Microbial diagnostics and infection control with ITSMED visual mark


Innovations in diagnostic technology: rapid point-of-care detection of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria 
In 2022, a study revealed that 1.25 million people per year die of antimicrobial resistant infections globally (Murray et al., 2022). Bacteria are evolving to develop resistance to the antibiotics we are using to treat them, rendering them ineffective to combat infection. 
A key way to manage infection is to rapidly diagnose infections at the point of care. The Joshi group are developing a point of care device able to aid clinicians in diagnosing AMR infections, thus aiding antimicrobial stewardship. This interdisciplinary research is at the cutting edge of engineering, biophysics and molecular microbiology. We are currently focused on rapid detection of urinary tract infections. 
Applied microbiology in infection prevention and control: biocide resistance in AMR bacteria and efficacy of disinfection technologies 
AMR bacteria are developing tolerance to the biocide disinfectants used to treat them. The scale of this tolerance has been poorly explored; therefore, the Joshi research group is seeking to understand how bacteria (including ESKAPE pathogens) respond to disinfection with commonly used biocides. 
Our key pathogen of interest is Clostridioides difficile, the primary cause of hospital-acquired infection globally. In the US, C. difficile contributes to 14,000 deaths per year, costing approximately $1 billion annually (CDC, USA), while it was responsible for 29,425 deaths in the UK between 2006 and 2011 (Office for National Statistics), costing £500 million per year. Its spores are resistant to desiccation and biocide treatment and are able to persist on surfaces for months. The Joshi group focuses on understanding the mechanism of C. difficile spore resistance to biocides (e.g. chlorine releasing agents), evaluating the efficacy of new technologies to disinfect C. difficile, and molecular techniques to understand spore epidemiology.
C. difficile bacteria growing in a Petri dish
Illustration of C. difficile bacteria
Scanning electron microsope (SEM) image of C. difficile bacteria

Sharing our knowledge with the public

Subscribe to Dr Tina Joshi's YouTube channel to follow her interviews with the media, aiming to making the findings of the Molecular Microbiology Research Group common knowledge.

Public engagement

Policy engagement

International collaborators

  • Dr Daniel Parades-Sabja, Texas A&M University, USA
  • Dr Suzie Hingley-Wilson, University of Surrey, UK
  • Dr Magnus Andersson, Umea University, Sweden
  • Dr Robert Burky, Orthopaedic surgeon, Southern California, USA
  • Dr A Gupta, Dermatology, Canada
  • Industry and SMEs

Academic collaboration

If you have an idea for a research project related to Dr Joshi’s research remit, please get in touch with Dr Tina Joshi:

Commercial collaboration

If you are a business or organisation, Enterprise Solutions will help you to navigate the University's internationally recognised expertise, facilities and business services. They will support with more information on how your business can benefit from connecting and collaborating with the University of Plymouth on antimicrobial resistance and beyond.
Contact Enterprise Solutions on:
Lines open 09:00–17:00 Monday–Thursday, 09:00–16:30 Friday

Key publications

Gupta AK, Venkataraman M, Joshi LT & Cooper EA (2022) 'Potential use of Microwave Technology in Dermatology' Journal of Dermatological Treatment 1-26, DOI Open access 
Waterfield S, Ahmed H, Jones IA, Burky R & Joshi LT (2022) 'Isolation of Clostridioides difficile PCR Ribotype 027 from single-use hospital gown ties' Journal of Medical Microbiology 71, (6), DOI Open access 
Scott R, Joshi LT & McGinn C (2022) 'Hospital surface disinfection using ultraviolet germicidal irradiation technology: A review' Healthcare Technology Letters, DOI Open access 
Watanabe K, Wu H-Y, Xavier J, Joshi LT & Vollmer F (2022) 'Single virus detection on silicon photonic crystal random cavities' Small, DOI Open access 
Joshi LT (2021) 'The G7 Summit 2021: Time for our world leaders to step up to the challenge of Anti-Microbial Resistance' Access Microbiology 3, (12), DOI Open access 
Jones IA, Silver K & Joshi LT (2021) 'Letter to the Editor' American Journal of Infection Control, DOI Open access 
Jones IA, Silver K & Joshi LT (2021) 'Letter to the Editor' American Journal of Infection Control Author Site, DOI Open access 
Joshi LT (2021) 'Using alternative teaching and learning approaches to deliver clinical microbiology during the COVID19 pandemic' FEMS Microbiology Letters, DOI Open access 
Toropov N, Osborne E, Joshi LT, Davidson J, Morgan C, Page J, Pepperell J & Vollmer F (2021) 'SARS-CoV-2 Tests: Bridging the Gap Between Laboratory Sensors and Clinical Applications' ACS sensors, DOI Open access 
Jones IA & Joshi LT (2021) 'Biocide Use in the Antimicrobial Era: A Review' Molecules 26, (8) 2276-2276, DOI Open access 
Gartshore A, Kidd M & Joshi LT (2021) 'Applications of Microwave Energy in Medicine' Biosensors 11, (4) 96-96, DOI Open access 
McKracken M, Garner C & Joshi LT (2020) 'COVID-19 and antibiotic resistance – The calm before the storm' AMRC Open Research, DOI Open access 
Dyer C, Hutt LP, Burky R & Joshi LT (2019) 'Biocide Resistance and Transmission of Clostridium difficile Spores Spiked onto Clinical Surfaces from an American Health Care Facility' Applied and Environmental Microbiology, DOI Open access 
Joshi LT, Welsch A, Hawkins J & Baillie L (2017) 'The effect of hospital biocide sodium dichloroisocyanurate on the viability and properties of Clostridium difficile spores' Lett Appl Microbiol 65, (3) 199-205 Author Site, DOI Open access 
Imtiaz A, Lees J, Choi H & Joshi LT (2015) 'An Integrated Continuous Class-F-1 Mode Power Amplifier Design Approach for Microwave Enhanced Portable Diagnostic Applications' IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 63, (10) 3007-3015, DOI Open access 
Joshi LT, Mali BL, Geddes CD & Baillie L (2014) 'Extraction and Sensitive Detection of Toxins A and B from the Human Pathogen Clostridium difficile in 40 Seconds Using Microwave-Accelerated Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence' PLoS ONE 9, (8) e104334-e104334, DOI Open access 
Joshi LT, Phillips DS, Williams CF, Alyousef A & Baillie L (2012) 'Contribution of Spores to the Ability of Clostridium difficile To Adhere to Surfaces' Applied and Environmental Microbiology 78, (21) 7671-7679, DOI Open access 
Drevinek P, Baldwin A, Lindenburg L, Joshi LT, Marchbank A, Vosahlikova S, Dowson CG & Mahenthiralingam E (2010) 'Oxidative Stress of Burkholderia cenocepacia Induces Insertion Sequence-Mediated Genomic Rearrangements That Interfere with Macrorestriction-Based Genotyping' Journal of Clinical Microbiology 48, (1) 34-40, DOI Open access 


A screening method for the detection of Clostridium difficile. EP2847348B1
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