diffusion de l’information géologique duB.R.G.M.. Déformation et mise en place des granites (360-300 Ma) dans unsegment de la Chaîne Varisque (plateau de Millevaches, Massif Central). 

2004 32nd IGC Florence (Italy). Deformation andemplacement of late hercynian leucogranites in the French Massif Central fromAMS, gravity and geochronology data.

2002 Université de Montpellier, France. Séminaire du Laboratoire Géochronologie, Tectonique, Sédimentologie,Université Montpellier II. Tectonique, Métamorphismeet granitisation de la Chaîne Hercynienne dans le Nord Limousin.